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COURSE COVERAGE This course aims to provide students with a solid grounding in the fundamentals of human resource management and labor relations concepts and practices. Contents -History and dynamics of Labour Relations Meaning Historical background of Labour relations The world of Labour Market

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TUMAINI UNIVERSITY DAR ES SALAAM COLLEGE
Human Resources Relations [HRM 301] Presented By Maurus Mpunga COURSE COVERAGE This course aims to provide students with a solid grounding in the fundamentals of human resource management and labor relations concepts and practices. Contents -History and dynamics of Labour Relations Meaning Historical background of Labour relations The world of Labour Market COURSE COVERAGE Contents - Labour Relations Process and Practices
- Collective Bargaining and Organizational Rights - Negotiation skills - The concepts of workers Participation -Industrial Action - Dispute resolutions COURSE COVERAGE Contents
-Grievance, Discipline and Retrenchment procedures -Introduction -Grievances and disputes -Meaning ofDisciplining -Types of Discipline -Principles of Corrective Disciplining -Why Managers Discipline Employees -Disciplinary Policies and Procedure - Legal frame work of discipline in Tanzania Historical background of Labour relations
What is Labour Relations? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Historical background of Labour relations
Introduction The relationship between the employers and employees and trade unions is called Industrial Relations. Harmonious relationship is necessary for both the employers and employees to safeguard the interests of both the parties of production. Historical background of Labour relations
What is Labour Relations? Encyclopedia Article for labour relations defined Labour Relations as collective relations between the management of an organization and its employees or employees' representatives Historical background of Labour relations
What is Labour Relations? Saleemi(1997) express Industrial Relations to be that task which brings harmonious relationship between employees and employer, What is Labour Relations?
'Industrial relationship is the composite result of the attitudes and approaches the employers and employees towards each other with regard to planning, supervision, direction and co-ordination of the activities of an organization with a minimum of human efforts andfriction, with an animating sprite of co-operation and with proper regard for the genuine well-being of all the members of the organization[Tead and Matcal] What is Labour Relations?
Therefore It is clear from the analysis of the above definitions that employment relations are generally called industrial relations or Labour relations. It is a relationship between employer and employees employerand employee and trade unions and employees. Historical background of Labour relations
Labour relations has its roots in the industrial revolution which created the modern employment relationship by producing free labor markets and large-scale industrial organizations with thousands of wage workers. As society wrestled/struggle with these massive economic and social changes, labor problems arose. Low wages, long working hours, monotonous and dangerous work, and abusive supervisory practices led to high employee turnover, violent strikes, and the threat of social instability. Historical background of Labour relations
Intellectually, Labour relations was formed at the end of the 19th century as a middle ground between classical economics and Marxism, with Sidney Webb and Beatrice Webbs Industrial Democracy (1897) being the key intellectual work. Industrial relations thus rejected the classical econ. Historical Background of Labour relations
In The Origins and Evolution of the Field of Industrial Relations in the United States, Bruce E. Kaufman attributed the popularization of the term "industrial relations" to a Commission on Industrial Relations created by the federal government in That commission was created to investigate and report on conditions in "industry" that gave rise to labor problems, including conflict between employers and employees (and their organizations) that often erupted in violence and strikes. Historical Thus the term "industrial relations" referred to "relations" between employers and employees in "industry." Better industrial relations were seen as the solution to labor problems. Historical Although the term "industry" or "industrial" (as in "industrial relations") connotes for many "heavy" industry (e.g., steel mills, auto assembly plants), this connotation is much narrower than the field's conception of industrial relations. At least to most industrial relations scholars, the term "industrial" is used broadly, as in distinguishing industrialized societies from agrarian societies Historical Thus industrial relations refers to relations between employers and employees not only in heavy industry but also in retailing, government, financial services, education, and recreational services, for example. In fact, even agricultural production, when organized in a form where an employer relies extensively on the services of hired workers, as is increasingly the case, can be said to fall within the purview of industrial relations. Historical In any case, conceptions of industrial relations as the study of "all aspects of people at work" clearly do not limit the field to formal or legal definitions of employment. Historical The Origin of Labour relations can be traced to the emergence of trade unionism during British colonial rule, when trade unions had to struggle for political and social status in the post-slavery and indentured labour era. Trade unions originally had difficulty in establishing their legal position. Historical Their legal existence was eventually based on Trade Union Laws enacted between , with subsequent legislation incorporating and maintaining the original protection of their immunities from criminal prosecution for breach of contract, agreement or trust. Historical Trade Unions joined the political struggle for voting rights, public education and social legislation in a fight against the interests and prejudices of thetraditional colonial society. They were initially, in essence, part of the nationalist political movements for political independence. Historical In this context, where the trade unions had to fight for political and social status, the labour relations systems reflected a greater degree of political involvement and action to influence public policy. In many instances, their successes could be attributed to their combative and adversarial approaches in alliances with political forces. Historical Labour relations were accordingly shaped by the authoritarian nature of social relations with the plantocracy, which controlled and dominated the way in which labour issues were dealt with in major industries and enterprises. This was countered by political actions on the part of the trade unions Historical Their agitation and protests led to the enactment of labour legislation by the colonial power, which recognized and protected trade unions rights, and established state institutions to promote a system of industrial relations designed to manage industrial conflicts, but without a corresponding emphasis and institutions to minimize such conflicts and promote the forging of greater consensus Historical However, given the nature and development of social and political systems, labour relations largely were conducted in an adversarial manner and this approach still persists in contemporary systems among Caribbean countries both in the political and industrial relations arenas Historical Plantation life and poor social conditions for the national communities in theCaribbean provoked unrest and upheavals on a wide scale in the 1930s throughout the British West Indies. This led to the appointment of a Royal Commission under Lord Moyne in 1938 to investigate and report on the labour and social conditions in the British West Indian colonies. Historical The Commission reported that the conditions were harsh and oppressive for workers whose employment and human rights were virtually unprotected. Among the Commissions recommendations was one for the enactment of labour laws. Labour Ordinances (Labour Acts) in the English-speaking Caribbean were consequently enacted in the 1940s and provided for the establishment of the Labour Departments under Commissioners of Labour for the regulation of the relationship between employers and employees and for the settlement of differences between them. Historical These developments contributed to the foundation and the institutionalized framework for the conduct of industrial relations. Industrial relations is therefore located and anchored within the system of labour administration. The Labour Departments and the social partners, represented by trade unions and employers and their organizations, constitute the tripartite pillars of the industrial relations system. Historical At the national level, the trade unions are organized under national congresses, while the employers are organized under the banner of national employers federations. The Labour Departments are required to provide effective labour administration services to workers, trade unions, employers and their organizations. Historical This is done through the Labour Commissioners and the technical staff of the Departments of Labour in their technical and advisory services with respect to national labour policies, labour relations including conciliation/mediation, labour inspection, employment and labour market, tripartism and social dialogue, and other labour administration functions in terms of coordination with state and social partners agencies. The world of Labour Market
A labour market can be understood as the mechanism through which human labour is bought and sold as a commodity and the means by which labour demand (the number and typ

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