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What is ubiquitous learning?It is an expansion of previous learning paradigmsU-learning is anywhere and anytime learning.U-learning includes any environment that allows any mobile device to access learning and teaching contents via wireless networks in any location at anytime.RFiDs (radio-frequency identification), contactless smart cards, sensor networks and mobile devices are part of ubiquitous computing technologies.Proposed definition of u-learning: U-learning is a learning paradigm which takes place in an ubiquitous environment that enables learning the right thing at the right time in the right way.

Ubiquitous learningRadio-frequency identificationContactless smart cardLearning environments4Sensors and ubiquitous learningA device that receives physical stimulus, converts it into a signal which can be used by other instruments.There are various sensors available, namely:Location sensors: GPS receives this information to calculate specific location.User oriented sensors: Built-in digital compass works like a magnetic needle.Touch sensors: Used to recognize a person's touch.Light/dark sensors: Allowing for adjustment of screens background.Device orientation and motion sensors: Motion sensors detect acceleration forces.Proximity sensors: Detect objects without physical contact. Emits electromagnetic field and look for changes in the field.

More sensorsWhat is learning?Learning takes place when a person is in the process of acquiring knowledge.Knowledge is acquired through interaction between the individual and the environment.

Modify prior knowledgeWhat is learning?Interaction with the environment, experience and practice.Acquiring knowledgeNewExistingProcessed, absorbed and retained.Build on prior knowledgecan bethroughwhich isthe act ofcan beandand3Computing and communication technologies are key components of ubiquitous learning.The communication technologies include:Radio-frequency identificationMobile phonesWireless communication equipmentPersonal digital assistants (PDAs)Wearable computers: Wearable computers, also known as body-borne computers or wearables are miniature electronic devices that are worn by the bearer under, with or on top of clothing.[Computing and communication technologies

5Characteristics of ubiquitous learningAdaptability: Learners get right information in the right places, time and way.Permanency: Learners never lose work. All the learning processes are recorded continuously.Accessibility: Learners Have access to documents, data, video from anywhere.Immediacy: Learners can get information wherever learners are.Interactivity: Learners can interact with experts, teachers, peers in the form of synchronous and asynchronous communication.Situating of instructional activities: Knowledge required are presented in their natural and authentic forms.

Somethingpermanent

Context and ubiquitous learningContext is the location, identity and state of people, groups and computational and physical objects.Three types of information needed to describe any specific context are: places, people and things.Four aspects are needed to describe places, people and things:Identity: It characterizes the entity with an explicit identifier which has to be unique in the name domain of the application.Location: Includes position, data and orientation as well as information about relations to other entities.Status: Contains properties which can be perceived by a user.Time: Is both date and time.

Classification of learning environmentsBackLow level of mobilityLow level of embeddednessHigh level of embeddednessHigh levelof mobilityU-learningPervasive learningM-learningDesktop-computerassisted learning

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