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- 1. Turkish MusicSubmitted by:Riel Amadeus A. Diala Submitted to: Mrs. Florgin Santos
2. What is Turkish Music? The music of Turkey includes diverseelements ranging from Central Asian folk music toinfluences from Byzantine music, Greek music,Ottoman music, Persian music, Balkan music, aswell as references to more modern European andAmerican popular music. Turkey is a country on theeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, and is acrossroad of cultures from across Europe, NorthAfrica, the Middle East, the Caucasus and South andCentral Asia. The roots of traditional music in Turkeyspans across centuries to a time when the SeljukTurks colonized Anatolia and Persia in the 11thcentury and contains elements of both Turkic andpre-Turkic influences. Much of its modern popularmusic can trace its roots to the emergence in theearly 1930s drive for Westernization.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_of_Turkey 3. Whirling Dervishes (Mevleviler) 4. According to the Dervishes, the fundamental condition ofour existence is to revolve. There is no object, no being which doesnot revolve. This Mevlevi worship ceremony is a ritual dance, or sema,representing union with God. The dervishes enter the whirling halldressed in in long white robes with full skirts which represent theirshrouds. The ceremony begins whit a chant from the hafiz, acelebrant who has committed the entire Koran to memory. Byholding their right arms up, palms upward, they receive theblessings of heaven which are communicated to earth by holdingtheir left arms down, palms downwards. Pivoting on their leftheels, the dervishes whirl ever faster, reaching ecstasy with ablissful expression. At the end of the ceremony part of the publicjoins the dervishes into a small prayer.http://www.destoop.com/trip/3%20DAYBYDAY/020105%20Beirut/5-Dervishes.HTM 5. Makam 6. Makam (pl. makamlar; from the Arabic word is a system of melody typesused in Turkish classical music. It provides a complex set of rules for composing andperformance. Each makam specifies a unique intervalic structure (cinsler) and melodicdevelopment (seyir).Commas and accidentalsThe basic notes named according to the solfege system and thus, for example, "Do" isC and "Re" is D.In Turkish music theory, one whole tone is divided into nine commas. The followingfigure gives the comma values of Turkish accidentals. In the context of the Arabmaqam, this system is not of equal temperament. In fact, in the Western system oftemperament, C-sharp and D-flatwhich are functionally the same toneareequivalent to 4.5 commas in the Turkish system; thus, they fall directly in the center ofthe line depicted above.NotesUnlike in Western music, where the note C, for example, is called C regardless of whatoctave it might be in, in the Turkish system the notes arefor the most partindividually named (although many are variations on a basic name); this can be seen inthe following table, which covers the notes from middle C ("Kaba rgh") to the samenote two octaves above ("Tz rgh"):http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makam 7. Horon (Hora) 8. The Horon dance originated many centuries ago inthe region of the Black Sea. Today this region comesunder the domain of Turkey. The dance style isreminiscent of the Pontus and is considered to beone of the national dances of Turkey.Greek and Persian influence can clearly be seen inthis unique Turkish dance form. The terms used todescribe the style such as Horoi and Horoliterally translate as dance in English. The termcomes from the ancient Greek language. The dancesteps have a constant circular movement with thedancers taking distinctive short steps to characterizethe movement. 9. The Horon dance is accentuated by the Tremoulo movement. This is afast shaking of the upper part of the body. It is achieved by twistingthe back on its natural axis and this is what lends color to the danceform. Dancers align in a single file and then form a circle when lookingto perform the horon dance.There are many variations of the Horon dance but most of them bearstriking resemblance to Greek dances of the past. The only obviousdifference in the Turkish style Horon dance is the fact that thedancing troupe does not have a lead dancer. Rather, the dancersmake a single formation and synchronize all movements with eachother.The Turkish addition to this ancient Greek dance was the rapidmoving dance step of the upper torso. This innovation is quite recentcompared to the rest of the dance style. It is believed that this dancestep takes inspiration from the silver anchovy fishs shimmying whichis found in great abundance in the neighboring Black Sea.http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/articles/turkey/Horon-Turkish-Dance/3292 10. Spoon Dance Zeybek 11. Kasik Oyunu, also called The Turkish Spoon Dance is performed inTurkey from Konya to Silifke by lively-dressed men and womencreating dance rhythm with a pair of wooden spoons in each hand.The Turkish folk danced named the Horon is a popular folk dance inthe Black Sea region. This dance is characterized by tense, quickmovements. It is usually danced by a line of women or men thatstand in a semi-circle. This dance comes from the word "Horom".Imagine a line of cornstalks tied together and looking as if it formsa lattice. This is what the dance is like. It is also interesting becausethe dancers will suddenly squat during this dance making it veryexciting to watch. 12. The zeybek is a form of folk dance peculiar to Western, Central andsouthern Anatolia in Turkey. It is named after the Zeybeks.All zeybek dances have a common characteristic form, but thepositioning of the arms and body differ according to the differentregions. The rhythm is also very characteristic, a pattern of nineslow beats: 9/4 = 2+2+2+3 beats or 3+2+2+2 with occasionalvariations.Zeybek melodies can be divided according to their tempo: ar(slow) and kvrak (fast). The ar zeybek have rhythmic patterns of9/2 or 9/4, which begin with an introduction called gezinleme infree style where the dancers wander freely before starting to dancein time with the rhythm. There is, however, no gezinlemeintroduction in female zeybek dances. Kvrak zeybek have rhythmicpatterns of 9/8 or 9/16.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeybek_dance 13. Instruments 14. Qanon-It is basically a zither with a narrow trapezoidal soundboard.Nylon or PVC strings are stretched over a single bridge poised on fish-skins on one end, attached to tuning pegs at the other end.Kanuns used in Turkey have 26 courses of strings, with three strings percourse. It is played on the lap by plucking the strings with two tortoise-shell picks, one in each hand, or by the fingernails, and has a range ofthree and a half octaves, from A2 to E6. The dimensions of Turkishkanuns are typically 95 to 100 cm (37-39") long, 38 to 40 cm (15-16")wide and 4 to 6 cm (1.5-2.3") high. The instrument also has speciallatches for each course, called mandals. These small levers, which can beraised or lowered quickly by the performer while the instrument is beingplayed, serve to change the pitch of a particular course slightly byaltering the string lengths.http://www.iranguidebook.com/tourism-travel-to-iran/iranian-culture/iranian-musical-instruments/3774-kanun-instrumentDoombek-Arabian in origin, the doombek is commonly found in Turkey,the Balkan countries, and North Africa. The Doombek is a drum with agoblet or chalice-like shape. Also known as the Dombak, Doumbek,Darabuka, and Darbukka it is commonly associated with Middle Easternmusic, often as the lead voice of percussion. The name is anapproximation of the two basic sounds the drum makes: "Dum" (thebass tone) and "Bek" (the high-pitched crack from the edge of thedrum). There is actually a great deal of variety available in the sound.http://yellowbellmusic.com/instruments/percussion/dumbek.php 15. Zills-also zils or finger cymbals, (from Turkish zil, "cymbals") are tiny metalliccymbals used in belly dancing and similar performances. They are called sjt( in Arabic. They are similar to Tibetan tingsha bells.Saz-The Saz is a chordophone and is a member of the long necked Lute family.Such long necked Lutes have an ancestry that can be traced as far back as theancient cultures of Babylon and Sumeria. Today the Saz is the most importantinstrument of the Turkish folk. The Saz may even define the poetic heart of theTurkish people. Its general shape is similar to the Bouzouki and Oud. Thetraditional method of playing the Saz is to pluck with the fingers of the right handand note the strings with the fingers, and occasionally the thumb, of the lefthand. Today however, most players use a plastic plectrum to strum the strings.Professional players also use electronic pickups to amplify the sound. Whenplaying with the fingers or a plectrum, players can add rhythm, by hitting thesoundboard with the right hand.http://www.worldmusicalinstruments.com/c-105-saz.aspxTar- long-necked lute descended from the tanbur of Ssnian Iran and known in avariety of forms throughout the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Central Asia. Thebody of the tar is hollowed out of a single piece of wood and is rounded out intwo bulges so that the membrane-covered belly is like a figure 8 or hourglass. Theinstrument, which is played with a small metal pick, has movable frets and lateralpegs for the metal strings that are rib-fastened. 16. THANK YOU FOR WATCHING !!!