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    CHANGING TRENDS IN KANPUR

    SUBMITTED BY: SECTION:J

    Harshita GuptaHansa yadav

    Neelam joshi

    Sahiba Juneja

    Priti Priya

    Joyeeta Roy

    INTRODUCTION:Kanpur is the popular and biggest important industrial

    centre in Uttar Pradesh with its own historical, religious and commercial

    importance. Kanpur is located on the banks of the riverGanga. Kanpur, the

    name of the city derived from Kanhiyapur (the city ofLord Krishna). It

    has the population of 6 million people. It is famous forleather and textile

    goods of superior quality. It is now one of the main industrialized cities.

    Kanpur city is famous for leather, wool, cotton, vegetable oil mills, chemical

    works and sugar refineries. Formerly known as Manchester of the country, it

    is now also called the commercial capital of the state.

    Geography of Kanpur:

    The city's coordinates are 26.4670 North and 80.3500 East, placing it

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    83 km from Lucknow, the capital city of Uttar Pradesh. Kanpur,

    along with Allahabad and Fatehpur, are part of the Lower Doab,

    which in antiquity was known as the Vats country. It is surrounded

    by two main rivers of India, the Ganges in the north-east and the

    Pandu river (Yamuna) in the south. The districts surrounding

    Kanpur are Hamirpur in the south and Unnao in the north-east.

    Socio-Cultural History of Kanpur:

    About 25 km from Kanpur is Bithoor. Legend has it that the wife ofLord

    Rama came to live at the ashram of the sage Valmiki, afterRama expelled

    her from Ayodhya. It was here that Sita gave birth to the twins Lav and Kush,

    and disappeared back into the earth when confronted by a repentant Rama.

    Bithoor is also the site of the fort to which Nana Sahib escaped following the

    British retaking of Kanpur. Today, Bithoor is a tourist spot on the banks of

    the Ganges and Kanpur is expanding very fast with new residential

    complexes sprouting up everywhere.

    After 1857 it became an important center of the Leather and Textile

    industries. The Government Harness and Saddler Factory was started in

    1860 to supply the army with leather products, followed by Cooper Allen &

    Co. in 1880. The first cotton textile mill, the Elgin Mills,was started in 1862

    and Muir Mills in 1882, and many others that followed in the next 40 years,

    such as Victoria Mills and Atherton West & Co. (Atherton Mills), madeCawnpore a major textile producer..

    DEMOGRAPHY OF KANPUR:

    Kanpur is the most important metropolis and biggest city of Uttar Pradesh.

    According to the 2001 census, the city had a population of 25,51,337 which

    made it the fifth most highly-populated city in India. Among the big towns of

    Uttar Pradesh, the growth of Kanpur has been phenomenal. It ranked third

    after Lucknow and Varanasi in 1901, but by 1961 it assumed a position ontop of the list. It has registered an increase of over five times from 1,97,170

    in 1901 to 8,83,815 in 1961 in the course of six decades. This is mainly due

    to its most central location in the state. Kanpur has benefited from its fertile

    agricultural hinterland of the Upper Ganga Valley and Bundelkhand plateau,

    the available developed links of transportation and the stimulant of World

    War-2 with its industrial demand. In spite of a low percentage of irrigated

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    area, the density is quite high which is mainly due to industrial concentration.

    POPULATION GROWTH TRENDS:

    As per census of 2001, Kanpur total population is 2,551,337 as compared to

    the 1,874,409 people registered in 1991. It may be observed that the average

    annual growth in population has increased to 3.5 percent during the period1991-2001 from the average annual growth rate of 2.6 percent in the previous

    decade (1981-91) . One of the factors for this kind of growth can be higher

    number of in-migration to Kanpur City from other areas. This growth rate is

    expected to continue in future. Out of total population, male population is

    1,374,121 which is 53.8 percent and female population is 1177216 i.e. 46.2

    percent. The household size is 6.71 persons per household which is very high

    (Census of India 2001).

    MUNICIPAL AREA:

    According to 2001 census, municipal area is about 261.50 square kilometer.

    In 1961, municipal area was 114.55 sq. miles which has increased to 265.81

    square kilometer. It has increased to 29,683 in hectares in 1997-98.

    METROPOLITAN REGION AREA:

    The metropolitan region defined under JNNURM by Kanpur Nagar Nigam,

    includes the Kanpur Nagar Nigam area, 8 kilometer around KNN boundary

    and newly included 47 villages of Unnao district on the north-eastern side, it

    spreads till murtaza nagar, in the west its limit is upto Akbarpur nagar

    panchayat limit, in the easte rn side the limit has been expanded on the road

    leading to Fatehpur and in extended upto. The metropolitan region area

    includes the area of shukla ganj nagar palika, unnao nagar palika, akbarpur

    nagar panchayat, bithur nagar panchayat area.

    POPULATION DENSITY:

    Kanpur has a population density of 9756 per square kilometer. It is less as

    compared to the density of other major towns such as Ahmedabad (18424 sq.

    km.), Bangalore (19027 sq. km.), Chennai (24,231 sq. km.) and Hyderabad

    (21,207 sq. km.) as per the 2001 census. The population density also varies

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    from area to area. For example, old city area, which is identified as core area

    by KNN and is comprised of 67 wards, is very densely populated. The

    population density in core area is 30401 persons per s q. km. whereas it is

    5617 persons per sq. km. in outer city area.

    SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION:

    For the spatial distribution of population, the city division into inner city area

    and outer area has been taken into consideration. The average ward

    population in Kanpur is 23,193 varying from 19717 in Khalasi Line to 26588

    in Nawabganj. As per 2001 census, the total population of inner

    old city area is 15, 31, 331 (Table 3.2). The population in inner old city area

    ranges from 19, 717 in Khalasi Line to 26,532 in Nirala Nagar. In the rest of

    the city, which is comprised of 43 wards, the population ranges from 19757in

    Safipur to 26,629 in Daheli Sujanpur. The city is growing more towards

    North east direction.

    Location of Inner and Outer City Area:

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    AGE-WISE DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION:

    An analysis of the age-wise population reveals that percentage of people up

    to 19 years of age was high at 46 percentage and marriageable age group

    from 20 to 34 years was 26 percentage of the total population in urban area of

    Kanpur District (Census of India 2001). The 35 to 59 years group represented

    23 percent and 5 percent were people with age more than 60 years.

    OTHER DEMOGRAPHIC INDICATORS:

    Kanpur city has literacy rate of 69 percent as per 2001 census. It has increase

    more than 7 percent from 61.8 percent in 1991 to 69 percent in 2001. The

    literacy rate has also increased among male and female population, male

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    literacy rate is higher at 72.5 percent as compared to female literacy rate

    which is 64.7 percent.

    Types of Industries:

    Heavy / Medium Scale Industries:

    There are many heavy and medium scale industries which are engaged in the

    production of defence items, industrial machines, LMS (Two Wheelers),

    leather, cloth industries. It has been observed that out of total 83

    heavy/medium industries, 38 are currently working whereas 45 industries

    have

    been closed. As far as their ownership is concerned, 3 are of central

    government, 6 are of defence, one is of state government and twenty eight are

    private industries. Up to March 2005, total heavy scale industrial units are 83and investment made is 873.88 crores. These industries provide the

    employment to total 65563 people. Table No. 3.2 presents the number of

    heavy and small scale registered units, its investment and people employed.

    Small Scale Industries:

    A large number of small-scale industries have been established recently. Out

    of total small scale industries, number of registered units are 12,241 as

    against

    7033 in March 1998. It has been observed that almost same amount ofunregistered units exist. Out of total registered units, existing operative units

    are 10,967 whereas 5186 i.e. 47 percent are either sick or closed. The

    investment made in small-scale industries is 354.82 crores. Upto March

    2005,

    total people employed in small scale industries were 54807 whereas it was

    33676 up to March 1998 which shows that there is an increase of 61 percent

    in

    last seven years. The turn over of small scale units for 2005-06 is 20 crores.

    KEY ISSUES:

    The population during last two decades has increased a the rate of 3.5

    percent against the national average of 2.1 percent.

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    Though there was a decrease in the population growth rate from 1961 to

    1991 but from 191 to 2001, it has increased steeply from 26.5 percent to 35

    percent.

    The increase in population is likely to increase the demand of housing.

    The population density in core area is 6 times that of outer core area. Wehave to locate the congest pockets and try to decongest the areas.

    DEMOGRAPHY:

    Kanpur is situated on the banks of the river Ganga; the population was

    2,551,337 as per the 2001 census. In the last decade, the population rose

    rapidly. One of the factors for this kind of growth can be a higher number of

    in-migration to Kanpur City from other areas. It ranked third after Lucknow

    and Varanasi in 1901, but by 1961 it assumed a position on top of the list. Ithas registered an increase of over five times in the course of six decades,

    from 197,170 in 1901 to 883,815 in 1961. Kanpur has an area of about

    1640 km and is 126 meters above sea level. Languages spoken inand around

    Kanpur include Hindi, English, Urdu, Bengali and Punjabi. Hinduism is the

    most prominent religion in the city. There is a considerable number of

    Muslims mostly residing near Kanpur Central station and areas namely

    Parade, Bekanganj and Idgah colony. The Sikh community consists of

    immigrants who were displaced due to the Partition of India in 1947. Theyhave since well established business in the city and reside in areas such as

    Govind Nagar, Gumti No.5, Ashok Nagar and 80 ft road. There are a small

    number of Christians also in Kanpur.Christ Church College, Kanpur and

    Methodist high school, kanpur reflect British architecture.

    Economical Changes:

    Kanpur has a total GDP (PPP) of 17 billion USA and it ranks as 10th among

    top 10 Industrial cities in India after Surat which has a GDP of around 22billion USD. Kanpuris one of the biggest producers of textile and leather

    products and they are exported in bulk. Apart from the leather and textile

    industries, the fertilizer, chemicals, two wheelers, soaps, pan masala, hosiery

    and engineering industries are also operating in the city. The private sector

    has also set up large units such as factories of the JK Industries group, Lohia

    machines,Duncans, etc.

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    The only unit of the Indian Institute of Pulse Research (an institute of ICAR)

    & one of the three units of the National research Insitute is situated in Kanpur

    which reflects the strong agrarian nature of industries here.

    Kanpur was also infamous to a certain extent for being home to largest

    tanneries in India and the subsequent pollution they caused thereof. These

    tanneries were the initial source of industrial base in Kanpur during thecolonial period. However owing to poor pollution record, lack of

    technologies and emergence of other avenues of employment has lead to a

    slow and gradual death to these units.

    Kanpur has also begun to find favour among the outsourcing sectoras a

    favored location with several new start-ups setting up shop here owing to

    cheaper costs and a readily available talent pool.

    Kanpur has several locational advantages, ie. , location at a vantage point on

    two national highways, i.e., NH2 and NH25; raw material availability formany industries, viz. leather, food processing, plastics etc., proximity to large

    markets, availability of skilled manpower due to various institutes located

    within Kanpur (viz. Indian Institute of Technology, Chandra Shekhar Azad

    Agricultural University, Central Pulse Research Institute, Leather Institute

    etc.) and existing traditional industrial base attracting skilled workers to the

    city.

    One of theSOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY PARKS OF INDIA is also situated

    in Kanpur in Awadhpuri locality.In Kanpur (MC),the banking services were availed by only 61 percent of the

    households (Census 2001). About 8 percent of the households did not possess

    basic assets such as vehicles (bicycles, scooter, moped, car, jeep, etc.),

    televisions and radios.

    In a recent report on city development plan for JNNURM it was mentioned

    that Kanpur City is surviving because of the following:

    - Defense establishments like OEF, SAF and Ordinance Factory etc.

    - Tanneries, which have swelled from 170 nos in 1995 to 300 in 2006

    - Coaching industry for Engineering and Medical Entrance Examinations ,

    NDA , IAS/IPS etc.

    - Trading activities

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    Flora and fauna

    Samtel Research and Development Building, at IIT Kanpur.

    Kanpur is home to many residential and migratory birds. Most of them can be

    spotted at Bithoor, IIT Kanpur campus and areas alongside the Ganga Canal.

    The city has Asia's biggest (area wise) zoological garden. Exotic species of

    flora are present at the CSA campus.

    The Kanpur Zoo is famous for its cages designed to provide a natural habitat

    for the animals, and has a vast variety of animals. The water supply system of

    the zoo is a work of art, by an artist and engineer in the Sinchai Department

    of that time, Murari Sharan Saxena. The Zoo is a part of a lush green area -The Allen Forest Zoo, Nawabganj. The entry fee is minimal, making it the

    major picnic spot of the Kanpur region. Indira Nagar is the greenest and most

    pollution free residential area of the city.

    SOME IMPORTANT PARTS OFKANPUR:

    .

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    STEEL FACTORY

    IRON FACTORY

    IIT-KANPUR

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    12 NEW TRAINS IN FROM KANPUR

    MOST DEVELOPED INDUSTRIAL SEGMENTS OF KANPUR-

    1. LEATHER INDUSTRY - Availability of raw materials, skilled workers

    and better marketing has led to the production of good quality of

    slippers,shoes and sandals, which have a high demand in International

    Market. The leather production in Kanpur is carried out on a very large

    scale and this city is one of the prime exporters of leather in the world. The

    tanning industry is also promoted and gives employment to a large number

    of people.

    2. Pan masala Industry- Another industry that has developed to a great

    extent is the pan masala industry. The growth in this industry is

    phenomenal and is still growing at a rapid rate.

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    REFERENCES:

    http://kanpurnagar.nic.in/

    http://www.rcueslko.org/ (ForUP)

    http://www.spiritus-temporis.com/kanpur/geography.html

    http://www.iitk.ac.in/

    http://www.rcueslko.org/(Forhttp://www.rcueslko.org/(For