tshwane food security presentation(1)
Post on 09-May-2015
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DESCRIPTIONHunger Summit Presentation
- 1.Towards Realisation of Food Security in the City of TshwaneDr Lovemore Rugube Visiting Senior Lecturer, Postgraduate School of Agriculture andRural Development, University of Pretoriaand Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension University of Zimbabwe Prof Charles L. Machethe Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension & Rural Developmentand Postgraduate School of Agriculture and Rural Development,University of Pretoria
2. Presentation Outline Introduction and Background Concept of Food Security/ Insecurity Food Security Situation in South AfricaFood Security Situation in the City of Tshwane 5. Why Food Insecurity/Hunger/Poverty? 6. Food Insecurity Strategies: Lessons from GlobalExperiences 7. Strategies for Addressing Food Insecurity inTshwane 8. Summary and Conclusions 3. IntroductionSouth Africa is largely self-sufficient in food but 1.5 million children suffer from chronic malnutrition, and14 million people are vulnerable to food insecurity (World Bank, 2003). Most food insecurity and poverty are rural, especially in former homeland areas. Urban food insecurity and poverty are also major problems. 4. What is Food Security? WFS definition: Food security exists when all people at all times, have physical an economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. SAs Integrated Food Security Strategy definition: physical, social an economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food by all South Africans at all times to meet their dietary and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Above definitions almost the same and emphasize: Availability: physical presence of food at different levels. Access: ability to obtain food. Utilization: ability to covert food to energy. Stability/sustainability: ability to sustain availability of food. 5. Food InsecurityFailure to achieve food security = Food insecurity. Food insecurity not necessarily the result of inability to produce enough food but largely inability to purchase it. Roots of food insecurity range from improper macroeconomic policies to economic and political structures inhibiting access to food. Transitory food insecurity: temporary decline in access to food -- results from instability in production and prices or incomes. Chronic food insecurity: continuously inadequate diet (access) -- results from lack of means to produce or acquire food attributed to poverty. 6. Food Security Situation in South Africa While South Africa produces sufficient food, this in no way ensures food security at household level. About 35% of the total population, or 14.3 million South Africans are vulnerable to food insecurity. Poverty continues to be the main factor in household food insecurity. Proportion of people living in poverty in South Africa has not changed significantly over the years. Many households have sunk deeper into poverty and the gap between rich and poor has widened. 7. Food Security Situation in South Africa contd. About 57% of individuals in South Africa were living below the poverty income line in 2001, unchanged from 1996.Limpopo and Eastern Cape had the highest proportion of the poor (77% and 72%, respectively).Western Cape had the lowest proportion in poverty (32%), followed by Gauteng (42%). Major city with the lowest poverty rate is Cape Town (30%). Pretoria and Johannesburg have somewhat higher rates of 35% and 38%, respectively, while Durban has a rate of 44%. 8. Food Security Situation in Tshwane The city of Tshwane has a population of just over a million people and the poverty rate is about 35 percent. Can infer from above that about 35% of the population of the city are food insecure. Food insecurity is rising in the City due to diminishing accessibility of food to the poor and limited access to resources for agricultural purposes. Food insecurity in the city persists despite having a large rural area within its municipal boundaries. Availability of agricultural land opens up the possibility of addressing food insecurity through agricultural activities. Main challenge for the City is to unlock untapped potential in agriculture. 9. Why Food Insecurity/Poverty/Hunger? Lack of food entitlement is the main reason for existence of food insecurity (trade-based, production-based, own-labour & inheritance and transfer entitlement). Causes of hunger/food insecurity related to those of poverty. Rising food prices due to rising production costs. Poor people most affected by rising food prices as they spent most of their income on food. High rate of unemployment exacerbated food insecurity/hunger/poverty for rural and urban poor. Lack of adequate education also contributes to food insecurity/poverty/hunger. 10. Why Food Insecurity/Poverty/Hunger? contd. Drought and floods lead to inadequate and unstable food production (transitory food insecurity). Rising population growth. Inadequate safety nets. Weak support networks and disaster management systems HIV/AIDS. 11. Addressing Food Insecurity: Lessons fromGlobal Experiences Start at national level: food distribution systems, transport & communications, early warning systems, and stock & trade policies. Rapid economic growth: must differentially benefit the poor. Generate income earning opportunities: people must earn sufficient incomes to acquire food. Rapid growth in food production: Smallholder agriculture does contribute to food security and poverty alleviation. 12. Addressing Food Insecurity: Lessons from Global Experiences contd. Temporary employment: Public works program. Food price stabilisation: to deal with insecurity resulting from price instability. Income relief to victims: cash or in kind. Address the HIV/AIDS issue. 13. Strategies for Addressing Food Insecurity inthe City of TshwaneThe 5-Year Strategic Plan for the City of Tshwane identifies fighting poverty and building clean, healthy, safe and sustainable communities as one of the key strategic objectives. City of Tshwane proposes to fight poverty by accelerating the growth of entrepreneurship and halving unemployment by 50 percent by 2014. Addressing food insecurity involves promoting farm and non-farm activities and strengthening the linkages. 14. Strategies for Addressing Food Insecurity in the City of Tshwane (Agriculture-related) Addressing food insecurity and poverty requires greater attention to smallholder agriculture. Focus on supporting black farmers to ultimately become successful commercial farmers. Need to raise smallholder agricultural productivity on existing land. Lack of access to farmer support services and appropriate technology is a major reason for low productivity of smallholder agriculture. 15. Strategies for Addressing Food Insecurity inthe City of Tshwane (Agriculture-related)contd.High value crops for niche markets would generateincome and contribute to food security.Small land portions could also be optimally utilizedby employing intensive animal production methods.Value adding processing of raw material such ascanning and other forms of packaging will greatlyenhance land utilization and create jobs at the sametime increasing revenue.Urban agriculture is proving to be important inreducing food insecurity and poverty in urban centers 16. Strategies for Addressing Food Insecurity in the City of Tshwane (Nonfarm-related)Enhancing the incomes and income generatingcapacity of vulnerable groups in urban and ruralareas.Social security and welfare services; Ensuringeffective and targeted access by eligible individualsto social security welfare services and targetedbenefits.Disaster mitigation; Protecting livelihoods duringperiods of stress caused by national disasters.Food consumption and nutrition; Promotingnutritious diets and a safe food supply. 17. Strategies for Addressing Food Insecurity in the City of Tshwane (Nonfarm-related)Enhancing the incomes and income generating capacity of vulnerable groups in urban and rural areas. Social security and welfare services -- ensure effective and targeted access by eligible individuals. Disaster mitigation -- protect livelihoods during periods of stress caused by national disasters. Food consumption and nutrition -- promote nutritious diets and a safe food supply. Initiatives like Capital Food Initiative and Food Bank should be supported to become sustainable. 18. Summary & Conclusion South Africa is largely self-sufficient in food but 1.5 million children suffer from chronic malnutrition, and14 million people are vulnerable to food insecurity Unemployment continues to increase and household incomes are low to sustain many households. Many South Africans living in rural areas and some urban areas are poor and food insecure and subjected to poverty and hunger. A strategic long-term approach to food security is therefore required. Lack of food entitlement is the main reason for existence of food insecurity (trade-based, production-based, own- labour & inheritance and transfer entitlement). 19. Summary & Conclusion (contd) The most important among this is provision of resources for own production particularly in rural areas. Land access becomes very important in this respect. Although land access is not a sufficient condition for household food security it can contribute significantly in reducing households vulnerability to food insecurity. Addressing food insecurity and poverty requires greater attention to smallholder agriculture. Urban agriculture is proving to be important in reducing food insecurity and poverty in urban centers 20. Summary & Conclusion (contd) Addressing food insecurity involves promoting farm and non-farm activities and strengthening the linkages. Enhancing the incomes and income generating capacity of vulnerable groups in urban and rural areas. Social security and welfare services. Initiatives like Capital Food Initiative and Food Bank should be supported to become sustainable. 21.