understanding voynich manuscript

of 58/58
Table of Contents Abstract.................................................................................................... 1 1. Skeleton and Flesh (SnF) Model ......................................................... 1 2. Manuscript Pages................................................................................. 2 2.1 Folio 1r .......................................................................................... 2 2.2 Folio 1v: dgsh, the name of plant .................................................. 5 2.3 Folio 2r: Dpesh, the name of plant ................................................. 8 2.4 Folio 2v: dppux ........................................................................... 15 2.5 Folio 3r: jlfps............................................................................. 16 2.6 Folio 3v: dpoiix ........................................................................... 17 2.7 Folio 4r: dpwoegh ........................................................................ 18 2.8 Folio 4v: kgppiix........................................................................ 19 2.9 Folio 5r: dlpwh ............................................................................ 20 2.10 Folio 5v: dpgfpa........................................................................ 21 2.11 Folio 67r..................................................................................... 22 2.12 Folio 70r labeled MARS............................................................ 24 Appendix ............................................................................................... 29 A. Conjugative Binary Decomposition of Voynich Alphabet ............ 29 A.1 Introduction ............................................................................ 29 A.2 Conjugative Binary Decomposition........................................ 29 A.3 Key Allocation for Voynich Alphabet ..................................... 35 A.4 Unified Text Encoding ............................................................ 37 A.5 Closing Remarks..................................................................... 41 B. A Structural Analysis for the Undeciphered Text of Voynich Manuscript ......................................................................................... 41 B.1 Skeleton and Flesh Model ....................................................... 41 B.2 Voynich Script vs. Rongorongo Script .................................... 44 B.3 Symbolical Representation ..................................................... 45 B.4 Summary ................................................................................. 47 Vocabulary ............................................................................................. 47 Index ...................................................................................................... 51

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This article is devoted to demonstrating how the Voynich Manuscript can be cracked and the first paragraph of Folio 2r has been completely interpreted. Every words in that paragraph have been accounted and their meanings are presented. In the Appendix, the hierarchical relationship of Voynich alphabets based on conjugative decomposition method is presented. A method called Skeleton-and-Flesh is also presented and it can be used to identify how the seemingly contiguous Voynich text can be divided into sentences. At the end, a computer program to build a dictionary of Voynich words is attached. One can build his/her own dictionary and exchange with others.

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Table of Contents Abstract....................................................................................................1 1. Skeleton and Flesh (SnF) Model .........................................................1 2. Manuscript Pages.................................................................................2 2.1 Folio 1r ..........................................................................................2 2.2 Folio 1v: dgsh, the name of plant..................................................5 2.3 Folio 2r: Dpesh, the name of plant.................................................8 2.4 Folio 2v: dppux ...........................................................................15 2.5 Folio 3r: jlfps.............................................................................16 2.6 Folio 3v: dpoiix...........................................................................17 2.7 Folio 4r: dpwoegh ........................................................................18 2.8 Folio 4v: kgppiix........................................................................19 2.9 Folio 5r: dlpwh ............................................................................20 2.10 Folio 5v: dpgfpa........................................................................21 2.11 Folio 67r.....................................................................................22 2.12 Folio 70r labeled MARS............................................................24 Appendix...............................................................................................29 A. Conjugative Binary Decomposition of Voynich Alphabet............29 A.1 Introduction............................................................................29 A.2 Conjugative Binary Decomposition........................................29 A.3 Key Allocation for Voynich Alphabet.....................................35 A.4 Unified Text Encoding............................................................37 A.5 Closing Remarks.....................................................................41 B. A Structural Analysis for the Undeciphered Text of Voynich Manuscript.........................................................................................41 B.1 Skeleton and Flesh Model.......................................................41 B.2 Voynich Script vs. Rongorongo Script....................................44 B.3 Symbolical Representation.....................................................45 B.4 Summary.................................................................................47 Vocabulary.............................................................................................47 Index......................................................................................................51 October 9, 2012 Understanding Voynich Manuscript Abstract In this article, a new method called SnF (skeleton and flesh) modeling is introduced and every Voynich Manuscript pages will be presented in a way by which a seemingly contiguous text can be divided into smaller pieces of text segments. By analyzing and comparing segmented pieces, some repetitive patterns can be identified and eventually the accumulated knowledge might be lead to the understanding of Voynich Manuscript eventually. 1. Skeleton and Flesh (SnF) Model A skeleton is defined as a word or part of word, which appears repeatedly within a certain length of Voynich text. When there is a change of skeleton in a text, it is regarded as a context change or a transition into another paragraph or sentence. In other words, identifying any skeleton change can be used to divide a seemingly ongoing Voynich text without breaks into smaller, more comprehensible text segments like phrases, paragraphs, and even sentences. On the contrary, a flesh is defined as words in-between skeletons or parts of a word on a skeleton. In other words, a flesh indicates the remaining part of a word minus its skeleton, a whole word or multiple words without skeleton. For example, lets assume a snippet of Voynich text to be hdoe oa hjoux lpe lpah. When the first and third words are compared, it is noted that the first three letters are same. In this case, hjo is handled as a skeleton and oe, oa, and oux become its fleshes. For the last two words, the skeleton would be lp and its fleshes are e and ah. Since there is a transition of skeleton from hd and lp, they can be regarded as two separate phrases. If they are encompassed by another skeleton, then it can be categorized as a paragraph or sentence. A spinal word is defined as a word which contains a skeleton and flesh. Generally speaking, a sentence opens and ends with spinal words. The spinal word doesnt have to be same as other spinal word, but they should share the same skeleton. A phrase or paragraph can be nested in a longer paragraph or sentence which is based on a different skeleton. A header indicates the words leading the first sentence of a given paragraph or text. Any word contained in a header shouldnt have the skeleton of the following sentence. The footer or tail indicates the words trailing the last sentence of a given paragraph. Any word contained in a tail shouldnt have the skeleton of the last sentence. Any group of non-spinal words in-between sentences is regarded as a header to the following sentence. A header and the opening spinal word combined can be regarded as the subject of the given sentence. Any given Voynich text can be divided into many smaller pieces of text segments based on the SnF model. Once a seemingly ongoing text of Voynich Manuscript is segmented into smaller pieces based on their skeletons, each segment can be independently analyzed and collectively compared with other segment. Milton Kim Page 1 October 9, 2012 2. Manuscript Pages 2.1 Folio 1r Figure 1 First page of Voynich Manuscript The first page of Voynich Manuscript consists of four paragraphs. Each paragraph is divided into one long text and a tail and they are separated by a space. The second paragraph is the shortest text and the third paragraph the longest one. In front of the second paragraph, there is a upside down letter of m in a larger scale. The third paragraph has the same upside down letter as the second paragraph except for additional snake shaped sign. The spacing between words is almost same so that it is unknown how many sentences are contained in each paragraph. By applying the SnF model, each paragraph can be divided into smaller text segments. Following are the results of text segmentation. Milton Kim Page 2 October 9, 2012 Figure 2 Milton Kim Page 3 October 9, 2012 As can be seen above, each paragraph has a tail at the end separated by a long space. Based on the SnF model, the text in each paragraph can be divided into phrases and sentences. Paragraph 1 has 5 segments. Paragraph 2 consists of 4 segments. The longest paragraph 3 is divided into 12 segments. Paragraph 4 has 5 segments. The chosen skeletons of the line 1 of paragraph 1 (P1L1) are h and l. The skeletons of L2P1 are sh, l, and J. The opening and closing spinal words of L2P1 are shoua and sh, respectively. Since there is a skeleton change, the line 2 of paragraph 1 is separated as a new line from the line 1. Each line can be regarded as a sentence. Two repeating words or part of words: ~ A, which ~ When the internal structures of all sentences in each paragraph had been examined, a few interesting findings could have been made. One is the case of repeating word or the duplicated part of word. At the end of P1L1, the word Joa repeats twice. In L2P2, ph at the end of Kph appears at the start of next word phwoa. Intuitively, those repetition patterns are regarded as ~ A, which ~. In other words, Joa Joa woxo is regarded as ~ Joa, which consists of woxo. and Kph phwoa as ph of Kph, which consists of woa. Relationship between j, lp, and J: j +lp J Making it double by suffixing w: lpw indicates doubled lp Another observation is related with the relationships between l and J. When j is followed by lp as in the L2 of P1, J can be found among the following words. In other words, it suggests that j +lp J. Likewise, d +lp D. The same pattern can be found in the L2 of P3. However, in the L3 of P1, d +lpw gives J, not D. It seems the same pattern does not hold in this case, but it still is since w indicates two and d is combined with doubled lp to give J, not D. Milton Kim Page 4 October 9, 2012 2.2 Folio 1v: dgsh, the name of plant Figure 3 The form of woux Milton Kim Page 5 October 9, 2012 Figure 4 The meaning of letter p: the (round) end of a stem The plant illustrated in Folio 1v has three-way forked stem branches and the flower head is consisted of two parts. The Voynich word that matches such a shape is woux where w means a pair and ux is considered as the triple of x. Also, the letter g means to connect, flow. From the word gpwoux in the line 1 of paragraph 1, the letter p is inferred to indicate the end of a stem which rose from the base of bulky flat-based root. Finally, the word gpwoux can be interpreted as to rise the three-way forked stems at the flatbed root. Since gpwoux can be divided into gp and woux, the meaning of gp would be the end of stem is attached to, or rise from ~. The following word pe is regarded as p+e where e is interpreted as a bulky or wide flatbed root or base. pe pejth is interpreted as pe, which ~. pejth can be divided into pe and jth and jth indicates that j is attached to fh. Based on the line of reasoning, the following can be summarized. j: the whole part of plant above its bulky root fh: the extremity of a root, a short speck e: a bulky or wide flatbed root or base Milton Kim Page 6 October 9, 2012 pe: a bulky base where a stem rises up gp: the end of stem is attached to, or rise from ~ Regarding the line 1 of paragraph 1, the remaining word left unexplained would be the first word dgsh. If that word was regarded as the name of a plant, then the first sentence of paragraph 1 can be interpreted as the plant named dgsh is consisted of a flower top, three-way forked stems from the base, and a wide flatbed root with short specks on it at the end of the middle stem. The first word of the line 1 of paragraph 2 is kpjph, which is regarded as kp, jp, and h. By traversing from the bottom to the top, h means the extremity of a root or a root hair, jp indicates the bottom end of the middle stem, and finally kp would be regarded as the base of a flower head at the top end of a stem. Finally, k is determined to be the flower head of a plant. The first word of the line 5 of paragraph 2 is gpwh, which is regarded as g, pw, and h. pw is regarded as two ends of a stem, which came from kpjph. One is the end of flower head (p) and the other is from the end of the middle stem (p). Since g indicates to connect, gpwh can be interpreted as to connect two ends of a stem with a root hair, or two ends of a stem is connected to a root hair. From the illustration on Folio 88r, pdpe indicates the cut-off end of a stem which is attached to the flat base of a root. Since pe indicates the wide flat base of a root, pd can be regarded as the cut-off end of a stem. From the illustration on Folio 99v, dfgh can be gotten by dropping p from pdfgh. The meaning of dfgh can be a stem with a root attached to it. Next, dpe is regarded as a stem attached to the wide flat bed of a root, or a stem which rose from the wide flat bed of a root. So, d can be generally interpreted as a stem. When dpe dfgh is interpreted as the stem attached to the flat bed of a root is connected through to the root hair, gpe dh can be regarded as the stem and the root hair are connected through the flat bed of a root. Both interpretations indicates almost same account. The last two words of the line 5 of paragraph 2, gpe Jpe can be interpreted as through the flat bed of a root, the upper body of a plant is connected. In turn, J is determined to be the upper body of a plant attached to its base on a root. By observing the transitions from d to dfgh, gpe dh, and Jpe, the meaning of lpe and l can be determined as to grow or rise from the flat bed of a root and to grow or rise, respectively. Finally, the line 5 of paragraph 2 can be interpreted: The stem is connected to the extremity of a root through the cut-off end of a stem which is attached to the flat base. The stem rose from the flat bed of a root. The stem attached to the flat bed of a root is connected through to the root hair. The stem and the root hair are connected through the flat bed of a root. Through the flat bed of a root, the upper body of a plant is connected. The resultant interpretation of the line 5 of paragraph 2 seems to provide a general description which can be applied to any plant illustrated in the Voynich Manuscript. The following picture shows the word counts of the L5P2 found on other Folio pages. Milton Kim Page 7 October 9, 2012 Figure 5 Matching counts of words in the line 5 of paragraph 2 The occurences of words consisting of the line 5 of paragraph 2 are seemingly high and a large portion of manuscript pages show relatively high scores as expected. 2.3 Folio 2r: Dpesh, the name of plant Milton Kim Page 8 October 9, 2012 Figure 6 Milton Kim Page 9 October 9, 2012 Figure 7 FIG 7A shows the first three words of the line 1 of paragraph 1 and the first two words of the line 1 of paragraph 2. By inserting some spaces, the phrase from the paragraph 2 was aligned in a way where two identical part of words could be marked in red color. dhwoixh is considered as dhwoix+h where h means a root and it is interpreted as the root of dhwoix. ~h hkgpe is interpreted as a root, which (is, or does) ~. From earlier sections, k, gp, and e are interpreted as the flower head of a plant, the end of stem is attached to, or rise from ~, and a bulky or wide flatbed root or base, respectively. Collectively, the meaning of kgpe can be deduced as the flower head risen from a wide flatbed root. woux where w means two and ux is considered as the triple of x indicates a flower top consisted of top and base at the end of three stems or branches. When dhwoix is regarded as dh, wo, and ix, they indicate the base of a stem without a flower head, a flower head, and two stems or branches, Milton Kim Page 10 October 9, 2012 respectively. So, dhwoix is the word which describes the portion marked in the blue color as illustrated in FIG 6 and it can be interpreted as the base where two stems with and without a flower head meet. Based on its interpretation, dhwoix will hardly be regarded as the name of a plant. Finally, dhwoixh hkgpe woux can be interpreted as there is a root where two stems with and without a flower head meet and three flower heads rise from a wide flatbed root. Since l is interpreted as to grow or rise, dhwoix loux can be interpreted as the stem without a flower head grows into the stem with (three) flower heads. Before moving on to the next five words of the line 1 of paragraph 1, the meaning of two more letters, s and a, needs to be determined. The first two words of the line 2 of paragraph 1 can be used to achieve that goal. With s lpa, if l can be interpreted as to grow into, s lpa indicates that pa turns into s. From earlier sections, p was interpreted as the (round) end of a stem. Then, pa is interpreted as the stem end of a. Having examined the illustration of the plant on Folio 2r, it suggests that the leaf marked in the blue circle becomes a flower head marked in the red circle. Therefore, s and a are interpreted as a flower head, or a leaf which can be turned into a flower head and a leaf. When lpa is regarded as lp and a, lp and p can be interpreted as to break (from its current state) and grow into (another state) and to break. Finally, s lpa is interpreted as the leaf turns into a flower head. Now, back to the line 1 of paragraph 1. pjgoe is regarded as pj, g, o, and e. They are interpreted as the bottom end of a plant, to connect, to flow, a part, a bulky or wide flatbed root or base. Collectively, pjgoe can be interpreted as the bottom end of plant is connected to the part of wide flatbed root. pjgoe hkgoux is regarded as a paraphrase of hkgpe woux. hkgoux can be divided into h, k, g, and oux. ux indicates the stems forked three ways to flower heads and oux is interpreted as the set of three forked stems. When kg is combined with oux, it is interpreted as the flower head is connected to the set of three forked stems. When h is combined with kgoux, it is interpreted as the root of the flower head which is connected to the set of three forked stems, or the root provide a flow of something to the flower head through three forked stems. It seems that Dpesh is consisted of letters which describe the overall characteristics of the plant. In other words, it contains the grown leaves(D), the root with a wide flatbed(pe and h), and the leaf which can be grown into a flower head(s). So, Dpesh is considered to be the name of plant on Folio 2r. wpagpah is regarded as wpa and gpah. gdoa is regarded as a paraphrase of gpah. wpa indicates two stems on the left side of plant which eventually run up to the flower head. doa is considered as d and oa and it is interpreted as the stem of a set of leaves on the right side of plant. Therefore, wpagpah gdoa can be interpreted as the two stems on the left side of plant is connected to the bottom end of the stem of a set of leaves on the right side of plant at the root. Milton Kim Page 11 October 9, 2012 As illustrated in FIG 7, the skeleton letter picked out for the line 2 of paragraph 1 is J. Based on the design of Voynich letters, it is assumed that there are certain relationships between some letters. For example, J is assumed to be given by combining q with D. In other words, J q +D. Same analogy can be applied to j so that j q +d. When j and d are interpreted as the whole part of plant above its bulky root and a stem from earlier sections, it suggests that q can be interpreted as something fallen from the top of a plant. Jh is regarded as J and h. Since J and h are interpreted as the upper body of a plant attached to its base on a root and a root, Jh can be interpreted as a fully grown plant on a root. p of Jp indicates the (round) end of a stem, to break (from current state). Since the next word to Jp starts with q, Jp is interpreted as to break off from a plant. qpjoux is regarded as q, pj, and oux. oux indicates the set of three stems below flower heads on the left side of the plant and pj means to break a plant. Collectively, qpjoux can be interpreted as q is broken off at and falls from the flower head of a plant. Last word of the line 2 of paragraph is Jfh, which is regarded as J, f and h. Since J is the skeleton letter and the word is another paraphrase contained in the line, the interpretation is focused on the meaning of fh. If q indicates a seed as something which was fallen from a flower head and finally related with a root, f can be interpreted as a planted seed, to plant (a seed). Collectively, fh can be interpreted as a root grown from a seed. When all the pieces have gathered together, the resultant interpretation of the line 2 of paragraph 1 would be A flower head is fully grown from the leaf on a root. A seed is fallen from the flower head and becomes a root. FIG 7C illustrates the corresponding part of plant described in the line 3 of paragraph 1. The skeleton letters are h, g, and w. gpa is regarded as g and pa. pa can be interpreted as the (bottom) end of a leaf. h gpa is interpreted as the bottom end of a leaf is connected to a root. It indicates the bottom end of the leaf on the right side of plant which was forked away from the root. gh h~ of gh hwh is a form of a root, which is ~ and h hwh indicates the flesh part which is another continuation of tprevious context, i.e. gpa. wh indicates two roots pointing downward in the middle under the stem. So, h gpa gh hwh can be interpreted as the bottom end of the leaf is connected to a pair of roots in the middle under the stem. oux means a set of three stems. louwh is regarded as l, ou, and wh. ou can be interpreted as a set of two ~ and the question is what i indicates. If it indicates a root, then ouwh is interpreted as two roots as a set of pair. So, [g]oux louwh can be interpreted as the two roots as a set of pair grow into a set of three stems. The meaning of g does not contribute to its interpretation since it is a skeleton letter used as an indicator of the continuation of same context. ~w wh of gjpw wh is interpreted as a pair, he Milton Kim Page 12 October 9, 2012 which indicates a pair of roots. jpw is regarded as j and pw [wh]. j and jp mean the whole part of plant above its bulky root and the bottom end of the middle stem. pw [wh] is interpreted as the end of a pair of two roots. So, [g]jpw wh is interpreted as the whole part of plant on a pair of roots. The last word Kh is regarded as the name of the root of plant on Folio 2r. Finally, the line 3 of paragraph 1 can be interpreted as The bottom end of the leaf is connected to a pair of roots in the middle under the stem and the set of three stems under the flower heads was grown from two roots as a set of pair. The whole part of plant is based on a pair of roots called Kh. The line 4 of paragraph 1 describes about the part illustrated in FIG 7D. woes is regarded as wo+es. wo means two parts. es can be regarded as e+s. e and s are interpreted as a bulky or wide flatbed root or base, an elongated part and a flower head, or a leaf which can be turned into a flower head. As a single word, es indicates a petal on an elongated sepal. woes can be interpreted as two parts of a petal and an elongated sepal. gpdoux is regarded as gp+d+oux. gp, d, and oux means the end of stem is attached to, or rise from ~, a stem, and the part at the end of three stems. gpdoux can be interpreted as the part at the three stem is connected to ~. Therefore, woes gpdoux is interpreted as the flower head of a petal on an elongated sepal is connected to the end point of each stem. The structure behind w pjpgpa oe lpwoux is assumed to be w ~ lp+woux. Since w means two parts and it indicates two flower heads on the left side of plant, the following text will be dedicated to the description of a flower head which grows (lp) into an elongated sepal and a petal at the end of stem (woux). From earlier sections, jp indicates the bottom end of a middle stem and pjp is interpreted as the upper end of a middle stem. Since pa indicates the base of a leaf on a stem, pjpgpa can be interpreted as the base of a leaf meets at the upper end of a stem. Since oe indicates the part of elongated sepal, w pjpgpa oe lpwoux can be interpreted as where the base of two leaves meet the upper end of two of three stems, two elongated sepals grow up. gpe wox is interpreted as the upper end of elongated sepal which grew up on the third stem on the rightmost side is connected to ~. hjgoux is regarded as h+j+goux. h, j, and goux are interpreted as a root, the whole part of plant above its bulky root, and to be connected to the end part of three stems. As a word, hj is interpreted as to seed a plant, a plant with flower head which produces seeds. soux indicates a flower head or petal as a part of three stems. wox and woix indicates the petal and sepal at the end of a stem and the petal and sepal at the end of two stems. When hjgoux is combined with wox, it specifically indicates the flower head on the rightmost side illustrated in FIG 7D and hjgoux wox is interpreted as the flower head on the rightmost side attached to the stem produces seeds for plants. Likewise, when soux is combined with woix, soux woix is interpreted as the flower heads attached to the end of the other two stems. It is noted that the flower head on the rightmost side looks larger and fuller than the others and it seems to indicate that the petal reached the stage of seed production. The final interpretation of the line 4 of paragraph 1 would be The flower head of a petal on an elongated sepal is connected to the end point of each stem. Where the base of two leaves meet the upper end of two of three stems, two elongated sepals grow up. The upper end of elongated sepal grew up on the third stem on the rightmost side. The flower head on the rightmost side attached to the stem produces seeds for plants and the other petal remain at the end of stems. The line 5 of paragraph 1 describes about the part of the plants root illustrated in FIG 7E. wd means two stems, or a pair of stems since w and d is interpreted as two, a pair and a stem. pe means a bulky base where a stem rises up. Therefore, w wdpe can be interpreted as A pair, two stems rise from the bulky base of root. In the line 2, s lpa was interpreted as the Milton Kim Page 13 October 9, 2012 leaf turns into a flower head, or a flower is being grown from a leaf where lp is interpreted as to break (from its current state) and grow into (another state). Therefore, spa can be interpreted as a leaf-turned-flower. In the line 4, hj is interpreted as to seed a plant (pointed by blue arrow). wh means a pair of root branch, or a root to fork into two braches. When hjpewh is regarded as hj+pe+wh, it can be interpreted as a fallen seed to the bulky base where the stem rises up becomes a root which grows into two branches. Therefore, spa hjpewh is interpreted as a seed fallen from leaf-turned-flower to the bulky base where the stem rises up becomes a root which grows into two branches (marked in yellow). wgpe wgh Jh lpa Dh: wgpe: . gpe: . w: two, a pair. g: to connect, flow. pe: a bulky base where a stem rises up. gp: the end of stem is attached to, or rise from ~. e: a bulky or wide flatbed root or base, an elongated part. wgh: . gh: . g: to connect, flow. h: a root. Jh: a fully grown plant on a root. lpa: to grow or rise from a leaf. D: . h: a root. d: a stem. wgpe is regarded as w+g+pe. It is interpreted as two of something are connected to or run along the bulky root base. wgh is regarded as w+g+h. It is interpreted as two of something connect to two roots. wgpe wgh is then interpreted as two downward roots are connected to the bulky root base, or two downward roots are extended along the bulky root base. In other words, wgpe wgh is regarded as pe g wh, which means the bulky root base is extended by two downward roots. gpe is interpreted as to connect to a bulky root base and gh as to connect to a downward root. Jh was interpreted as a fully grown plant and lpa as to grow or rise from a leaf. Dh is regarded as D+h and D as d+g. Dh can be interpreted as a plant stem which was connected to downward root or a plant before a leaf turns into a flower. Collectively, it can be interpreted as Two downward roots are extended along the bulky root base. A fully grown plant has its leaves turned into flower heads on the stems grown from the root. woiixh gpe wox: woiixh: . w: two, a pair. o: a part, a set of. i: 'one' used to count following word start with '\'. x: a branch, stem. h: a root. gpe: connect to a bulky root base. w: two, a pair. ox: . woiixh is regarded as wo+iix+h. wo means two parts. iix means three way branch or a branch forks in three ways. Therefore, woiixh is interpreted as (the root base) split in two parts and each part branches in three ways. As can be seen in the picture, there are six downward roots illustrated. Three downward roots on both sides of the root base. Previously, gpe was interpreted as to connect to a bulky root base. Based on the context, wox is interpreted as two way split of a branch. Collectively, it can be interpreted as The root base split into two parts and each part has a three way branch, which is called two way split of a branch. Milton Kim Page 14 October 9, 2012 2.4 Folio 2v: dppux Figure 8 Milton Kim Page 15 October 9, 2012 2.5 Folio 3r: jlfps Figure 9 Figure 10 Milton Kim Page 16 October 9, 2012 2.6 Folio 3v: dpoiix Figure 11 Figure 12 Milton Kim Page 17 October 9, 2012 2.7 Folio 4r: dpwoegh Figure 13 Milton Kim Page 18 October 9, 2012 2.8 Folio 4v: kgppiix Figure 14 Milton Kim Page 19 October 9, 2012 2.9 Folio 5r: dlpwh Figure 15 Milton Kim Page 20 October 9, 2012 2.10 Folio 5v: dpgfpa Figure 16 Milton Kim Page 21 October 9, 2012 2.11 Folio 67r Figure 17 Folio 67r is consisted of two pages. In the above picture, the page on the left side was presented. This folio page contains two block of texts on the top and the three outer shells and 12 words on the inner shell. There is a small gaping sector on the outer shells. When compared with other illustrations found in the Voynich Manuscript, it suggests that the passage in those three outer shells comprises a long one, not three separate ones. It is assumed that the start of the text on the outer shells begin from the inner most shell and proceeds outwardly. When it comes to the gaping sector, the passage will continue on to the next outer shell. In the inner shell, there are 12 words listed. It is also assumed that the first word to start with is the one located to the right of the reference line in yellow, which would be pjoewh. The order of the words on the inner shell will be assumed to follow the same clockwise direction as the passage on the outer shells. It should be noted that the first two words have their matching plants found on Folio 88r. It might suggests that each word on the inner shell indicates a plant. In other words, the words on the inner shell could be the list of plants. Milton Kim Page 22 October 9, 2012 Figure 18 The text blocks on the top and the outer shells can be represented in SnF structures as illustrated above. When examined closely, the lines, L9, L14, and L17, are consisted of relatively less words than others and it seems that they dont have any structured form of SnF model. It suggests that those three lines might be the topics of Folio 67r. Milton Kim Page 23 October 9, 2012 2.12 Folio 70r labeled MARS Figure 19 The text on the Folio 70r is presented along with some drawings in multiple concentric layers. From the center and outwardly, it starts with drawings of two fishes, the first line of text, some drawings of women emerged from horizontally placed cylindrical objects, the third line of text, some drawings of women standing inside vertically placed cylindrical objects, and the fifth line of text. In the middle if two fishes at the center, there is a word mars written in recognizable Roman letters, not in Voynich letters. It is unknown why the word mars had to be put in there, but if mars means the 4th planet in our solar system and those two fish figures indicate the constellation of Pisces, then the section A might be regarded as while the mars stays in the Pisces, The word next to the star on the top is pjpeoe. The meaning of that word is unknown. Whatever it is, then the Folio 70r might be dedicated to the description of something called pjpeoe. The primary intention of this article is to determine the point where each line of text starts with. Since each line of text is arranged on circles and the gaps between each neighboring words are practically even, it might be very important to identify the starting point of each text lines for further analysis. Milton Kim Page 24 October 9, 2012 Figure 20 The text of Folio 70r in a structured arrangement There is only one word written in Voynich letters in the center, which is pjpeoe. Under the model of Skeleton and Flesh, the first line of text can be divided into two parts. The first section is structured in pjoux ~ oe. The second section is structured in the format of jf ~ pjf ~. Since there is a skeleton change from pjoux to jf, the first line of text is divided into two sentences as illustrated in FIG.2. The line of text on the second circle is considered a group of words rather than a sentence since each word has assigned woman figure and they are equally eligible to be the starting point. However the SF model can be applied and the line of text is divided into three groups of words. The skeleton of each group would be pjo, pdo, and hdpe. The third line of text is divided into four sections, or possible sentences. The skeletons of each section are gfwo, pjr, lf, and pjo. The fourth line of text is divided into three sections and the skeleton for each group would be pjh, pjp, and pjo. The last line of text is divided into two sections and their skeletons are pjfpjf and gp. The results presented here does not mean that they are the only possible way to divide lines. They are just suggestions based on the choice of skeletons. Anyway, based on the results, the starting point of each text line can be marked on the folio picture as below. Milton Kim Page 25 October 9, 2012 Figure 21 Starting points of each lines Milton Kim Page 26 October 9, 2012 Each line of text is presented two concentric circles and those lines across two circles indicate the sections of each line. The crossing lines in red shows the start of each text line. It is uncertain if they are intentional or not. The starting points of the first and fifth lines are aligned almost in the same directional angle. So are the second and fourth lines. Each line of text can be read in the clockwise direction from the starting points. The next step to take from here is to determine what folios of Voynich manuscript are related to Folio 70r. In order to achieve that goal, the words taken from the second and fourth lines are used to cross-reference against other folios by finding word matches. Following are the results of word matching works. Figure 22 Distribution of matching words count for those words from Folio 70r Milton Kim Page 27 October 9, 2012 The largest peak on the graph in the far back indicates the Folio 70r. Since those words were chosen from Folio 70r, it hit the most matching word count at the Folio 70r. When the distribution of word matching count, the results show that there are section of folios which have above-the-average matching count. For example, the matching word count jumps up to 11 on the Folio 103r and the matching counts stay above the average onward. The common factor for those folios that have higher word matching counts is that the script of those folios have star figures on the side as illustrated below. If those folios with higher word matching counts are divided into sentences by using the SF method, then the cross-reference on the sentence level might be applied and it could give us more understanding of Voynich manuscript. Milton Kim Page 28 October 9, 2012 Appendix A. Conjugative Binary Decomposition of Voynich Alphabet In this article, a new method to represent the symbols found in the Voynich Manuscript will be described. The method is called conjugative binary decomposition, or CBD in short. Under CBD rules, each symbol in the Voynich Manuscript basically can be divided into two elements. In order words, most VMS symbols can be represented by combining two other symbols. In the CBD representation, there are defined four indivisible symbols: :, , ;, and . When all the VMS symbols are encoded by CBD rules, it is possible to represent them compactly in a minimal set of electronic codes. With modern keyboard, any VMS symbol can be represented by using only 22 or 30 keys. The smallest codes enable us to utilize the remaining code space for other general purpose special characters such as {, }, $, %, @, etc. A.1 Introduction On November 30 of 1976, a well-known researcher, Captain Prescott H. Currier announced two most important founding, in which the Voynich Manuscript has been made by more than one identifiable hands and more than one identifiable languages. Those findings could be really considered as a strong indication that the Voynich Manuscript should be regarded as some genuine works of a group of unknown people, not a hoax from a certain person. He also explained about his microscopic observations on the writing of Voynichian letters since the Manuscript has been written by hand. By his careful observations, some letters such as c, , ,, could be categorized into a group in which a letter starts with a c-curve and ends by various extra pen stroke. One more interesting thing is that some letters in the c-curve category have their own counterparts which start with \-line, but end by the same stroke of its c-curve counterpart. For examples, has , , has ., and has . Before understanding the meanings of letters, words, or sentences found in the Voynich Manuscript, it is also important to determine the internal structure of each letter. The EVA (Extended Voynich Alphabets) alphabet is an example of such an effort. Each Voynichian letter which could be separable or discriminated from others has assigned a Roman alphabet or number. Since there are so many doodles, symbols, and small drawings, the EVA alphabet is still undergoing revision process as the researches are going on. It is quite obvious that settling down the working EVA alphabet is a very important thing in order to take the research to the next level. In this article, a new approach called conjugative binary decomposition method will be introduced and applied to the structured representation of the Voynichian letters. A.2 Conjugative Binary Decomposition Conjugative binary decomposition method is a process by which each and every Voynichian letters are first decomposed into unique primal elements. A primal element can be considered as a symbol which is not represented by any other symbols, or primal elements. A valid Voynichian letter then can Milton Kim Page 29 October 9, 2012 be represented by combining one or more primal elements together under the reverse conjugative binary decomposition process. In order to achieve this, the EVA alphabet table illustrated in the Currier paper published in 1976 was summarized in Table 1. Table 1. Summarized EVA alphabets and 1st order of primal symbols EVA alphabets c ; : c : - , " l # ! . = ! " ! 1st order of primal symbols : ; A primal symbol is defined as a Voynich symbol or letter. A 1st order of primal symbol is a Voynich symbol which can not be divided into another symbols. In the CBD method, there are defined four 1st order of primal symbols: :, , ;, and . Those four primal letters can be characterized in a form of two-by-two conjugative matrix as illustrated in Table 2. Table 2. Attributes matrix for 1st order of primal symbols Attributes Curve/Knot LinesShort : Long ; The attribute assigned to first column is Curve. Two primal symbols in the first column have different attributes: short and long. Same attributes are applied to the primal symbols in the second column. Those four primal letters are categorized as indivisible Voynich symbols by the definition of CBD rules. Among the EVA alphabets, c can be produced by combining : and . However, there is no counterpart of c. In other words, ;(V4 or line with knot) and (V1 or straight line) are not combined to produce any other Voynich alphabet. When the Voynich symbols are examined, it can be observed that a symbol is consisted of two smaller symbols. For example, c can be seen as a combined result of : and :. According to this observation, some of Voynich alphabets can be grouped into 2x2 attributes matrix. Milton Kim Page 30 October 9, 2012 Table 3. Attribute matrix for the conjugative binary representation of : and . Attributes Curve/Closed Line/OpenedShort : Long c Those symbols on the second row in the attribute matrix are derived by combining : with : and with .. Both : and . are not valid Voynich symbols, but they contribute to the making of valid Voynich symbols. Those primal symbols are categorized into 2nd order of primal symbols. When a 1st primal symbol is combined with a 2nd primal symbol, a 3rd order of primal symbol is produced. Both c and are classified as 3rd primal symbols. Table 4. Attribute matrix for the conjugative binary representation of and , Attributes Curve LineShort/Top Long/Bottom , . Both and , are another 2nd order of primal symbols. , , ,, and . are 3rd order of primal symbols. Table 5. Attribute matrix for the conjugative binary representation of and , Attributes Curve LineShort/Opened Long/Closed Both and , are another 2nd order of primal symbols. , , , and are 3rd order of primal symbols. Table 6. Attribute matrix for the conjugative binary representation of . and ' Attributes Knot (V4) Line (V1) Milton Kim Page 31 October 9, 2012 Short/Closed l Long/Opened " ! In the above matrix, ; and are used for the 1st order of primal symbols. . and ' are the corresponding 2nd order of primal letters. l, , ", and ! are 3rd order of primal symbols. Table 7. Transformational attribute matrix for : and Attributes Curve LineDouble Hat - = Table 7 illustrates a transformational attribute matrix for 1st order of primal symbols, : and . The attribute Double indicates a repetition of the given primal symbol. The attribute Hat indicates an accent put on the top of each primal symbol. , , -, and = are considered to be 3rd order of primal symbols. The remaining EVA alphabets are categorized into 4th order of primal letters. Table 8. Transformational attribute matrix for : and (Twin & Triplet) Attributes Curve LineTwin : Triplet Since contains a 3rd primal symbol, those four symbols are categorized as 4th primal letters. Table 9. Transformational attribute matrix for and (Piggybacking) Attributes Knot (V4) Line (V1) Short/Closed ! ! Milton Kim Page 32 October 9, 2012 Long/Opened # " Each letter shown in Table 9 is produced by applying to those letters shown in Table 6. Table 10. CBD Classified Voynich Symbols Category Primal Symbols Count1st order : 4 2nd order : . , , ' . 8 3rd order c c , . " l ! - = 19 4th order : # ! " ! 8 The following picture illustrates the CBD symbols in a tree structure. Milton Kim Page 33 October 9, 2012 Milton Kim Page 34 October 9, 2012 Figure 23 Tree Structure of CBD Primal Symbols A.3 Key Allocation for Voynich Alphabet Representing Voynich alphabets in a tree structure does not mean that it reveals true nature of Voynich symbols. The primary reason that a structured form was made out of Voynich alphabets is to represent them in a minimal set of codes. It would be best if we could assign less than the number of Roman alphabets, which is 26. With the CBD symbols shown in Error! Reference source not found., each symbol has been assigned a key as illustrated in Figure 24. The key layout is called Voynich Mesa. Figure 24 Voynich Mesa key layout Under the Voynich Mesa key layout, foot symbols such #, !, ", and ! can be accessed by holding down SHIFT key. The Voynich Mesa key arrangement can also be applied to the EVA alphabets. The following picture illustrates a sample text collected from folio 2v in Herbal section. Milton Kim Page 35 October 9, 2012 Figure 25 First paragraph from folio 2v in Herbal section The Voynichian Mesa layout uses 30 keys to represent any Voynich text. When the relationships between Voynich symbols under the CBD rules, a further reduction of keys can be achieved. The following table summarizes a rule to compose one Voynich symbol from others. Table 11 AIG (as-it-goes) rules Symbol Type-In Sequence Combination Rule : t : +t = (: +: =:) - t +t =- " ' +' =" l . +. =l ! ' +' =! . +. = # : ' t : + +' =:" :" +t =# ! : . t : + +. =:l :l +t =! " : ' t : + +' =:! :! +t =" ! : . t : + +. =: : +t =! When AIG rule is applied, all the Voynichian alphabets can be represented with 22 codes or keys as illustrated in Figure 26. Milton Kim Page 36 October 9, 2012 Figure 26 Voynich Costa key layout In this key layout, there is no need to use SHIFT key and there are a few more keys reserved for future new entries. A.4 Unified Text Encoding The following table shows Unicode Mapping Table for Voynich Mesa layout. Table 12. Unicode Mapping Table for Voynich Mesa Symbol (Private User Area) Voynich Letters Name Microsoft Symbol Macintosh Roman As In : $F032 $0032 c , $F033 $0033 , ' $F034 $0034 ", ! . $F035 $0035 l, $F036 $0036 , \ $F037 $0037 Inverted, Milton Kim Page 37 October 9, 2012 , $F038 $0038 , $F039 $0039 , $F03A $003A ", l , $F03B $003B . . $F03C $003C t $F03D $003D , - = $F03E $003E = c $F03F $003F; $F040 $0040: $F041 $0041c $F042 $0042: $F043, $F063 $0043, $0063 $F044, $F064 $0044, $0064 $F045 $0045- $F046 $0046 $F047 $0047, $F048 $0048 $F049 $0049 $F04A $004A" $F04B $004Bl $F04C $004C# $F04D, $F067 $004D, $0067! $F04E, $F068 $004E, $0068 $F04F $004F !, $F050 $0050. $F051 $0051 $F052, $F065 $0052, $0065Milton Kim Page 38 October 9, 2012 $F053, $F066 $0053, $0066 $F054 $0054= $F055 $0055 $F056 $0056 $F057 $0057 $F058 $0058 $F059 $0059! $F05A $005A $F05B $005B" $F05C, $F069 $005C, $0069 ! $F05D, $F06A $005D, $006A So far there have been a few encoding methods suggested for Voynich Manuscript. Each method uses different codes or keys for same Voynich symbol. The following table shows them along with Unicode based on Voynich Mesa key layout. Table 13. Alphabet Transcription Types (*case sensitive) Voynich Letters Mapping Sequence Vmesa* Currier* Bennett FSG Frogguy EVA; $F040 q 4 D 4 4 qc $F042 p O O O o o $F04A w 8 S 8 8 d, $F048 h 9 G G 9 y $F047 s 2 Z 2 s s. $F051 e E L E x l $F056 a R Q R 2 r: $F043 r CC CC CC cc ee $F044 t SC CTC TC ctc che $F045 g S CT T ct chMilton Kim Page 39 October 9, 2012 - $F046 l Z ET S ct sh" $F04B j P H H qp tl $F04C k B P P qj p! $F05A d F K D lp k $F05B z V F F lj f# $F04D J Q CHT HZ cqpt cth! $F04E K W CPT PZ cqjt cph" $F05C D X CKT DZ clpt ckh! $F05D Z Y CFT FZ cljt cfhc $F03F o A A A a a: $F041 f C C C c e $F050 i I I I i i $F052 u n/a II II ii ii $F053 y n/a III III iii iii. $F050, $F051 ie G IL IE ix il . $F052, $F051 ue H IIL IIE iix iil . $F053, $F051 ye 1 IIIL IIIE iiix iiil $F050, $F056 ia T IQ IR i2 ir $F052, $F056 ua U IIQ IIR ii2 iir $F053, $F056 ya 0 IIIQ IIIR iii2 iiir $F057 x D U L v n $F050, $F057 ix N N N iv in $F052, $F057 ux M M M iiv iin $F053, $F057 yx 3 IM IIIL iiiv iiin $F058 c J n/a K ig m $F050, $F058 ic K n/a IK iig im $F052, $F058 uc L n/a IIK iiig iim Milton Kim Page 40 October 9, 2012 $F053, $F058 yc 5 n/a IIIK iiiig iiim $F049 v 6 n/a 6 cg g $F059 b 7 n/a 7 & j= $F055 m n Y Y n x $F054 n v V V ^ v By using this table, any Voynich text encoded in one method can be translated into another. A.5 Closing Remarks In this article, a new Voynichian alphabet was introduced by using conjugative binarization decomposition and it shows that any Voynichian letter can be produced by combining the primal elements and letters. Through the Voynich Tree diagram, the internal structure of Voynichian alphabet can be understood and the relationships between primal elements are explained. The Voynich Manuscript is still remain unsolved, but the text of manuscript itself can be represented in an electronic form and can be saved in the computer. Further analyses will be conducted with the electronic manuscript by using computerized methods. B. A Structural Analysis for the Undeciphered Text of Voynich Manuscript In this article, a structural analysis called Skeleton-and-Flesh model for the text of Voynich Manuscript is presented. The Voynich Manuscript is one of the most famous written texts in letters of unknown origin and yet undeciphered. The entire script was written in a limited set of letters, seemingly no more than 30 letters. It will be shown that the SnF model is based on the crustography which was defined to understand the structure of rongorongo script. A possible number system used in the Voynich script is also explained. B.1 Skeleton and Flesh Model A skeleton is defined as a letter or letters which repeatedly appears in consecutive words. When those skeletons are changing, it indicates the end of current sentence and the start of new one. A flesh to a skeleton indicates the remaing letters which consists of a word except the skeleton. For example, g is regarded as a skeleton within gpa gh and both pa and h become fleshes. Milton Kim Page 41 October 9, 2012 Figure 27. Page 2r with script By the application of skeleton-and-flesh model, the script of 2r which has two paragraphs and 13 lines, 7 lines for the 1st paragraph and 6 lines for the 2nd paragraph can be analyzed how many sentences are contained in the text. When each paragraph is closely examined, some certain letters can be found in a group of consecutive words throughout the script such as g, J, or w. Based on this observation, the text of first paragraph can be arranged as below. Milton Kim Page 42 October 9, 2012 Figure 28. Five sentences consists of the first paragraph In this new arrangement, the letters in red are regarded as a skeleton of Voynich sentence which provides the Voynich text with a structure. The skeleton letters of line #1 and #3 consist of w and g. The skeleton letter of line #2 is J. The skeleton letters of line #4 are wo and g. The skeleton representation also reveals some other outstanding characteristics. Each line from #2 to #5 starts with single letters such as s, h, and w. It might be a number or something else. Whatever it is, the line #5 seems to be dedicated to the explanation of something what w indicates. Milton Kim Page 43 October 9, 2012 Figure 29. Five sentences of second paragraph As illustrated above, the second paragraph is also divided into 5 separate sentences. The skeleton letters used here are o, l, w, g, and oux. So, the original Voynich 13-line text can be reduced down into a 10-line script of modern Roman text. B.2 Voynich Script vs. Rongorongo Script It is really hard to accept the close similarities between Voynich script and Rongorongo script. The definition of crustography leads the way to understanding the structure of rongorongo script. Actually, the skeleton-and-flesh model is based on the same concept of crustography. The next picture illustrates an example of part of rongorongo script sampled from Santiago Staff tablet. Milton Kim Page 44 October 9, 2012 Figure 30. Crust I04-B1 In Rongorongo script, a sentence is called a crust and it starts with an opening glyph and ends with a closing glyph. If a crust is consisted of two or more text segments, each segment is cascaded by a relaying glyph. In Voynich script, a crust glyph matches a skeleton. Any rongorongo glyph can be used as the crust glyph. Within a crust text segment, another smaller crust can be nested which is consisted of a different glyph. The Voynich sentence illustrated above shows exactly same characteristics as rongorongo script. In rongorongo script, even more than 50 hieroglyphs can be used as crust glyphs, but the Voynich script only has about 20+letters to be used as a skeleton. B.3 Symbolical Representation An alphabet diagram for Voynich script was illustrated and it shows that there are about 26 letters identified in the Voynich script. It is uncertain if they are alphabet letters, or just symbols. Milton Kim Page 45 October 9, 2012 Figure 31. Symbol of g In the above picture, there are two women standing in a small tub and touching two holes. There are two words besides them, which are pjfgwh and pjfwh. The only difference between those two word is the letter g. The picture suggests that the letter g refers to the connection A between two holes that the woman on the top-left corner holds. This line of thinking suggests that g might be a symbol rather than a letter. Figure 32. Symbol of w Milton Kim Page 46 October 9, 2012 In the above picture, there are four couples of women holding their hands together and the words above them contains the letter of w. The woman on the right end faces another woman on the left end and the word right above her head contains the letter of w. The second and third woman to the right end are standing alone and the words above them does not have the letter of w. Based on that, the letter of w can be regarded as a pair, or two. Figure 33. Possible naming and the numerical description of its composition There are two words assigned to this picture. It seems to have two root branches, three stems, and three leaves to each end of stem. Each leaf is divided into two parts. In the previous picture, the letter w is assumed to indicate two or a pair. Based on that assumption, the second word is interpreted as a word which describes how the given plant is composed. If this is the case, the first word might be the name of this plant. From this example, the meaning of o, x, and h can be determined as part, stem, and root. B.4 Summary The SnF (skeleton-and-flesh) model provides a new way to understand how the Voynich script was composed. It is totally coincidental to realize that the way how the Rongorongo script was composed can be applied equally to the Voynich script. Numbering system used in the Voynich manuscript still remain unknown, but the example exaplined with Fig.7 might be hinting how an object can be described with a limited set of numbers or letters. Vocabulary Milton Kim Page 47 October 9, 2012 EVA alphabets c ; : c : - , " l # ! . = ! " ! Word Meaningq something fallen from the top of a plant, a seed. a a leaf. d a stem. dfgh a stem with a root attached to it. dgsh the name of a plant illustrated on Folio 1v. dh the base of a stem without a flower head. dhwoix the base where two stems with and without a flower head meet. e a bulky or wide flatbed root or base, an elongated part. es a flower head which consists of a petal and an elongated sepal, a petal on an elongated sepal. f a planted seed, to plant (a seed). fh the extremity of a root, a root grown from a seed. g to connect, flow. gp the end of stem is attached to, or rise from ~. gpdoux the part at the three stem is connected to ~. h a root. hj to seed a plant, a plant with flower head which produces seeds. ix two stems or branches. Milton Kim Page 48 October 9, 2012 Jp to break off from a plant. kgpe the flower head risen from a wide flatbed root. kp the base of a flower head at the top end of a stem. l to grow or rise, to grow into, to turn into. lp to break (from its current state) and grow into (another state). lpe to grow or rise from the flat bed of a root. o a part, a set of. p the (round) end of a stem, to break (from current state). pa the stem end of a leaf, the base of a leaf on a stem. pd the cut-off end of a stem. pe a bulky base where a stem rises up. pjpgpa the base of a leaf meets at the upper end of a stem. pw two ends of a stem, to split into two ~. s a flower head, or a leaf which can be turned into a flower head. spa a leaf-turned-flower, a flower was changed or grown from a leaf. w two, a pair. x a branch, stem. k the flower head of a plant. pj the bottom end of a plant, to break a plant. lpa to grow or rise from a leaf. wh a pair of root branch, or a root to fork into two branches. Milton Kim Page 49 October 9, 2012 J the upper body of a plant attached to its base on a root. Jh a fully grown plant on a root. Kh the name of a root illustrated on Folio 2r. i one' used to count following word start with '\'. j the whole part of plant above its bulky root. jp the bottom end of a middle stem. gpe connect to a bulky root base. gh connect to a downward root. Dh a plant stem which was connected to downward root or a plant before a leaf turns into a flower. wo a flower head, two parts. woux a flower top consisted of top and base at the end of three stems or branches; to split into two parts and each part has three way branch. wouxh to split in two parts and each part branches in three ways. wox two way split of a branch. Milton Kim Page 50 October 9, 2012 Index a, 11 d, 7, 12 D, 12 dfgh, 7 dgsh, 7 Dh, 14 doa, 11 dpe, 7 Dpesh, 11 e, 6 es, 13 fh, 12 g, 6 gh, 14 gp, 6 gpe, 14 gpwh, 7 h, 7 hj, 14 j, 12 J, 7 Jh, 12 jp, 7 Jp, 12 k, 7 kp, 7 l, 7 louwh, 12 lp, 13 lpa, 11 oux, 11 p, 6 pa, 11 pd, 7 pdpe, 7 pe, 6 pj, 12 pjgoe, 11 pw, 7 q, 12 s, 11 w, 6 wd, 13 woes, 13 woiixh, 14 wox, 14 wpa, 11 x, 6 Milton Kim Page 51 Voynich Dictionary Tool, Version 1.0 Voyni ch Di ct i onar y Tool - 1. 0- Set up. t xt : save the embedded file to Vms. uu and unzip to restore the i nst al l at i on pr ogr am. Sour ce codes ( wr i t t en i n Del phi 7) : save the embedded file to Vms_Sr c. uu and unzip to restore the sour ce codes. Not e. Wi nRar t ool can be used t o unzi p t he f i l e. - i - 1. Build Dictionary With the main window, a Voynich dictionary can be viewed, edited, and modified. Double click on a word make it show on the top of Data Grid page. Clicking Edit record navigation button enable the edit box to modify the content. After the modification is finished, clicking Post edit button will save the changes. Clicking Refresh dictionary will refresh the whole dictionary. By using File|Save menu, the dictionary can be saved. Below the navigation control, two arrays of Voynich character keyboard is presented. For example, clicking Search edit box will set it in focus. Once an edit box is in focus, any key button press will be typed in that edit box in Voynich Mesa font. Navigation control on the top can be used to delete the currently selected record. It also can be used to add a new record. 2. Using Text Maker Milton Kim Page - 1 In the edit box on the left, any Voynich words or sentence can be typed in by the Voynich Mesa keyboard buttons. Clicking right mouse button will bring a menu up. Select Itemize Text after Filtering to break down the input text into words. Milton Kim Page - 2 Then click Make Text button to get the Voynich words with meaning on the right edit box. Any Voynich word on the left edit box can be broken down into smaller words. Then applying Make Text button will update the right edit box with new output. Milton Kim Page - 3 Copy the content of the output text on the right edit box and paste it in a word processor file. One can try to make an interpretation on the selected Voynich words or text without browsing the whole vocabulary. 3. Menu Milton Kim Page - 4 On the Help menu, one can copy Voynich fonts files into the system. On the File menu, the dictionary can be saved in a Windows Excel file. A Voynich dictionary can be loaded into the program from an excel file. Milton Kim Page - 5