tuna / dolphin

Download TUNA / DOLPHIN

Post on 14-Jan-2016

27 views

Category:

Documents

3 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

TUNA / DOLPHIN. UNPUBLISHED GATT PANEL REPORT. JABOLKO SPORA. ZDA želijo uvesti spremembe v tehniki in načinih lova tune in s tem zmanjšati število smrti delfinov, ki so z njim povezane, Cilj ZDA je zmanjšanje smrtnosti iz 133.000 (1986) delfinov na 5.000 do leta 1999. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

TRANSCRIPT

  • TUNA / DOLPHIN UNPUBLISHED GATT PANEL REPORT

  • JABOLKO SPORAZDA elijo uvesti spremembe v tehniki in nainih lova tune in s tem zmanjati tevilo smrti delfinov, ki so z njim povezane,Cilj ZDA je zmanjanje smrtnosti iz 133.000 (1986) delfinov na 5.000 do leta 1999.

  • UKREPI SPREJETI S STRANI ZDAZDA uvedejo svoja pravila, omejitve in metode lova,Prepovedo lov s pomojo purse-seine mre, s katerimi obkroijo jate delfinov, da tako ujamejo tune, ki plavajo pod njimi,Teh mre se ne sme uporabljati ponoi, Prepoved uporabe eksplozivnih sredstev inNadzornik doloen s strani IATTC (Inter-American tropical tuna commission) na vsaki ladji.

  • PROBLEMZDA zahtevajo od drav izvoznic, da spotujejo njihova pravila, s imer si prizadevajo globalno zmanjati smrtnost med delfini in uvesti bolj humane metode lova,ZDA za drave izvoznice, ki ne upotevajo njihovih zahtev sprejmejo PRIMARY NATION EMBARGO IN INTERMEDIARY NATION EMBARGO.

  • 1. PRIMARY NATION EMBARGOThe act prohibits the import into the United States of tuna or tuna products harvested by a method that results in the incidental killing or serious injury of marine mammals in excess of United States standards. n73 In order to meet this requirement, the tuna exporting country must prove that it has fishing technology and a rate of incidental taking comparable to those of the United States. Do embarga lahko pride ne glede na to ali ribii v dravi (lahko) uporabljajo ali ne uporabljajo metode in naine lova, ki so prepovedani v ZDA, ampak e zaradi tega ker smrtnost presega njihove standarde,Vsaka drava mora dokazati, da ima ribiko tehnologijo, ki ji omogoa dosegati standarde primerljive z ZDA.

  • IZJEMA OD EMBARGAEmbargo ne velja za tiste drave, ki z ZDA podpiejo formalni sporazum, ki jih zavezuje k slednjim obveznostim:Prepoved lova z purse-seine mreami, Da ima vsaka ladja na krovu opazovalca za uporabo teh mre,Zmanjanje tevila smrti delfinov,Da s podpisom dovoljujejo ZDA, da presodi ali podpisnice v celoti spotujejo sporazum in v primeru kritve uvedejo sankcije (tudi prepoved izvoza drugih vrst rib),

  • 2. INTERMEDIARY NATION EMBARGOThe Act provides that any nation ("intermediary nation") that exports yellowfin tuna or yellowfin tuna products to the United States, and that imports yellowfin tuna or yellowfin tuna products that are subject to a direct prohibition on import into the United States, must certify and provide reasonable proof that it has not imported products subject to the direct prohibition within the preceding six months,Intermediary nation = drava ki izvaa tuno v ZDA in hkrati tudi sama uvaa tuno iz drugih drav,Z njim ZDA prepovedo uvoz tune in njenih izdelkov iz INTERMEDIARY NATION, ki tudi same uvaajo tuno in njene izdelke iz drav izvoznic, ki imajo direktno prepoved uvoza v ZDA,Vsaka drava, ki spada med Intermediary Nation mora ZDA dokazati, da je tudi sama prepovedala uvoz tune in njenih izdelkov iz drav, ki ne smejo uvaati v ZDA, drugae se tudi same znajdejo na seznamu prepovedanih uvoznikov.

  • ODLOANJE PANELAPanel se je v tem primeru spraeval, ali lahko ZDA v elji po zaiti okolja z embargom prisilijo druge drave, k spremembi nacionalnih zakonodaj/pravil na tem podroju,Panel je presojal ali so pogodbene stranke na podlagi XX. lena GATT-a upraviene do uvedbe trgovalnih ukrepov, e je to nujno za zaito zdravja in ivljenja rastlin, ivali ter ljudi in ali spada med te ukrepe tudi EMBARGO.

  • SKLADNOST S III. LENOM GATTany law, regulation or requirement which applies to an imported product and to the like domestic product and is enforced in the case of the impordted product at the time [*165] or point of importation, is nevertheless to be regarded as a law, regulation or requirement subject tot the provisions of Article III.,The products of the territory of any contracting party imported into the teritorry of any other contracting party shall be accorded treatment no less favourable than that accorded to like products of national origin in respect of all laws, regulations and requirements affecting their international sale, offering for sale, transportation,,Torej uvoene in domae izdelke je potrebno obravnavati enako.

  • Panel je odloil, da se III. len nanaa na primerjavo med tem, kako so obravnavani domai in podobni uvoeni izdelki in ne na primerjavo med politiko in prakso drave uvoznice in izvoznice,Panel je odloil, da ZDA ne bi smela omejiti uvoza zaradi drugane politike drave uvoznice (ni enaka kot politika ZDA), ker ta politika nikakor ne vpliva na kvaliteto/lastnosti samih uvoenih izdelkov.S tem ko je ZDA uvedla embargo je primerljive uvoene izdelke obravnavala manj ugodno od domaih, na podlagi politinih preprianj, odloitev ZDA zato ni skladna z III. lenom GATT

  • SKLADNOST Z XI. LENOM GATTNo prohibitions or restrictions other than duties, taxes or charges whether made effective through quotas, import or export licences or other measures, shall be instituted or maintained by any contracting party on the importation of any product of territory of any other contracting party., Panel je odloil, da ravnanje ZDA ne more biti upravieno pod XI. lenom GATT-a, ker v tem primeru ne gre za omejitve s sredstvi, ki so zgoraj navedena (obveznosti, davki, dajatve, kvote).

  • SKLADNOST S XX. LENOM GATTZDA so trdile, da je njihovo ravnanje, kljub temu, da ni v skladu z III. In XI. lenom, upravieno na podlagi XX. lena in sicer pod tokami g, b in d,XX. len (preambula): Subject to the requirement that such measures are not applied in a manner which would constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination between countries where the same conditions prevail, or a disguised restriction in international trade, nothing in this Agreement shall be construed to prevent the adoption or enforcement by any contracting party.,Ta len doloa pogoje, pod katerimi so lahko sprejete izjeme od obveznosti doloene z GATT. Panel odloil, da ga je potrebno interpretirati ozko, ker bi drugae izvodeneli temeljni cilji in principi GATT - a.

  • SKLADNOST S TOKO Gg) relating to the conservation of exhaustible natural resources if such measures are made effective in conjunction with restrictions on domestic product or consumption. Skladnost s tem pogojem se preverja v 3 korakih.

  • 1. KORAKFirst, it had to be determined whether the policy in respect of which these provisions were invoked fell within the range of policies to conserve exhaustible natural resources,Torej gre za to ali politika, na podlagi katere so bile sprejete omejitve spada v skupino politik, ki so namenjene ohranitvi iztroljivih naravnih virov,Panel je odloil, da gre za politiko, ki je namenjena ohranitvi iztroljivih naravnih virov.

  • 2. KORAKSecond, it had to be determined whether the measure for which the exception was being invoked that is the particular trade measure inconsistent with the obligations under theGeneral Agreement was related to the conservation of exhaustible natural resources, and whether it was made effective in conjunction with restrictions on domestic production or consumption.,Panel je doloil da se besedne zveze pod drugim korakom tolmaijo na nainRelated to = primarno namen,In conjunction = primarno namen,Na podlagi taknega tolmaenja je panel odloal ali je primarni namen Primary in Intermediary Nation Embargo dejansko ohranitve teh virov ali uinkovita omejitev domae proizvodnje in potronje, torej ali sredstva upraviijejo cilj,

  • Panel je glede na zgoraj navedeno ugotovil, da je bil dejanski cilj/namen obeh embargov, da bi prisilili druge drave k temu, da bi spremenile svojo politiko,Ker cilj ukrepov ni ohranitev virov, ni izpolnjen bistveni pogoj XX. (g) in panel sploh ne preverja ostalih predpostavk tega lena,Ravnanje ZDA ni v skladu z XX. (g) GATT.

  • SKLADNOST S TOKO Bb) Necessary to protect human, animal, or plant life or health.,ZDA so trdile, da so njihovi ukrepi v skladu z XX. (b) lenom, kljub neizpolnjevanju pogojev III. in XI. lena, Skladnost s tem pogojem se preverja v 3 korakih.

  • 1. KORAKFirst, it had to be determined whether the policy in respect of which these provisions were invoked fell within the range of policies referred to in these provisions, that is policies to protect human, animal or plant life or health,Panel je odloil, da gre za takno politiko.

  • 2. KORAKSecond, it had to be determined whether the measure for which the exception was being invoked that is the particular trade measure inconsistent with the obligations under the General Agreement was necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health.,Torej panel je presojal ali sta Primary in Intermediary Nation Embarga potrebna za zaito ivljenja ali zdravja ljudi, ivali in rastlin,Sredstva : cilji ???,

  • a contracting party cannot justify a measure inconsistent witha another GATT provision as necessary in terms of article XX (d) if an alternative measure which it could reasonably be expected to employ and which is not inconsistent with other GATT provisions is available to it. By the same token, in cases where a measure consistent with other GATT provisions in not reasonably available, a contracting party is bound to use , among other measures reasonably available to it, that which entails the least degree of inconsistency with other GATT provisions.Panel je takno razlago uporabil tudi za toko b,Izraz necessary je tolmail v smislu ali obstaja kaken alternativni ukrep, ki je bolji,

  • Ugotovil je, da je namen obeh embargov prisiliti ostale drave, da se pokorijo ZDA in spremenijo svojo politiko,Torej, ker temeljni namen ni bil varovanje ivljenja ali zdravja ljudi ampak sprememba politike, se taken ukrep ne more teti za necessary,Ukrep ZDA ni upravien pod XX. (d) GATT.

  • SKLADNOST S TOKO Dd) necessary to secure compliance with laws or regulations which ar

Recommended

View more >