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  • Unification of ItalyUnder a Native Prince

  • Factors Hindering UnificationMust unify 9 separate Italian statesGeographic division (North and South very different)High rate of poverty and illiteracyOpposition to unification from Austria, France and the PopeCongress of Vienna gave Austria and France much power in ItalyHow to unify (Republic, Const. Monarchy, or Federation under the Pope???)

  • Hindered by multiple states and Austria

  • 3 leaders of Italian UnificationMazzini --- The Soul

    Garibaldi --- The Sword

    Cavour ---- The Brain

  • Mazzini

    The Soul

    Revolutionary republicanfounder of Young Italy (nationalist group)Inspiration for unification - lays the groundwork of Nationalism

  • GaribaldiThe Swordrevolutionary republicanmercenary in South AmericaRed Shirts (volunteers who helped Garibaldi)

  • Symbol of the Red Shirts

  • Kingdom of Piedmont/SardiniaKingdom had a monarchy Victor Immanuel II - a native princeCount CavourThe Brainbecomes prime minister of Sardinia; builds up Sardinia economically

  • Steps in unification - all orchestrated by the Brain!!!1) Cavour makes an alliance with France against AustriaFrances Napoleon III agrees to help them in war against Austria. Napoleon does not favor Italian unification but hopes to weaken Austria Sardinia hopes to get Lombardy & VenetiaFrance would get Nice & Savoy from Sardinia

  • 2) Sardinia gains Lombardy, but not Venetia because France backs out (but still wants payment from Sardinia) by signing Treaty of Villa Franca with Austria

    3) other northern Italian states revolt against their rulers - vote to join with Sardinia - so Northern Italy united under Sardinia

  • 4) Garibaldi (paid by Cavour) liberates Kingdom of Two Sicilies from foreign ruler; marches north with his 1000 Red Shirts

  • 5) Cavour convinces Garibaldi to give Sicilies to a United Italy under Victor Emmanuel II - unites northern &southern Italy

  • GaribaldiVictor Immanuel II

  • Whats left to unite??

    Venetia & Papal State of Rome

  • 6) Venetia added in 1866 when Prussia defeats Austria (NOTE: tie in w/ German Unification wars)

  • 7) Rome added in 1870-71 when France withdraws troops from Rome because of Franco-Prussian War

  • Rome made Capital of New Italian Nation-State

  • But Pope objects: Vatican separate

  • Problems after UnificationWeak economy but high taxesMafia forms due to corruption in govt. No experience with democracyPope forbids Catholic participation in govt. Alliance with GermanyMultiple political parties Unstable govt. leads to mass emigration Scramble for colonies for prestige (Imperialism)

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