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<ul><li><p>Tucsons National Cemetery: Additional Archival Research for the Joint Courts Complex Project, Tucson, Arizona</p><p>by Scott OMack</p><p>with contributions byLourdes DeLeon, Mara Molina, Kristin Sewell, and Patrick Stanton</p><p>Prepared for thePima County Administrators OfficeArchaeology and Historic Preservation201 North Stone AvenueTucson, AZ 85701-1207</p><p>Pima County Contract No. 25-73-S-137689-0206Work Order HYX153</p><p>Technical Report 06-56Statistical Research, Inc.Tucson, Arizona</p></li><li><p>Tucsons National Cemetery: Additional Archival Research for the Joint Courts Complex Project, Tucson, Arizona</p><p>by Scott OMack</p><p>with contributions byLourdes DeLeon, Mara Molina, Kristin Sewell, and Patrick Stanton</p><p>Prepared for thePima County Administrators OfficeArchaeology and Historic Preservation201 North Stone AvenueTucson, AZ 85701-1207</p><p>Pima County Contract No. 25-73-S-137689-0206Work Order HYX153</p><p>Technical Report 06-56Statistical Research, Inc.P.O. Box 31865Tucson, AZ 85751</p><p>2006</p></li><li><p>iii</p><p>C O N T E N T S</p><p>List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vList of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viiAcknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix</p><p>1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Sources Consulted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3</p><p>Tucson City Council Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3English-Language Newspapers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Spanish-Language Newspapers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4</p><p>Organization of This Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5</p><p>2. Tucsons National Cemetery, 18621890 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7The National Cemetery in Use, 18621875 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7The Abandoned National Cemetery, 18751890 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10</p><p>The Coming of the Railroad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Removing Burials in the National Cemetery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13The National Cemetery Subdivided, Sold, and Graded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16</p><p>3. The Camp Lowell Cemetery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21The Legal and Military Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21Estimating Size and Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22</p><p>The 1881 Burial List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23Photographs of the Military Cemetery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27</p><p>Features of the Military Cemetery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32The Gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32The Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35The Grave Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36</p><p>4.The City Cemetery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37Limits of the Larger Cemetery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37Subdivisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39Graves and Grave Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41</p><p>Grave Orientation and Positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41Grave Markers and Other Surface Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42Body Preparations, Burial Receptacles, and Grave Goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44</p><p>5. Death and Burial Records for the National Cemetery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51Obituaries, Mortuary Records, and Later Cemetery Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51County and City Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52Tucson Diocese Burial Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54</p><p>First Part of the Diocese Register, Latin Entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54First Part of the Diocese Register, Spanish Entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55Second Part of the Diocese Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56</p></li><li><p>iv</p><p>Other Notes on Appendix D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56Deceased . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57Date of Burial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57Sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58Father and Mother . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58</p><p>Searching for Names in the Diocese Burial Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58Numbers of Burials in the Diocese Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61Ethnicity in the Diocese Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61</p><p>Burial Records of Non-Catholic Denominations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63Jewish Burial Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63Protestant Burial Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64</p><p>Records of Fraternal Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65Federal Census Mortality Schedules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66George Hands Diary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66</p><p>6. Prior Disturbances and Burial Sensitivity in the Project Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71Early Postabandonment Disturbances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71Post-1890 Disturbances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72Accidental Discoveries of Human Remains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77Burial Sensitivity in the Project Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85</p><p>7. Summary and Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87</p><p>AppendixesA. Time Line of Events Related to Tucsons Cemeteries, 18621907 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89B. Selected Newspaper Articles about the National Cemetery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101C. Burials at Camp Lowell Cemetery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111D. Summary of Information in the Tucson Diocese Burial Register, 18631887 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119E. 1870 Federal Census Mortality Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191F. 1880 Federal Census Mortality Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199G. Deaths in George Hands Diary, 18721887 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203H. Potential Health Hazards in the National Cemetery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223</p><p>References Cited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229</p></li><li><p>v</p><p>L I S T O F F I G U R E S</p><p>Figure 1. Modern aerial photograph of the Joint Courts Complex project area (2005) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2</p><p>Figure 2. Official map of the 1872 survey of the town site of Tucson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9</p><p>Figure 3. Portion of a map of Tucson prepared in 1880 showing the National Cemetery, the recently built Southern Pacific Railroad, newly surveyed Blocks 249, 250, and 251, and Toole Avenue (Pattiani 1880) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12</p><p>Figure 4. Official map of the 1889 survey of Blocks 252, 253, 254, and 255 by John Gardiner . . . . . . 17</p><p>Figure 5. Official map of the 1890 survey of Block 254 by George Roskruge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19</p><p>Figure 6. The arrangement of burials in the original Camp Lowell military cemetery, based on an 1881 description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24</p><p>Figure 7. The government cemetery at Tucson, 1870. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29</p><p>Figure 8. Tucson, 1880, as viewed from Sentinel Peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30</p><p>Figure 9. Detail from the 1880 Carleton Watkins photograph of Tucson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31</p><p>Figure 10. Location of the original Camp Lowell cemetery in relation to the Joint Courts project area and other cemetery boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33</p><p>Figure 11. Portion of detail from the 1880 Carleton Watkins photograph of Tucson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34</p><p>Figure 12. Sketch of the view north from Camp Lowell in Tucson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35</p><p>Figure 13. Advertisement by Sam Baird for coffins and funeral services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46</p><p>Figure 14. A view of a portion of downtown Tucson, ca. 1889 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73</p><p>Figure 15. Early stage of the excavation for an addition to the Tucson Newspapers building, 1953 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79</p><p>Figure 16. Later stage of the excavation for an addition to the Tucson Newspapers building, 1953 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80</p><p>Figure 17. Another view of the excavation for an addition to the Tucson Newspapers building, 1953 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81</p><p>Figure 18. Demolition of the Tucson Newspapers building, 1974 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82</p><p>Figure 19. Demolition in the basement of the Tucson Newspapers building, 1974 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83</p><p>Figure 20. Zones of relative burial sensitivity in the Joint Courts project area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86</p></li><li><p>vii</p><p>L I S T O F T A B L E S</p><p>Table 1. Cemetery Dimensions and Grave Spacing at Forts Bowie and McRae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28</p><p>Table 2. Observed and Possible Spelling Equivalencies in the Tucson Diocese Burial Register . . . . . . 59</p><p>Table 3. Tucson Diocese Burial Register Entries with Specified Ethnicity and Unspecified Place of Burial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62</p><p>Table 4. Common Entries in the Tucson Diocese Burial Register and the 1870 Federal Census Mortality Schedule, from June 1, 1869 to May 31, 1870 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67</p><p>Table 5. Common Entries in the Tucson Diocese Burial Register and the List of Deaths in George Hands Diary, from February 29, 1872 to March 11, 1875 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69</p><p>Table 6. Accidental Discoveries of Human Remains in the Joint Courts Project Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75</p></li><li><p>ix</p><p>A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S</p><p>A variety of people contributed in a variety of ways to the research for this report. Lourdes DeLeon, theauthors principal assistant at Statistical Research, Inc. (SRI), helped with almost every aspect of the re-search and was especially helpful with the early Tucson death records. Other research assistance was pro-vided by SRI staff members Mara Molina, Kristin Sewell, Melissa Rees, Patrick Stanton, Bill White,Marcy Gray, and Greg Johnson, and by volunteer Steve Chino. Lourdes, Mara, Kristin, and Patrick alsoperformed selected writing tasks for the report. Independent historian and archaeologist Jim Ayres, wor...</p></li></ul>

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