unit 3 physical properties of matter
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- 1. Unit 3
Physical Properties of Matter
- 2. Physical Properties
States of Matter
- 3. States of Matter
There are 4 states of matter
Solid- molecules move very slowly and are connected
together in a rigid formation, like crystals
Liquid- molecules move quicker and flow over each other
in a fluid manner like sand grains flowing over each other.
But, they remain attached and can not disburse upward.
Gases- molecules move very quickly, spread out, and have
no connection to each other.
Plasma- Highly energized particles that begin emitting
energy. Florescent lights, Neon lights, and fire have plasma
inside. The Sun is nearly all Plasma
- 4. Changes in the States of Matter
Solid to Liquid = Melting
a. Particles get more energy and begin rotating around each other.
b. There isnt enough energy to break the inter-particular attractions, so the particles remain close (liquid).
c. The energy required to break the crystalline connects to melt a solid is called the
Heat of Fusion
Water Ice melts at 32F
Gallium melts at 86F. So, it melts in your hand.
- 5. Changes in the States of Matter
Liquid to Solid = Freezing
a. Particles lose energy and slow down.
b. Attractive forces between particles become stronger than the particles motion, so the particles begin merely vibrating in place.
c. The amount of heat the particles lose to the environment turn into a solid is called the
Heat of Fusion
Liquid water freezes at 32F.
Molten lava freezes at 1000F.
- 6. Changes in the States of Matter
Liquid to Gas = Vaporization
1) Boiling - rapid; gas bubbles are produced throughout.
2) Evaporation - slow; occurs at the surface.
b. Liquid particles gain enough kinetic energy to overcome forces between the particles and they begin translational motion; this energy is called the heat of vaporization.
Water boils at 212F.
But, water can evaporate at any temperature.
- 7. Changes in the States of Matter
Liquid to Gas = Evaporation
Evaporation is a cooling process.
a. Particles in a liquid gain energy.
b. They leave as gas particles (taking the energy with them).
c. This leaves less energy in the liquid, therefore cooling down what is left.
- 8. Changes in the States of Matter
Gas to Liquid = Condensation
a. Particles lose energy, slow down, and come closer together.
b. Forces between the particles become strong enough to make particles merely rotate around each other.
c. The energy they lose as they become liquid is the
heat of vaporization.
- 9. Changes in the States of Matter
Solid to Gas = Sublimation
Dry ice - carbon dioxide
The smoke you see is actually water vapor condensing to liquid because of the cold temperatures of the CO2 gas!
- 10. Changes in the States of Matter
Gas to Solid = Deposition
Dry ice - carbon dioxide
On Mars it can snow with no clouds
- 11. Changes in the States of Matter
- 12. Plasma
The 4th state of matter
Plasma are gases that are heated so high that their electrons to be removed easily.
Atoms can be positive or negatively charged and react to magnetic fields.
The Sun is made of plasma that is made of hydrogen and helium.
Lightening is a plasma formed by hail stripping electrons from water molecules.
Fluorescent lamps are plasma
- 13. ViscosityA Property of Liquids
Water has low viscosity and flows easily
Honey has a medium viscosity
Pitch has a viscosity 230 billion times higher than water.
This pitch drop started in 1927!
- 14. MalleabilityA Property of Solids
Very malleable metal wiring
Gold is the most malleable of all metals
Some metals are brittle and fracture easily
- 15. Elements Can Be:Metals, Metalloids, and Non-Metals
Titanium is a metal
Silicon is a metalloid
Phosphorus and Bromine are non-metals
- 16. Conductivity
The ability to conduct electricity or heat.
Gold and silver are the best conductors. Since gold is very expensive, it is only used for very specialized electronics.
Copper is usually used around the home and electronics. But, it is also too expensive for transmission lines, so aluminum is used.
This means a lot of electricity is lost as heat on the way,. But, it is cheaper and lighter for use.
- 17. Density
Density is the mass/volume
Substances will separate by their density with heaviest at the bottom and lightest on top.
Salt water is denser than freshwater. So, where they meet is the halocline, with salt water at the bottom and freshwater on top.
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