Tugas landasan educational psychology terbaru

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<ul><li> 1. Educational psychology is thebranch of psychologythat specializes in understandingteaching and learning ineducational settings.</li></ul> <p> 2. A teacher acts as a philosopher and a guide tothe students. He must know the growth anddevelopment of the child and his requirementsat different levels. Educational psychology helps the teacher tostudy the ability, interests, intelligence, needsand adopt different techniques of teaching foreffective communication. The utility of educational psychology for theteachers has been emphasized in both theoryand practices of teaching and learning. 3. The importance of educational psychology for ateacher can be divided into two aspects i.e.:1. To study teaching and learning situations.Educational psychology contributes a lot forincreasing the teaching efficiency of theteacher in different areas mentioned below:-(a) Individual difference(b) To know the classroom teaching-learningprocess(c) Awareness of effective methods of teaching(d) To study mental health of students 4. (ii) Application of teaching and learning principles. (a) Objectives of Education (b) Curriculum 5. In the past, educational psychologistswho studied about childrens learning &amp;cognition claimed that problem solving,comprehension &amp; learning are based onknowledge. Now psychologists view that learning is aprocess of active construction ofknowledge by the learner. 6. Teori Belajar Konstruktivismemenekankan bahwa individuakan belajar dengan baikapabila mereka secara aktifmengkonstruksi pengetahuandan pemahaman. 7. Pendekatan konstruktifismemenurut Piaget:menekankan bahwa guruseharusnya memberi dukunganbagi murid untuk mengeksplorasidan mengembangkanpemahaman. 8. Pendekatan konstruktifisme (Piaget):murid mengkonstruksi pengetahuandengan cara mentranformasikan,mengorganisasikan, danmereorganisasikan pengetahuandan informasi sebelumnya. 9. Teori Belajar Konstruktivisme (Vygotsky):menekankan bahwa muridmengkonstruksi pengetahuan melaluiinteraksi social dengan orang lain.Isi dari pengetahuan ini dipengaruhioleh kultur dimana murid tinggal,mencakup bahasa, keyakinan, dankeahlian. 10. Teori Konstruktivisme menurut Vygotsky: Guru harus menciptakan banyakkesempatan bagi murid untukbelajar dengan guru dan temansebaya dalam mengkonstruksipengethuan bersama. Guru berfungsi sebagai fasilitator. 11. Psychologists propose thatthinking and learning aresituated in contexts of beliefsand understandings aboutcognition so a teacher's learningis situated within the context ofher beliefs and understandings ofwhat she considers knowledgeand understandings to be. 12. Psychologists portray the new vision ofthoughtful teachers as their recommendationsfor a reform in teaching and teachereducation. And thoughtful teachers are:1. Teachers who are engaged continuously inthe process of learning.2. Teachers who are "able to learn all the time.3. Teacher who view learning &amp; development asa lifelong process for themselves and theirstudents. 13. The field of educationalpsychology has beenaffected by advances incognitive psychology. 14. The field of developmentalpsychology has been transformedby a life-span developmentalperspective that argues forthe old notion that view of teachersas professionals who continue tolearn and develop throughouttheir teaching careers. 15. Thoughtful teachers who areengaged continuously in theprocess of learning may benefit:1. by knowing not only somethingabout how other teachers learn.2. by reflecting on their ownprocesses of learning. 16. If teachers are to become thoughtful professionals,they need to have:1. Meta cognitive knowledge for classroom learningwhich involves learners' self-awareness of their owncognitions through which they acquire information,gain understanding, and learn in the classroom.2. Meta cognitive knowledge for classroom teachingwhich includes self-awareness and ability to reflecton one's own cognitive knowledge for classroomlearning, as well as ability to reflect on knowledgeabout classroom teaching. 17. Metacognition refers to ones self-awarenessof ones own thoughtprocesses. It also involves the ability tomonitor comprehension and accuratelyevaluate ones learning. Metacognition helps students avoiddistractions,sustain effort, and modifytheir learning strategies based on theirawareness of the strategieseffectiveness. 18. Strategies for encouragingmetacognition include having students:1. Ask reflective questions2. Recount their thought processes as theyattempt to solve a problem.3. Make graphic representations of theirthoughts and knowledge (e.g. conceptmaps, flow charts, semantic webs). 19. Psychologists propose three points forconsideration:1. that the psychology of teachers' learningforms an important new domain of knowledgein educational psychology2. that the knowledge of theories and researchfindings on the psychology of teacherslearning may be meaningful and important forstudents in teacher education. 20. Psychologists propose three points forconsideration:3. the psychology of teachers learning mayimprove the good quality of their teachingpractice.4. that knowledge of the psychology of teachers'learning may improve the good quality of theability of faculty to teach educationalpsychology more effectively in teacherpreparation programs 21. Educational psychologists turned theirattention from the study of teachers' behaviorto the study of teachers thinking, cognitions,and knowledge. The studies by Leinhardt and Putnam (ofnetworks of teachers knowledge and scripttheory) and of Lampert (on the role ofteachers' understanding of subject matter andinterpretation of what students mean) are mostsalient. 22. educational psychologists and teachereducators have begun working together toconduct a longitudinal study of how teachers'learn to teach. They are studying the development of teachersknowledge, skills, and dispositions related toteaching writing and mathematics in 11 differentteacher education programs over a three-yearperiod. They are also examining teachers' beliefsincluding their conceptions of knowledge. 23. Knowledge of the psychology of teachers learningmight contribute to the effective teaching ofeducational psychology in two ways:1. It is useful as educational psychologists begin theprocess of conceptualizing the learning and teachingof educational psychology in the preparation ofteachers for the 21st century.2. It would be particularly informative as educationalpsychologists think about the possibility of adaptingthe content and methods of educational psychologyto the individual learner. 24. How to adapt the content and methods ofeducational psychology to the individuallearner --the teacherto facilitate themeaningful learning and application of thatlearning to teaching practice? In the past, a transfer have dominated theteaching of educational psychology. Now, recent research on cognition andinstruction suggests the need to thinkdifferently about it. 25. How to adapt the content and methods ofeducational psychology to the individual learner--the teacherto facilitate the meaningfullearning and application of that learning toteaching practice? Cognitive research suggests that individual learnercome to know and understand the subject matterbest within the context of a real-world problemrelevant to their lives, therefore, the teacher shouldbegin teaching by telling a story of a problem to,then the teacher ask their students to solve theproblem(in Curriculum 2013 it uses problem-based learningmethod). 26. For example:In teaching addition/subtraction in mathematic, a teachershould begin with the story problem to teach theaddition/subtraction number facts and problem solving.The student is simultaneously learning number facts (whatwould have been called a lower order skill) while solving astory problem (what would have been called a higherorder skill). Similarly, the story or word problem (whichwould have previously been conceptualized as a transferor application activity) serves as the context for learningcomputation and problem solving (which would previouslyhave been thought of as the in-school skill.) 27. Childrens' meaningful learning andapplication of mathematics skills isfacilitated by teaching-learning within thecontext of real-life mathematics problems, Teachers' meaningful learning andapplication of knowledge and theories ineducational psychology may also befacilitated by teaching and learningeducational psychology within the contextof real-life teaching-learning problems orcases. 28. In the context of the learning andteaching of educational psychology, acase might represent a realistic learning-teachingproblem in a classroom. Cases might take the form of print, text,video or audio recordings, jointlywitnessed field experiences, or role-playedsimulations of a learning-teachingproblem. 29. A study was completed recently by KarenStoiber at the University of Wisconsin-Madison who taught educationalpsychology to preservice teachereducation majors using written andvideotaped cases depicting dilemmas inclassroom management. She assigned preservice teachers ineducational psychology randomly to oneof several approaches to teachingclassroom management. 30. At the beginning and the end of the course, she assessedpre-service teachers' knowledge, beliefs, and thinkingusing interviews and questionnaires. She found that the use of cases was particularly effectivein the context of the learning and teaching of strategiesaimed at reflective decision making. In this approach pre-service teachers were encouragedto develop their own teaching schemata orrepresentations for classroom management. Self-questions, inner-directed speech, and examples ofreflective processes were provided to scaffold theteachers' development of their own representations ofclassroom management. 31. 1. Cases were used in the context of decisionmaking training.(In this situation class members worked inpairs, and each pair member read a vignetteabout a classroom management situationthat ended with a problem or dilemma. Onemember was instructed to act as a reflectivedecision maker who reported decision-makingthought processes while the otheracted as observer who critiqued her/hispartner's reflective processing). 32. 2. Cases were also used by theinstructor to lead discussionsaimed at guiding participants touse specified reflective decisionmaking processes to analyze adepicted teacher's handling of aclassroom management event. 33. 3. Cases were used to teachand illustrate technicalprinciples of classroommanagement derived fromresearch by educationalpsychologists. 34. In teaching educational psychology,educational psychologists are facedwith a fundamental dilemma: whether tooffer an educational psychology that isprimarily concerned with prospective teachers' own learning anddevelopment, or one that is primarilyconcerned with the learning and development of school children. 35. Prospective teachers are adultlearners and should be taught asadults. But they need to learn andknow theories of learning anddevelopment relevant to thechildren and youth they willteach. 36. We have raised only a handful of issues that we hope will provokethought and dialogue among our colleagues as they begin toconsider how educational psychology should be conceptualized inthe new teacher preparation programs. As we have seen, each of these issues poses dilemmas for thelearning and teaching of educational psychology. Although recent research findings in cognition and instructionsuggest some new conceptions and alternative framingassumptions, educational psychologists will still need to interpret andanalyze and use this knowledge in their own ways in teachingeducational psychology. Thus, as educational psychologists we face the same curricular andinstructional puzzles that teachers face daily in their classrooms 37. The problem of transfer andadaptation to the individuallearner and teaching situationremains a fundamental dilemmathat faculty need to consider asthey conceptualize educationalpsychology in the new teacherpreparation programs. 38. We suggest that one possibletechnique that might beconsidered is the use ofcases method. 39. As faculty begin to design and usenew techniques and methods,such as the case method, it isexpected that the faculty alsoconduct research and collectdata on the learning of teachersin these new, innovativeeducational psychology courses. 40. This paper have raised only a handfulof issues that is expected to provokethought and dialogue amongpsychologists, faculty manager,educators, and teachers as theybegin to consider how educationalpsychology should be conceptualizedin the new teacher preparationprograms. 41. Prospective teachers are adultlearners and should be taught asadults. But the teachers need tolearn and know theories oflearning and developmentrelevant to the children and youththey will teach. 42. Theory and research suggest thatmeaningful learning andapplication of educationalpsychology might be facilitatedby closer collaboration betweeneducational psychologists,teacher educators, and subjectmatter researchers. 43. Teaching educational psychology to cohortsof students in teacher education mightfacilitate the development of sharedknowledge and experiences related toeducational psychology by students in thecohort.In addition, this cohort structure mightencourage social interaction of the typethat has been found to be effective indeveloping critical thinking strategies andproblem solving in children. 44. The day of the self-contained,lecture and discussion, text-and-testcourse in for teachingeducational psychology may beover. 45. Team teaching, psychological reflection on fieldexperiences, case analyses in learning andteaching, integration of the logic of instructionaldesign with the real constraints and opportunities ofpublic school life, attention to students' andteachers' learning in groups, to teachersknowledge development across many years, andto construction of particular knowledge involved inlearning different school subjects are consideredas part of the larger conversation about teachereducation reform. 46. Do you rememberHellen Keller? 47. Yes, Hellen Keller is alegend despite herweaknessesWho helped andmotivated her to moveon? 48. A teacher 49. A teacher with herpatience, love,tenderness and sincereheart can turn a disabledesperate child into aheroine/hero..</p>