tuberculosis pathogenesis

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Clinical presentation of active TB Differential diagnosis of TB Etiology Transmission Factors influencing transmission Pathogenesis of Latent TB Disease Co-pathogenesis

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  • 1.Dr Hemanth S Naik 24th March 2014

2. At the end of this presentation, participants will be able to: Describe the causative agent of Pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) Transmission of TB Factors influencing the transmission of TB Pathogenesis of Latent TB Pathogenesis of Active TB 3. Persistent cough of more than 3 weeks Associated with green, yellow, or bloody sputum Breathlessness High temperature of 38C (100.4F) or above Loss of weight Lack of appetite Chest Pain Fatigue 4. Chronic Cough Common Upper Airway Cough Syndrom Chronic Bronchitis GORD Pneumonia Asthma Etc Uncommon Lung Cancer Bronchiolitis TB Etc 5. Fever Common Upper Airway Cough Syndrom Chronic Bronchitis GORD Pneumonia Asthma Etc Uncommon Lung Cancer Bronchiolitis TB Etc 6. Weight Loss Common Upper Airway Cough Syndrom Chronic Bronchitis GORD Pneumonia Asthma Etc Uncommon Lung Cancer Bronchiolitis TB Etc 7. Infectious disease caused by Myobacterium Tuberculosis M tuberculosis becomes dormant before it progresses to active TB Most commonly involves the lungs and is communicable in this form 8. Active TB Patient Healthy Individual 9. Active TB Patient Healthy Individual Susceptibility Environment Infectiousness Exposure Factors 10. Active TB Patient Healthy Individual Increased Chances of Infection Concentration of TB bacteria circulating in the air is greater Indoors Poor Ventilation Poor Sunlight Greater the time spent with the infectious person 11. Active TB Patient Healthy Individual Sharing Food Sharing Cloths Sharing Gadgets TB Germs Cannot be Spread By 12. Within 2 to 8 weeks, special immune cells called macrophages ingest and surround the tubercle bacilli. The cells form a barrier shell, called a granuloma, that keeps the bacilli contained and under control (LTBI). Latent Tuberculosis 13. If the immune system cannot keep the tubercle bacilli under control, the bacilli begin to multiply rapidly (TB disease). Active Tuberculosis 14. HIV-infected persons Recent TB infection Age (very young or very old) Injection drug users LTBTB 15. Exposure No Infection (70%) Infection (30%) Containment (95%) Early Progression (5%) Continued Containment (95%) Late Progression (10%) Immune Defense Immune Defense Immune Defense 16. True or False M. Tuberculosis is an anaerobic bacteria Tuberculosis can be spread person to person by sharing the same cup or bottle Persons with LTBI and HIV have a 10% lifetime risk of progressing to active TB disease Approximately 25% (1/4) of close contacts to a sputum smear-positive case will have LTBI

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