# unit 4 materia y energía

Post on 22-Jul-2015

773 views

Category:

## Documents

Tags:

• #### different kinds of matter

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

• Page | 1

MATTER, FORCES, MOTION

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM

MATTER

LOOK AROUND YOU. EVERYTHING IS MATTER. MATTER TAKES UP ROOM (VOLUME) AND HAS GOT MASS.

1. - Look at this ball. It is made of matter. The amount of matter in this ball is called the mass of the ball.

What colours can you see?

...................................................................................................................

What shape can you see?

...................................................................................................................

• Page | 2

2.- All these things are made of different types of matter. Look at their particular colour, shape, texture, size, etc.

___________ _____________ ____________

THE COLOUR, SHAPE, SIZE, TEXTURE, MASS, ETC ARE PROPERTIES OF MATTER. DIFFERENT KINDS OF MATTER HAVE DIFFERENT PROPERTIES.

3.- Complete the chart to describe the properties of matter. Use words from the box.

smooth rough soft hard light heavy it floats it sinks silver rounded

squared

SHAPE COLOUR TEXTURE OTHER

Wood frame

Plastic ball

Silver ring

• Page | 3

MATTER CAN SUFFER STATE CHANGES OR SHAPE CHANGES, BEING THE SAME MATTER.

STATE CHANGES:

The three states of matter are:

Liquid: takes up space, has got mass and hasnt got its own shape. It takes the shape of its container.

Solid: takes up space, has got mass and has got its own shape and size.

Gas: takes up space, has got mass and hasnt got its own shape and size. It takes the shape and size of its container.

• Page | 4

4.- Mark the correct option:

Takes up space

Has got mass

Has got shape

Has got size

LIQUID

SOLID

GAS

ADDING HEAT OR COLD THE MATTER CHANGES FROM A STATE INTO ANOTHER.

5.- Complete with HEAT or COLD?

COKE............................................................................COKE ICE

CHOCOLATE...........................................................HOT CHOCOLATE

WATER....................................................................... VAPOUR

If you heat a solid,...- -... it will freeze.

If you cool a liquid...- -... it will become gas.

If you heat a liquid...- -... it will melt.

• Page | 5

SHAPE CHANGES:

MATTER CAN CHANGE IN SHAPE, SIZE, COLOUR AND IT IS STILL THE SAME MATTER.

Matter can be:

ELASTIC : when you pull it and it recovers its shape if you release it.

PLASTIC : when it changes its shape while pressing on it at it doesnt recover its shape while you release it.

R IG ID : when it is difficult to change its shape or deform it and it can break into different parts if there is too much pressure.

7. Experiment, decide and write if these materials are elastic, plastic or rigid:

play dough school desk rubber band

• Page | 6

CHEMICAL CHANGES:

CHEMICAL CHANGES MAKES THE MATTER TURN INTO A DIFFERENT MATTER.

Make the following experiment:

You need:

- A fresh egg. - A jar. - Some vinegar.

Steps:

Take a fresh egg, put it in vinegar.

Wait for 48 hours, two days, and observe what happened.

What has happened?

The calcium of the egg shell has changed into a different matter.

Conclusion:

Observe the egg and complete these sentences:

- First the egg has a _____ shell. - After adding vinegar its shell is _______!

• Page | 7

MOTION

Look at these pictures. These objects are moving in different ways.

Motion is the act of moving. Objects and people can move in different directions, back and forth, zigzag or round and round!

8.- What happens when you push a toy car? How many different ways can you move the car?

If I push a car it moves ......................................................................... ..............................................................................................................................

forth and back round and round zigzag

• Page | 8

9.- Complete the sentences below with the words in the box:

back and forth round and round zigzag

-The marry-go-round moves ................................

- A snake moves in .........................................................

- We can walk ............................. and .................................

10.- Draw something that is moving and write what kind of movement it is.

............................................

• Page | 9

FORCES

11.- Look at this boy and think: What is the ball doing? What direction? Why?

A force changes the way an object moves. You can push or pull an object and it will move in different directions and with different speed depending on the force you apply.

12.- Complete the sentences.

Motion is the act of .......................................... An object moves faster when you apply. .................................... Heavier objects need more force to....................................................... Lighter objects need less force to..............................................................

13.- Would you need more force to move a cherry or a watermelon? Why?

.................................................................................................................................

• Page | 10

ELECTRICITY and MAGNETISM

Matter is neutral when its positive and negative charges are in balance. Sometimes matter is charged with negative charges or positive charges.

Charges of the same sign repel each other while charges of the opposite sign attract each other. The flow of charges from a matter into another is known as ELECTRICITY.

Make an Electroscope. An electroscope is a device that helps us to see if an object is charged or neutral.

You need:

- A plastic bottle. - A piece of copper wire. - A bit of aluminium paper. - A lolly pop stick. - A bit of play dough. Steps:

Make a hole on the cap and put the stick and the wire through.

Make a hook on one end of the wire and a spiral at the other.

Hang two pieces of aluminium paper on the hook and screw the cap again.

What has happened? The wire conducts the charges to the aluminium paper. The charges separate the foils of aluminium paper.

• Page | 11

MAGNETS can move objects. The can attract and repel certain metal objects. They have poles: like poles and opposite poles. Like poles repel and opposite poles attract.

To attract means to pull towards.

To repel means to push away.

1. What do you use magnets for? a) Hold papers. b) Drink water. c) Write.

2. When do magnets repel each other?

a) Opposite poles together. b) Like poles together

3. When do magnets attract each other?

a) Opposite poles together. b) Like poles together.

• Page | 12