understanding and managing motivation in the workplace

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UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING MOTIVATION IN THE WORKPLACE. III. MOTIVATION. NEEDS THEORIES. NEEDS THEORIES. PROCESS THEORIES. PROCESS THEORIES. PROCESS THEORIES. PROCESS THEORIES. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING MOTIVATION

    IN THE WORKPLACE

  • ORIGIN AND GOALS

    To provide participants with an understanding of key motivational concepts and principles.

    To explain how Expectancy Theory of Motivation can be used to identify both the causes of and potential solutions for motivational problems on the job.

  • DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

    Job performance (P) -- The quality and quantity of employee job behavior and productivity, whether the employee is producing goods or providing services.

    Ability (A) -- The technical, intellectual, physical, and personal competencies required to perform the activities involved in producing quality goods and providing quality service.

  • Motivation (M) -- The desire or willingness to exert continuously one's personal best effort in the performance of one's job duties.

    System variables/characteristics (SYSv) -- Those bureaucratic structures, policies and procedures, and those material and equipment characteristics that influence performance, but are not controlled by the individual employee.

  • Situational variables (SITv) -- Those uncontrollable (and often unexpected) occurrences that influence performance, but are not controlled by the individual employee or the organization.

  • UNDERSTANDING JOB PERFORMANCE:

    A Model

    Performance (individual or organizational) =

    (Ability x Motivation) x System variables/ x Situational

    characteristics variables

  • EXPLORING THE MEANING AND PROBLEMS OF MOTIVATION AT WORK

    A.What is motivation?

    B.What are some typical reasons for a lack of motivation?

    C.Think about one or more people who, in your opinion, are not as motivated as you would like them to be.

    D.Why do you think this person is not as motivated as he/she could be?

  • III. MOTIVATION

    DEFINITION

    The willful desire to direct one's behavior and skills toward the accomplishment of certain goals.

  • NEEDS THEORIES

    1.Abraham Maslow's Need Hierarchy

    a.

    Physiological needs

    b.

    Safety and security needs

    c.

    Belongingness/love needs

    d.

    Esteem/ego/status needs

    e.

    "SelfActualization"

  • NEEDS THEORIES

    2.

    Clayton Alderfer's ERG Theory

    a.

    Existence

    b.Relatedness

    c.

    Growth

    3.

    David McClelland's Psychological Needs

    a.

    Need for Affiliation

    b.

    Need for Power

    c.Need for Achievement

  • HERZBERGS TWO-FACTOR THEORY:

    THE MOTIVATION-HYGIENE THEORY

    Satisfiers/

    Motivators

    Dissatisfiers/

    Hygiene Factors

    Achievement

    Recognition

    Responsibility

    Advancement

    Work itself

    Company policy and administration

    Supervisor

    Salary

    Interpersonal relations

    Working conditions

    INTRINSIC

    FACTORS

    EXTRINSIC FACTORS

  • PROCESS THEORIES

    1.GOAL- SETTING THEORY

    Employee participation

    Employee ownership and

    Commitment

    I support that which I help create

    Goal specificity

    Enhances motivation

    CLASSIC APPLICATION: MBO

  • PROCESS THEORIES

    2.REINFORCEMENT THEORY

    Any behavior that is followed by:

    a positive state of affairs,

    a removal of a negative state of affairs, or

    avoidance of a negative state of affairs

    will tend to be repeated

  • 3.EQUITY THEORY

    People/employee want to be treated fairly

    Outcomes

    Inputs

    Salary/Pay

    Benefits

    Status

    Security (?)

    Education

    Skills

    Experience

    Effort

    Time

    Loyalty

    Outcomes ? Outcomes

    Inputs person = Inputs another person

    Am I being treated fairly? If not, Ill be motivated to do something about it.

  • PROCESS THEORIES

    4.EXPECTANCY THEORY

    a.Most popular theory because it integrates most concepts from the other motivation theories.

    b.Based on two central ideas:

    1)

    Expectancy: a person's assessment of the subjective probability of attaining a particular outcome.

    2)

    Valence: the anticipated value of or satisfaction with an expected outcome if such outcome did, in fact, occur.

  • PROCESS THEORIES

    c. According to expectancy theory, an employee chooses the behaviors in which he or she engages on the basis of the valences of outcomes from such behaviors and the subjective estimate of the probability that his or her behavior will indeed result in the outcomes.

  • PUTTING THE THEORIES TO USE:

    EXPECTANCY THEORY IN ACTION

    Expectancy 1 (0-1.0)

    Expectancy 2 (0-1.0)

    (Also known as instrumentality)

    Participative Goal-Setting

    Outcome 1 (Pay raise)

    Outcome 2 (Promotion)

    Outcome 3 (Recognition)

    IV1

    IV2

    Outcome N (etc)

    EV

    Task Goal

    Task

  • ENHANCING MOTIVATION

    A. Questions to ask regarding intrinsic valence

    B. Questions regarding expectancy

    C. Questions regarding employee participation and involvement

    D. Questions regarding instrumentality

    E. Questions regarding extrinsic valence

  • ENHANCING MOTIVATION

  • Key Valence Constructs

    Intrinsic Valence (IV1)

    Intrinsic Valence (IV2)

    Extrinsic Valence (EV)

    Theory applicable to each valence construct

    Herzbergs Job Itself

    Herzbergs Motivators,

    Maslows Self Esteem

    Reinforcement Theory

    Other related issues/constructs

    Expectancy 1

    Employee involvement;

    Participative decision-making

    Expectancy 2 (Instrumentality);

    Compare outcomes with others: Equity Theory

    Management and organization options

    Job design

    Job redesign

    Job rotation

    Job enlargement

    Assure goals are challenging, attainable and specific

    Pay for performance

    Pay for knowledge

    Recognition

    Wage/salary survey

    Internal Equity

    (job evaluation and fairness in treating employees)

  • Questions to ask regarding intrinsic valence

    1.Are the employees skills/competencies/ aptitudes sufficient for the job demands?

    2.Is the employee interested in the work?

    3.Can the employee plan or decide how the job will be done himself/herself?

    4. How much autonomy is usually present on the job? Can more autonomy be permitted?

  • 5. Does the job involve a "whole" piece of work with an identifiable beginning and end? Can the job be redesigned?

    6. How much task variety is there on the job? Can it be increased?

    7. How significant or important is the job to society or to others' lives?

    8. To what extent does the employee get feedback from others regarding how well he/she is doing? Is more feedback possible?

  • 9. Does the job offer challenge, the opportunity to be creative, imaginative, and to take initiative? Is more challenge possible through job redesign?

    10. Does the job provide for new skill development and career progression? Can changes be made to provide these?

    11. Does the job involve working with others and developing a team relationship?

  • 12. Does the employee gain recognition from this job? Can recognition be provided?

    13. Are there alternative methods to performing the job? Can the job content/ structure be modified?

    14. Does the job provide challenging, but attainable goals?

    15. Do employees experience feelings of pride and accomplishment in their work?

  • Questions regarding expectancy

    1.Does the employee perceive himself/herself to have the necessary competencies to do the work?

    2.Does the employee have confidence in his/her ability to perform well (Self-confidence, self-esteem)?

    3.Does the employee receive (and perceive) adequate support from the organization in terms of materials, equipment, training, management support, etc.?

  • Questions regarding employee participation and involvement

    1. Are employees involved in setting their own goals?

    2. Do employees have the authority to make decisions?

    3. Do employees have input into decision making? Is it real influence?

  • Questions regarding instrumentality

    1.Do employees trust the organization and their managers to keep promises, both implicit and explicit?

    2.What the history of management practices?

  • Questions regarding extrinsic valence

    1.Are employee achievements recognized, celebrated, and rewarded?

    2.Are employee rewards based on merit?

    3.Do employees value the rewards provided by the organization?

    4.Are rewards, promotions, etc. perceived to be fair?