trng effective crew dm
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Training for Effective Crew Decision Making
NASA-Ames Research Center Mail Stop 262-4
Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000
Aviation Education 2020 Workshop #2 Monterey, CA January 30, 2001
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Overview of Talk
What does the future hold for pilots in 2020?
Implications for pilot training
Flight Crew Decision Making
Requirements for effective crew decision making
Pilot Decision Making model
How do crews go wrong - 2001?
Training requirements - 2020
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Fully automated aircraft (but with a few
oldies but goodies left over?)
Automated flight tools
Distributed decision environments
Less experienced pilots?
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Implications for Pilots?
Role shift - pilots as system managers
Increased Strategic planning + Tactical
BUT, still need to maintain
Stick and rudder skills
Steam gauge knowledge?
Distributed decision making
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Flight Crew Decision Making
What is EFFECTIVE Decision Making - 2001?
Decision that leads to best TASK performance
Under the given circumstances
At lowest cost
Performance = Accomplish mission
Passenger satisfaction, meet company goals
Costs: Time, Fuel, Cognitive Effort, System Efficiency
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Ingredients for Effective DM
Appropriate Cognitive and Metacognitive
Good Crew Processes
Environment Events Conditions Constraints
Action Goals Procedural
Meet Demands Task
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How Do Crews Go Wrong?
Incorrectly assess the situation = Solve
the wrong problem!
Understand the problem, but make
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FACT: 2/3 crew-related Pt. 121 accidents involved
tactical decision errors (NTSB, 1994)
-- 3/4 involved monitoring/challenging errors QuickTime and aGraphics decompressorare needed to see this picture.
Proc T D E A/C Handling
Sit Aware Comm Sys Op Res Mgmt Nav Mon/Chal0
Type of Error
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Plan Continuation Errors
Decision to continue with an original plan
in the face of cues that indicate
Conditions have changed
Plan revision might be prudent
38/51 (75%) of all decision errors in 37 Pt.
121 accidents involved PCE (NTSB, 1994)
QuickTime and aGraphics decompressorare needed to see this picture.
Gate/Taxi Takeoff Cruise Approach Landing0
Phase of Fl i ght
Plan Cont. Errors
Non-Plan Cont. Errors
Di st r i but i on of Deci si on Errors
in 37 flightcrew-involved accidents studied by the NTSB (1994)
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Overestimate own or aircraft ability
Fail to update dynamic situation model
Habit capture - stress
Plan Continuation Errors-Why?
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Knowledge Mental Models of the System, Automation, Environment,
Weather, Crew Roles, ATC
Strategies Situation Assessment
Action Decision Evaluate through mental simulation
Metacognitive Skills Manage tasks and resources
Crew Skills Communication & coordination
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Computer skills will be important as TOOLS
for making effective DECISIONS
Decision environment will be more
distributed, therefore will require effective
teamwork and communication
Flight management --> Safety management