understanding darfur

Download Understanding Darfur

Post on 07-Apr-2018

219 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • 8/4/2019 Understanding Darfur

    1/29

    UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley 2007

    Darfur

    Facts, Interpretations, and Possibilities

    Presentation material for educators and activists

    developed by: UnderstandingSudan.org

    latest version: February 13, 2007

  • 8/4/2019 Understanding Darfur

    2/29

    UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley 2007

    Hamudi Abdullah Mohammedin Kalma IDP Camp, South

    Darfur

    UNICEF/2004/Westerbeekhttp://www.unicef.org/emerg/darfur/index_24605.html

    Dedicated to the future of Sudan

    UNICEF/HQ05-0943/Ron Haviv

    http://www.unicef.org/childalert/darfur

    Cover Photo from UNICEF Darfur Emergency SeptemberOctober 2005 Report

    http://www.unicef.org/emerg/darfur/files/DARFUREMERGSEPT_OCT2005.pdf

  • 8/4/2019 Understanding Darfur

    3/29

    UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley 2007

    Objectives Complicate the picture

    There are many causes to the conflict and humanitarian

    catastrophe, many actors involved, and much vocabulary tobe learned and debated

    The conflict is not just local, but can be seen as extendingover many scales: from farmers and nomads fighting overwater to the great powers of the U.N. Security Councilnegotiating the international order

    Highlight how discourse shapes understanding andaction and encourage self-reflection

    Ethnicity and race are ideas constructed by peoples actionsand discourses

    Genocide is debated in legal and policy circles

    Intervention without a context can be a pretext

    Emphasize Importance of knowing history

    Importance of committing to long run involvement

  • 8/4/2019 Understanding Darfur

    4/29

    UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley 2007

    Geography

    Sudan in the Region2Darfur1

    Sudan in the World

    1. http:// rightsmaps.com/html/sudmap1.html and

    2. http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L03772791.htm

  • 8/4/2019 Understanding Darfur

    5/29

    UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley 2007

    Ethnicity in Darfur:Multiple andMutable

    Academics prefer the phraseethnic group over tribe

    Darfurians tell a variety ofhistories

    Darfurians explain theirethnic identities in differentways

    Identities can becomesimplified, polarized and

    cemented throughcommunal and especiallysexual violence

    But experiences as refugeesand displacement can havethe opposite effect

  • 8/4/2019 Understanding Darfur

    6/29

    UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley 2007

    Current Situation in Darfur(October/November 2006)

    Multiplicity of rebel groups: Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) fractured; Minni Minawi faction

    signed Darfur Peace Agreement with government Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) fractures

    Several groups have formed loose alliance called NationalRedemption Front

    Government-backed militia,janjawid, est. 20,000 persons 200,000 deaths estimated overall since February 2003. 218,000 refugees in 12 UNHCR camps in Chad2

    Not all refugees in Chad are in camps 2 million persons internally displaced (IDPs)3

    4 million persons in need of humanitarian assistance. 3

    1. Coalition for International Justice, 5/05; 2. UNICEF, 12/20/05; 3. UN, Darfur Humanitarian Profile, 10/1/06

  • 8/4/2019 Understanding Darfur

    7/29

    UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley 2007

    Five Ways of Seeing the Crisis(Framing Stories)

    Anti-government positions

    Arab supremacism Arabs against blackAfricans (Musa Hilal)

    Regime in-fighting by proxy Turabi versusBeshir and Taha

    Straight up scorched earth response to rebelthreat; Regime has little legitimacy but much oilmoney, response is massive retaliation that may or

    may not be controllable- like warlordism Pro-government positions

    Farmers versus herders because of desertification

    Me-too spoilers of the main peace agreement

  • 8/4/2019 Understanding Darfur

    8/29

    UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley 2007

    Five Ways of Seeing the Crisis

    1. ArabsupremacismArabs against black Africans-Little is known about importance of ethnic identities among ordinary

    persons in DarfurOne famous study by Frederick Barth suggested that ethnic labbels

    were very fluidSome suggest a recent hardening of identities

    Fur, Zaghawa, Masalit, Tunjur, Meidob farmers => called by

    others, in colloquial Arabic: zurga or zunji (translated into Englishas black)Rizeigat, Hamar, Humr, Bani Halba nomads => Arab (groupsclaiming descent from Arabian groups and typically practicingpastoralism)

    -Regional conflict Chad, Libya) in 1970s and 1980s generated Tajamu al-Arabi Arab Gathering, a group of Darfurians espousing Arabsolidarity against other groups

    Ideology of supremacy adapted by marginalized Arab (nomadic)groups with Musa Hilal as leader

    -Encouraged by Islamicist, Arab regime in Khartoum, supported withweapons and mobility, and inflamed by international currents (waron terror, clash of civilizations)

    -

  • 8/4/2019 Understanding Darfur

    9/29

    UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley 2007

    Musa Hilal A Janjawiid Leader

    Son of Sheikh HilalMusa, Nazir of Um Julul,sub-clan of Abbala (camel-herding) Rizeigat, claimingdescent from Juhayna Arabnomads who came into Darfur

    from the West between the 14th

    and 18th Centuries.

    In 2002 jailed because ofviolence in Darfur.

    Government of Sudan released him to lead militia counter-attacks after SLA April 2003 surprise attacks on El Fasher.

    Claimed in 2004 HRW interview that GOS military officers leadPDF militias.

    Human Rights Watch, 2004 http://hrw.org/video/2005/musa/

  • 8/4/2019 Understanding Darfur

    10/29

    UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley 2007

    Five Ways of Seeing the Crisis

    2. Regime in-fighting by proxy:

    Hasan el Turabi versus Omar el Beshir and Ali Osman Taha

  • 8/4/2019 Understanding Darfur

    11/29

    UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley 2007

    Five Ways of Seeing the Crisis

    2. Regime in-fighting by proxy:Turabi versus Beshirand Taha- June 1989 Coupfollowed by Islamicization

    -Overthrew government of

    Prime Minister Sadiq el MahdiGrandson of Mahdi

    Leader of Umma Party

    Turabis brother-in-law

    -Continued civil war withSPLA in the South of thecountry.

  • 8/4/2019 Understanding Darfur

    12/29

    UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley 2007

    The Mahdi

    Mohamed Ahmeddefeated the Turco-Egyptians along withBritish mercenaries(Charles Chinese

    Gordon) in 1885. Hedied soon after, but hissuccessor, the KhalifaAbdullah al-Taaishi,established an

    independent state thatlasted until British with Egyptian help re-conquered much ofSudan in 1898.

  • 8/4/2019 Understanding Darfur

    13/29

    UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley 2007

    Five Ways of Seeing the Crisis

    3. Straight up scorched earth response to threat

    Regime has little legitimacy but much oil money Many soldiers in regular military who had fought

    in the South came from west so could not easilydeploy them in Darfur.

    Other rebels based in Darfur had in the 1980soverthrown Chad regime

    Resort to militias out of habit Used PDFs in South and Nuba Mountains in long

    running civil war

    Jihad in mid-1990s in Nuba Mountains Response to rebel threat in western Darfur was

    proxy militias who may or may not be controllable

    Counter-Insurgency on the Cheap- A. de Waal

  • 8/4/2019 Understanding Darfur

    14/29

    UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley 2007

    Anglo-Egyptian CondominiumBritish defeated Sultan Ali Dinar in 1916 by force and used

    local nomads as militias in process. The Sultanate of Darfur wasthen incorporated into Sudan. Aerial bombing was also part of theBritish campaign to subdue recalcitrant natives.

  • 8/4/2019 Understanding Darfur

    15/29

    UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley 2007

    SPLA

  • 8/4/2019 Understanding Darfur

    16/29

    UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley 2007

    Five Ways of Seeing the Crisis

    4. Farmers versus herdersbecause of desertification

    Ecology of region The Intertropical Convergence Zone

    (ITCZ)

    North to South increase inprecipitation

    Transhumant RoutesVariation in arability of terrian and

    soil The Dar Fur Sultanate had

    established the Hakura system ofland tenure, where tribal leaders

    controlled large tracts of land1980s: Drought/Desertification pressures on land increase

    conflicts

    Rainfall Analysis - Cumulative Amounts inrelative terms : % of long term average

    Sudan Agromet Dekadal Bulletin, Vol 2, Issue 19, 11-20September 2004 http://www.mundo.u-net.com/samis/

  • 8/4/2019 Understanding Darfur

    17/29

    UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley 2007

    Five Ways of Seeing the Crisis

    5. Me-too spoilers of the main peace agreement

  • 8/4/2019 Understanding Darfur

    18/29

    UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley 2007

  • 8/4/2019 Understanding Darfur

    19/29

    UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley 2007

    Five Ways of Seeing the Crisis

    5. Me-too spoilers of the main peace

    agreement How to get respect: The SPLA got concessions only

    after 23 years of fighting.

    The Comprehensive Peace Agreement splits oil

    revenues between the GOS and the South. Whatabout the rest of the country?

    US, UK, Norway specifically choose to limitnegotiations to North-South talks

    SLA in Darfur has origins in SPLA took OneSudan of Garang to heart.

    Pick up weapon to get attention February 2003

  • 8/4/2019 Understanding Darfur

    20/29

    UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley 2007

    Why Intervene in Darfur?

    Continued child mortality among thedisplaced

    Continued insecurity and loss of

    capability for livelihoods in the camps

    Insecurity persists with no politicalsolution

  • 8/4/2019 Understanding Darfur

    21/29

    UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley 2007

    Variants of Intervention Peacekeepers and monitors work in cooperation

    with Sudan government, recognizingsovereignty

    Safe havens around towns with guaranteed

    relief corridors, with no government authority bad idea; Makes displacement more permanent

    Darfur declared autonomous region under U.N.Authority

  • 8/4/2019 Understanding Darfur

    22/29

    UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley 2007

    Current Interventions in Darfur Humanitarian Intervention

    13 UN agencies and 83 NGOs and Red Cross/Red Crescent Societies 13,869 Staff (12,895 national; 974 international as of Nov. 2005)

    Peace-monitoring/Protection Forces African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) with support from European Union's

    African Peace Facility, UN and US (though US House just voted to cut funds 1/3/06.) Currently 6,848 personnel in Darfur (peacekeepers, civilian police and military

    observers). Many say should be double or as much as 45,000.

    International Political Actions UN Resolutions International Criminal Court March 05 UN SCR 1593 referred situation to ICC AU led peace process

    Negotiations in Abuja, Nigeria Five point agenda agreed to: 1) The general principles; 2) security arrangements for an

    enhanced humanitarian ceasefire; 3) comprehensive ceasefire and final security arrangements:4) social reintegration; 5) and time line for implementation,

    January 06 mini-Summit in Libya -- Now postponed Regional Involvements

    Chad, President Idriss Deby faces internal threats and supposedly is quite ill;recently diverted money from Chad oil pipeline to military uses, promptingWorld Bank and donors to cut-off assistance

    Libya, Egypt, Uganda, DR Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia are involved in complicatedways

  • 8/4/2019 Understanding Darfur

    23/29

    UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley 2007

    Further interventions? Regime Change?

    Negotiated Peace?

    Nation building?

    Multilateralism?

  • 8/4/2019 Understanding Darfur

    24/29

    UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley 2007

    Genocide? Declaration triggers intervention?

    Varying Definitions

    1948 Geneva Convention

    Lay and Customary international usage

    Political equivocations Political will (e.g. US House defunding AU mission)

    Uses by parties GOS selective denigration of Arabs (re Iraq, Palestine).

    Double standards: Why not DR Congo?

    Internalized locally contributes to hardening of identities

    Mobilizing international action

  • 8/4/2019 Understanding Darfur

    25/29

    UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley 2007

    Conclusions Be wary of African and Arab labels

    What histories are they hiding?

    How are they being used

    Locally?

    Internationally?

    Historically inaccurate, yet incredibly

    powerful in the present The power of discourse, of labels, of names

  • 8/4/2019 Understanding Darfur

    26/29

    UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley 2007

    Conclusions continued Be committed to the long term

    Educating ones self History, languages, cultures

    Larger regional scene (Chad, Libya, Uganda Lords Resistance Army)

    Getting back to normal will take a longtime. Return of IDPs and Refugees?

    Truth and Reconciliation?

    Justice? Re-establishing basic routines of production,reproduction of life.

    Who will decide access and control overresources?

  • 8/4/2019 Understanding Darfur

    27/29

    UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley 2007

    Conclusions continued Be committed to the long term

    International aid how to be part of asustainable solution?

    Jan Egelund, Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs andEmergency Relief Coordinator

    Dont wait for emergencies, create funds upfront beforehand.

    Tony Blair and G8: Aid commitments to Africa?

    AU and NEPAD African solutions?

  • 8/4/2019 Understanding Darfur

    28/29

    UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley 2007

    Conclusions continued Rethink aid and development

    Interdependencies

    Consumption and Production

    Oil, Gum Arabic, Livestock, Water

    Political Frameworks

    War on Terror

    Small arms proliferation

    Peace-keeping, Peace-making. Gendered aspects of violence, justice,

    recovery?

  • 8/4/2019 Understanding Darfur

    29/29

    UnderstandingSudan org University of California Berkeley 2007