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  • Trends in Understanding the Science &

    Technology of Cocoa, Coffee, and Tea

    2nd CoCoTea Conference, Naples, October 9-11, 2013 Imre Blank, Arne Glabasnia, and Andrew Scott

    Nestl R&D

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  • Technical challenges to meet consumers expectations

    Nestle R&D / Imre Blank / 11.10.2013

    All five senses are key for

    consumer preference

    Raw material quality, sourcing

    Mild processing

    Desirable vs undesirable effects

    Industrial efficiency

    Products in various formats (powder, liquid)

    Product properties (e.g. wettability, flowability)

    Shelf life, freshness

    Products with multiple benefits: Aroma, taste,

    colour, health benefits, powder properties

    2

  • Global consumer mega-trends contributing

    to quality of life

    Nestle R&D / Imre Blank / 11.10.2013

    Well-being matters Achieve better performance To look good

    Get and keep balance To stay free of diseases

    Minimize the effect of ageing / prevent Less fat, sugar, salt The green season

    Lifestyle Redefiniton

    No time to sit down but want the experience

    Easier, Faster and Disposable

    Leave more time for work or leisure

    Less hassle, no mess

    Men and Women roles mixed

    Slow Cooking made fast and easy

    Satisfying the Senses

    Guilt-free indulgence Emotional compensation for stress Mass - Luxury

    Individualism - Homing Worldly tastes

    Increased willingness to experiment with ethnic Artisanal varieties

    (Source: Datamonitor, Reuters)

    Convenience Pleasure Health

    3

  • Chemic al composition of Cocoa, Coffee, and Tea

    Nestle R&D / Imre Blank / 11.10.2013

    Content (% db) Arabica Robusta

    Polysaccharides 48.5 46.3

    Sucrose 7.6 4.6

    Lipids 14.2 12.7

    Trigonelline 0.9 0.7

    Organic acids 2.3 1.6

    Proteins 11.3 12.7

    Caffeine 1.2 2.3

    Chlorogenic acids 7.5 10.1

    Ash 4.0 4.4

    Average composition of green coffee

    Component Content [% db]

    Carbohydrates 25

    Polyphenol 30

    Protein 15

    Amino acids 4

    Methylxanthines 3.5

    Lipids 2

    Organic acids 1.5

    Ash 5

    Composition of fermented cocoa beans

    Green tea leaf (Graham, 1992)

    Similarities: Polyphenols, methylxanthines

    Differences: Trigonellin (coffee), theanin (tea)

    4

    //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cc/Trigonelline.png//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1b/Chlorogenic-acid-from-CAS-2D-skeletal.png//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0c/Methylxanthin_(R1,_R2,_R3).svg

  • (Poly)phenols

    Flavanols

    Isoflavones (genistein,

    daidzein)

    Flavonols (e.g. quercetin)

    Anthocyanins

    Catechins Pro(antho)cyanidins

    Flavanones

    e.g. hesperidin

    Flavonoids

    Phenolic acids (e.g ferulic

    acid, caffeic acid,

    chlorogenic acids)

    Ellagic acid/ellagitannins

    The family tree of (poly)phenols

    Nestle R&D / Imre Blank / 11.10.2013

    Multiple role of polyphenols

    in coffee, cocoa, and tea

    driving quality attributes:

    Aroma, taste, colour,

    health benefits, texture

    5

  • Diversity of chlorogenic acids in COFFEE

    Nestle R&D / Imre Blank / 11.10.2013

    3-caffeoyl quinic acid 4-caffeoyl quinic acid 5-caffeoyl quinic acid

    coumaric acid dimethoxycaffeic acid trimethoxycaffeic acid sinapic acid

    RO

    O

    OH

    RO

    O

    OH

    OCH3

    OCH3

    RO

    O

    OCH3

    OCH3

    OCH3

    RO

    O

    OCH3

    OCH3

    OH

    O

    OH

    OH

    O

    OH

    O

    OH

    OH

    OH

    OH

    OH

    O

    O

    OH

    O

    OH

    OH

    OH

    OH

    O

    OH

    O

    OH O OH

    OH

    3-feruoyl quinic acid 4-feruoyl quinic acid 5-feruoyl quinic acid

    OH

    O

    OH

    OH

    O

    OH

    O

    OH

    H3CO

    OH

    OH

    OH

    O

    O

    OH

    O

    OH

    OCH3

    OH

    OH

    O

    OH

    O

    OH O OH

    OCH3

    6

  • Chlorogenic acids as quality markers for green coffee

    To differentiate between Robusta and Arabica

    To calculate blend of unknown samples

    by NIR (Haiduc et al.)

    by NMR (Wei et al. 2010)

    by LC/MS direct infusion (Garrett et al. 2012)

    Nestle R&D / Imre Blank / 11.10.2013

    Arabica

    Robusta

    (Haiduc et al, unpublished) (Garrett et al, 2012)

    Blend

    Post harvest

    Cultivar

    Crop

    7

  • Transformation of raw materials: Chemical & physical

    changes upon roasting of green coffee beans

    Lipids

    Amino acids

    & Proteins

    Sugar -

    Carbohydrates

    yyyy-mm-ddNRC/dpt - name/ 12

    NRC Nestl Research Center

    Arabinogalactan-Protein Structure

    O

    OOH

    OH

    CH2OH

    O

    O

    OH

    OH

    OHOOH

    OH

    CH2OH

    O

    OOH

    OH

    OH

    CH2OH

    OOH

    OH

    CH2

    O OOOH

    H2C

    OOOH

    OH

    CH2OH

    OOOH

    OH

    OH

    H2C

    OOH

    OH

    OH

    CH2OH

    O

    OOH

    OH

    OH

    CH2

    O

    OH

    Protein

    Arabinogalactan

    Polyphenols (CAs)

    Aroma, Taste,

    Colour, Health

    benefits

    Roasting

    Key reactions:

    Maillard reaction

    Lipid oxidation

    Radical induced

    conversion of phenols

    20 10 15 0 5

    60

    80

    100

    40

    0

    20

    Roasting losses (%)

    % d

    eg

    rad

    ed

    1- Sucrose

    2- CAs

    Trigonelline

    3- Proteins

    Polysaccharides

    Nestle R&D / Imre Blank / 11.10.2013 8

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  • Nestle R&D / Imre Blank / 11.10.2013

    Chlorogenic acids as aroma precursors upon roasting

    9

  • Nestle R&D / Imre Blank / 11.10.2013

    Formation of coffee aroma compounds upon roasting

    phenolic aroma

    compounds

    Robusta green beans (9.2%)

    contain more chlorogenic

    acids than Arabica (7.2%)

    Kinetics of degradation of precursors

    (amino acids) and formation of aroma

    compounds correspond quite well

    (Wocheslander et al, unpublished)

    10

  • Formation of bitter tastants upon coffee roasting

    Nestle R&D / Imre Blank / 11.10.2013

    0

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    120

    green 110 90 70 50

    Rel%

    Roast degree

    Caffeine CQL DKP Phenylindane Bitter precursor content

    depends on blend

    Bitter compound formation

    depends on roasting degree

    Kinetics are different for

    different chemical classes

    Bitter quality also different

    coffee-like

    harsh

    caffeine-like

    metallic

    Compound

    class

    Threshold for

    bitterness (mol/L)

    Caffeine 750

    Lactones 30-200

    DKPs 190-4000

    Phenylindanes 30-150

    Benzenediols 100-800

    (Frank et al, 2006-2007) O

    OH

    OH

    11

    //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5e/Caffeine-2D-skeletal.svg//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/36/Diketopiperazine.png

  • Sensory-analytical correlation: Around 30 compounds

    exhibit strong correlation to the sensory descriptors

    sweet

    roasty

    dry vegetal

    cocoa

    bitter

    vegetal-humus

    green vegetal

    acid

    fruity-flowery

    2-acetylpyridine

    pyridine furfuryl acetate

    phenylacetaldehyde

    3-methyl-2-butene-

    thiol

    N-methylpyrrole

    2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine

    2-methyl-3-furanthiol

    4-ethylguaiacol

    guaiacol

    4-vinylguaiacol

    dimethyl trisulfide

    2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine p-cresol

    2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine

    2-methylpropanal

    vanilline

    2-acetylthiazole

    hexanal

    2-methylbutanal

    methional

    furfural

    sotolon

    furaneol

    2,3-pentanedione

    dimethyl sulfide

    2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine

    2-furfurylthiol

    acetaldehyde

    methanethiol

    2,3-butanedione

    Correlation found for aroma

    compounds derived from CQA

    breakdown with bitterness

    perception

    Nestle R&D / Imre Blank / 11.10.2013

    (Baggenstoss et al, ASIC 2010)

    12

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