türkiye’de iş yaratma ve girişim dinamikleri

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Türkiye’de iş yaratma ve girişim dinamikleri. İzak Atiyas, Ozan Bakış ve Yusuf Kenan Orhan. Kullanılan mikro veriler. Yıllık Sanayi ve Hizmet İstatistikleri 20 veya daha fazla çalışanı olan tüm işyerleri 20’den az çalışanı olan işyerleri arasından temsili bir örneklem - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Trkiyede i yaratma ve giriim dinamikleri

1Trkiyede i yaratma ve giriim dinamiklerizak Atiyas, Ozan Bak ve Yusuf Kenan Orhan2Kullanlan mikro verilerYllk Sanayi ve Hizmet statistikleri20 veya daha fazla alan olan tm iyerleri20den az alan olan iyerleri arasndan temsili bir rneklemalan says, katma deer, satlar, faaliyet2005-20112009da Faaliyet kodlama sistemi NACE Rev 1.1den NACE Rev. 2.2ye dntSermaye stoku yok. Amortisman verileri kullanlarak yaratld.Yerel birimler hakknda sat ve istihdam pay bilgileri

32010 ylnda giriim saysnda yksek artVergi aff ile ilikili olabilir4ereveTrkiyede tarm hari (aa yukar) tm giriimlerYa, istihdam, sektr bilgileri5Baz temel gstergeler

6Kk giriimlerin istihdam pay azalyor

7Yerel birimlere gre dalm

8stihdamn ya ve bykle gre dalm (2010)

9Giri k oranlar

10Devam eden, giren ve kan giriimlerin zellikleri (2006-2009 ortalamas)SurvivorsEntrantsExitorsmeansdmeansdmeansdemployee120.072.6951.73.649.72.8LP209261601529434315748312lnLP9.560.019.30.09.30.0lnSales15.300.0114.30.014.40.0lnVA13.670.0112.80.012.80.0ln_KBC_pw2.430.022.80.12.40.0kbc_int9.060.128.20.37.20.3profit9.110.098.60.48.20.3age13.700.076.90.210.20.2Source: Authors' calculations using AISS, 20+ firms. employee: number of total employees in the firm, LP: labor productiviy defined as value added per employee, lnLP: log(LP+1), lnSales: log(sales +1), lnVA: log(value added +1), ln_KBC_pw : log(knowledge based capital investment per worker +1), kbc_int: the ratio of knowledge based capital investment to total investment multiplied by 100, profit: the ratio of value added minus wage compensation to sales multiplied by 100, age: current year minus birth year. 11Devam eden, giren ve kan giriimlerin pazar paylar (2006-2009 ortalamas)

12Yeni giriim yaama oranlar (2006 ylnda giren giriimler)

13Yen, giren giriimlerin V ve byklkleri

Notes: For each year after entry, the figure shows the ratio of the (unweighted) mean productivity (size) of the surviving firms that entered the data set in 2006, to the mean productivity (size) of the cohort in 2006. Productivity is defined as value added divided by the number of employees. Size is the number of employees. 14Verimlilik dnm tablolar

15Byklk dnm tablolar

16Yaa gre greli istihdam (2009)

Notes: Authors calculations based on the 2009 cross-section. Size is measured as total number of employees. The figure displays 4-digit industry-weighted (weights are equal to the employment share of industry in total employment or total manufacturing) average employment as a ratio of employment in 2006.

Yaa gre greli istihdam ABD, Hindistan ve Meksika

18Yaa gre greli V (2009)

Notes: Authors calculations based on the 2009 cross-section. Productivity is measured as value added divided by the number of employees. The figure displays 4-digit industry-weighted (weights are equal to the employment share of industry in total employment or total manufacturing employment) mean of productivity as a ratio of the industry-weighted productivity of the base age group of 0-4.

19 yaratma 2006

yaratma (2006 ve 2010)20Source: Authors' calculations using AISS, 20+ firms. Job creation for 2006 is defined over years 2005 and 2006. For a firm appearing in both years net job creation is the difference between employment levels. For entering firms we assume that all employment is net job creation. Similarly, for exiting firms we assume that all employment is destructed (net job creation is negative). The same applies to 2010. MIN: Mining and quarrying, MAN: Manufacturing, PU: Electricity, gas and water supply, CON: Construction, WRT: Wholesale and retail trade , hotels and restaurants, TSC: Transportation, communication and storage, FIRE: Financial intermediation; real estate, rental and business services, CSPS: Education; health; community services, social and personal activities. 21 yaratma 2010

22Giriim byme regresyonlar

Notes: 20+ firms over the period 2006-2010. The figure displays the regression coefficients of net job creation, measured by the Davis-Haltiwanger-Shuh growth rate, on firm size (dashed line) and size and age (solid line) dummies, controlling for industry (single digit NACE Rev. 1.1) and year. Size in year t is measured as average size between year t and t-1. The regressions include a constant term. The omitted categories are the largest size (500+) and oldest age (40+) group and the year the year 2006. 23Giriim byme regresyonlar

Notes: 20+ firms over the period 2006-2010. The figure displays regression coefficients of net job creation, measured by the Davis-Haltiwanger-Shuh growth rate, on firm age dummies, controlling for industry (single digit NACE Rev. 1.1) and year. The regression includes a constant term. The omitted categories are the oldest age (40+) group and the year the year 2006. Adding size dummies has very little effect on the estimated coefficients of age dummies.24Giriim istihdam byme oran regresyonlar

Notes: The dependent variable is job growth rate, as defined by Davis-Haltiwanger and Shuh. All regressions cover the period 2006-2010, except for that reported in the last column, which covers the period 2006-2009. Productivity is defined as value added divided by the number of employees. Profitability is measured as value added minus wage payments divided by total sales. Both are measured as averages over the period for which growth is measured, except for new entrants (exitors), in which case contemporaneous (last period) values are used. Size in time t is measured as average of size between t and t-1. Standard errors are in parentheses.25Yaratlan i says: Ceylan vs ceylan olmayan giriimler

Source: Authors' calculations using AISS, 20+ firms. Gazelles are firms increasing their employment more than two fold in a time span of 3 years. Non-gazelles are then continuing firms between t and t+3 that do not double their employment and new entries.26Yaratlan ortalama i says: Ceylan vs. ceylan olmayan giriimler

27Ceylan vs. ceylan olmayan giriimlerin dnem ba V

Source: Authors' calculations using AISS, 20+ firms. First, we compute aggregate labor productivity of gazelles and non-gazelles at the beginning of the period. For instance, we compute labor productivity using 2005 values for 2005-2008 period. Then, we take their ratio to get the above figure. Note that some of non-gazelles entering into the relative labor productivity computation, will not survive due to exit.Ceylanlarn sektrel dalm (2005-2010)28sectorgazelle share CON8.76CPGS5.38FIRE5.90MAN4.77MIN9.71PU2.69TSC3.88WRT5.36Source: Authors' calculations using AISS, 20+ firms. Gazelles are firms increasing their employment two fold or more in a time span of 3 years. Non-gazelles are then continuing firms between t and t+3 that do not double their employment and new entries. The values in the table refer to the arithmetic average of 2005-2008, 2006-2009 and 2007-2010Ceylan vs. ceylan olmayan giriimlerin ortalama ya ve bykl29periodAve. empl.Ave. age2005-2008non-gazelle26.6813.162005-2008gazelle93.5810.832006-2009non-gazelle130.4113.542006-2009gazelle77.6310.862007-2010non-gazelle139.9614.332007-2010gazelle100.5512.21TeekkrlerSheet1yearsizeNobsNfNf_shsal_shemp_shva_shav_age2005s1-1919883234579898.127510070840.023319244456.92752075232.24177932748.410408022005s100-249455245520.19041556129.14214420327.7821049699.417748451213.77724075322005s20-4929050309631.295218944514.536114692710.912152290311.132796287510.0314579012005s250-500140814080.05889830747.06606054315.48593235028.403614997915.56036949162005s50-99693269320.28997376566.65008687975.40534639366.145086765312.15075016022005s500+9089080.037982717222.582275390613.486948013332.658973693820.7852420807yearsizeNobsNfNf_shsal_shemp_shva_shav_age2010s1-1947371226117597.453857421929.408226013247.565948486321.299430847210.10410881042010s100-249669666960.288589328511.67440509810.053553581212.552744865414.23402023322010s20-4938867388671.675119757714.606327056912.057078361511.903392791711.53047561652010s250-500194519450.08382710077.98525953296.591942787210.300831794716.7624683382010s50-9910248102480.44167616968.50834465036.9504017837.87815666212.76639366152010s500+132113210.056933470127.817443847716.781076431336.065441131620.1127929688egypt_size_avemp_2010egypt_size_avemp_2005

firms20052010# of workers# of firms% of firms% of salesemployment% of emp.% of value addedaverage labor productivityaverage age# of firms% of firms% of salesemployment% of emp.% of value addedaverage labor productivityaverage ages1-19234579898.1340.025,040,28156.9332.2494858.41226117597.4529.414,211,42147.5721.30746810.10s20-49309631.3014.54966,14610.9111.131709210.03388671.6814.611,067,51612.0611.901646411.53s50-9969320.296.65478,5825.416.151904112.15102480.448.51615,3796.957.881888312.77s100-24945520.199.14689,0167.789.422026513.7866960.2911.67890,12710.0512.552080414.23s250-50014080.067.07485,7175.498.402560315.5619450.087.99583,6416.5910.302603416.76s500+9080.0422.581,194,11513.4932.664065820.7913210.0627.821,485,77216.7836.073580620.11total2,390,5618,853,856167698.462,320,25210,131,9901666410.16all firms.egypt_size_avemp_2010egypt_size_avemp_2005not: total employment obtained from the following files:total emp: egypt_scode_avemp_2010_iaegypt_scode_avemp_2005_iaproductivity fromtiger_desc_size_cross_ia.xlsx

establishmentsyearsizeNobsNfNf_shsal_shemp_shyearsizeNobsNfNf_shsal_shemp_sh20051-1962238246894998.141510009846.781906127960.208778381320101-19123200242060397.370170593337.442047119152.1427879333200520-4931967326521.297927498815.295105934111.1971998215201020-4944881448811.805364489617.894666671813.6203126907200550-99714671460.28405579926.92305994035.5577054024201050-9910809108090.43479835998.93867588047.30442857742005100-249477347730.189728274911.74401664738.17222309112010100-249683568350.274941861612