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  • UNDERSTANDING SCHOOL LEADERS ROLE IN TEACHERS ADOPTION OF

    TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATED CLASSROOM PRACTICES

    by

    GARY SHATTUCK

    (Under the Direction of Michael Orey)

    ABSTRACT

    It is generally agreed upon by most educational technology researchers that the

    integration of technology promised during the 1990s by the proponents of technology in

    education has not materialized despite the fact that billions of dollars have been spent on

    technology in schools. The reasons are many and the answers are complex. To understand why

    technology integration has not succeeded, one must understand how the contextual factors,

    including educational laws and policies, educational change theories, diffusion of innovation

    theories, technology integration theories, and educational leadership practices impact how

    teachers perceive the use of technology within their classroom practices. This study looks at all

    five of these factors in an effort to understand how school leaders may impact teachers

    acceptance of technology integrated classroom practices.

    This study uses a case study methodology in an attempt to understand how school leaders

    in four middle schools in the same school district impacted either positively or negatively the

    teachers adoption of technology integrated classroom practices. Four methods are employed to

    gather data. First, a pre-survey was sent to every teacher in each of the four schools. Second, an

    in-depth interview was conducted with each principal of these four schools. Third, a focus group

  • of technology teacher leaders was interviewed in each of these four schools. Fourth, a document

    review was conducted on selected documents to verify data collected from the other three

    methods. The data from each method at each school was cross-checked to develop an

    understanding about how each school uses technology within the building and about how the

    teachers are integrating technology within their classroom practices.

    When analyzing each schools data it becomes obvious that the leader at one school is

    promoting the use of technology within her school in exemplary ways that causes the teachers to

    adopt technology integration into their classroom practices. When comparing this exemplary

    schools data with the other schools data eight themes emerged as essential strategies that school

    leaders must adopt if they want their teachers to adopt technology integrated classroom practices.

    The eight strategies are: vision, modeling, expectations, encouragement, resources, hiring,

    professional learning, and capacity building.

    Key words: technology integration, educational leadership, educational change, diffusion of

    innovation, technology leadership, educational law and policies

  • UNDERSTANDING SCHOOL LEADERS ROLE IN TEACHERS ADOPTION OF

    TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATED CLASSROOM PRACTICES

    by

    GARY SHATTUCK

    B.A., University of California, Los Angeles, 1969

    M.A.T., Piedmont College, 1998

    Ed.S., University of Georgia, 2001

    A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of The University of Georgia in Partial

    Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree

    DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

    ATHENS, GEORGIA

    2009

  • 2009

    Gary Shattuck

    All Rights Reserved

  • UNDERSTANDING SCHOOL LEADERS ROLE IN TEACHERS ADOPTION OF

    TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATED CLASSROOM PRACTICES

    by

    GARY SHATTUCK

    Major Professor: Michael Orey

    Committee: John Dayton Julie Moore Lloyd Rieber

    Electronic Version Approved: Maureen Grasso Dean of the Graduate School The University of Georgia May 2009

  • iv

    DEDICATION

    The dissertation is dedicated to Tommie Elaine Shattuck, my wife and lifelong

    companion, who has supported, encouraged, loved, and, at times, cajoled me in this endeavor.

    When I wanted to give in to the temptation of quitting because I was tired or was frustrated she

    was there to lift me up and to help me get started again. When I ignored her in those long hours

    of studying and of writing she was there to give me support and to give me encouragement.

    When I needed someone to edit my papers for classes or for this dissertation, she was there

    offering her expertise. When I needed quietness she was there to ensure the house was quiet.

    When I needed sustenance she was there with food and with drink. In retrospect, this dissertation

    is as much hers as it is mine for she has been there through it all delaying her own educational

    aspirations from the beginning to the end to help me traverse this journey; to help me navigate

    the shoals of life along the way. For all these reasons I am eternally grateful.

  • v

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    I would like to acknowledge the many kindnesses and assistance provided by Dr. Michael

    Orey, Dr. Lloyd Rieber, and Dr. John Dayton during the last five years. I would also like to offer

    a special acknowledgement to Dr. Lloyd Rieber whose encouragement five years ago gave me

    the confidence to pursue this degree.

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Page

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .............................................................................................................v

    CHAPTER

    1 INTRODUCTION .........................................................................................................1

    2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ......................................................................................10

    Introduction ............................................................................................................10

    A Brief History of Computers in Education ..........................................................12

    National and State Educational Law and Policy ....................................................27

    The Changing Nature of Students ..........................................................................44

    Educational Change and the Diffusion of Innovation............................................48

    Technology Integration ..........................................................................................57

    Role of Leadership in the Integration of Technology ............................................78

    Conclusion .............................................................................................................88

    3 METHODOLOGY ......................................................................................................89

    Subjectivities Statement .........................................................................................89

    Research Hierarchy ................................................................................................90

    Research Setting and Participants ..........................................................................98

    Conclusion ...........................................................................................................104

    4 RESEARCH RESULTS ............................................................................................107

    The Research Plan................................................................................................107

  • Case Studies ........................................................................................................117

    Conclusion ..........................................................................................................140

    5 ANALYSES ...............................................................................................................143

    Overall Analysis..................................................................................................143

    6 IMPLICATIONS .......................................................................................................160

    Four Implications ................................................................................................160

    Conclusion ..........................................................................................................165

    REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................168

    APPENDICES .............................................................................................................................179

    A PRE-SURVEY QUESTIONS ...................................................................................179

    B PRINCIPALS INTERVIEW QUESTIONS ............................................................184

    C FOCUS GROUPS INTERVIEW QUESTIONS .....................................................185

  • CHAPTER ONE

    INTRODUCTION

    This research investigates the role that school leadership plays in influencing teachers

    adoption of technology integration strategies w