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    THE LIBRARYOFTHE UNIVERSITYOF CALIFORNIALOS ANGELESGIFT OF

    Ted Barrett

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    TEENCH'SORDERS

    1914

    TWELFTH REVISED EDITION3rd Impression

    B. M. BATEMAN, R.G.A.

    LONDONWILLIAM CLOWES & SONS. LIMITED31 HAYMARKET, S.W.

    1916

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    ^'/

    ToB. M. B. B.

    24.7.15

    682693

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    PREFACE TO THE TWELFTH EDITION.hoping that the present edition of this little

    may be of use, the Editor expresses histo all who have assisted him with hints or

    and will be glad to receive any criticismsthe benefit of future editions.

    B. M. B.June 19U.

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    CONTENTS.GENERAL PRINCIPLES.

    A. Classification of OrdersB. System in the Issue of Orders0. Desiderata

    What Orders should containWhat Orders should avoid .How Orders should be drawn up

    D. The Issue of Orders .E. Compliance with Orders

    INSTRUCTION IN WRITING ORDERS 22TABLES AND DATA.A. War Establishments .B. Ammunition Columns and TrainC. Road Spaces ....D. Rates of MarchingE. Areas for Camps and Bivouacs .F. Accommodation in Billets .H. Orders for Trains, Ammunition Column

    Etc. . . . . .I. Army List Abbreviated Titles ofments . . . . . Iegi

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    n MANCEUVRE ORDERS.CHAPTKKly.MARCH ORDERS. PACK

    Outlines and Examples .... 42Y.COMBAT ORDERS.Outlines and Examples .... 58

    YLJIALT ORDERS.Outlines and Examples .... 67Nil.NIGHT OPERATIONS.Outlines ....... 85

    YIIL.CONVOYS.Outlines and Examples .... 89

    I^.LOCAL DEFENCE ORDERS.Examples ...... 95^.MARTIAL LAW REGULATIONS.Examples ...... 100

    XI.ORDERS FOR PASSAGE OF A RIVEROR A LANDING.Outlines ....... 104

    XII.STANDING ORDERS.Summaries ...... 107

    APPENDICES.List of Authorities Consulted . .115Cakd ok Outlines.

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    MANOEUVRE ORDERS.CHAPTER I.

    GENEBAL PBINCIPLES.A. CLASSIFICATION OF ORDERS.are two classes of orders : (1) those which exact an

    bedience according to the letter of the law, and (2) thosedemand an obedience accordiug to the spirit.To the first class belong orders based on finance and pre-warrants and regulations, drafted in time of peace,

    if possible, every contingency foreseen and providedand in which the subordinate finds no room for initiativebut little for any responsibility beyond that of implicit ^N(

    Orders of this class deal with details more than with prin- ^and have, not unfrequently, the power of creating fact

    mere assertion. No detail is too small for consideration,no account is taken of circumstance or of the character

    the recipientno margin is left for interpretation.The instructions for guidance are often very voluminous,been compiled with deliberation, can generally be

    at ample leisure, hold good under almost all cir-and may be disobeyed only when specificallyor reversed upon appeal or otherwise. Orders of

    class are those by which highly-centralised organisations

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    8 MANCEUVRK ORDERS.are administered. They are well represented in many of ourRegulations.

    It was of orders of the second class that Napoleon wrotethat to require passive obedience an order needed that thesuperior should be present, fully acquainted with thesituation, and also able to listen to the representations ofthe subordinate.They find their highest form in the instructions issued tosemi-independent armies in the field, but they also includeall directions given for the majioeuvring of troops and con-nected with the movements of hostile forces. They difi"erfrom orders of the other class, mainly in being based on datamore or less uncertain and incolnplete, and which may ceaseto apply before the order can be carried out; also in thefar greater freedom of action which has to be given to thesubordinate. The ill effects of errors in their composition,or in the manner in which they are 'obeyed, can frequentlybe remedied only with the very greatest difidculty. Finally,the time available for their drafting by the superior, or theirstudy by the subordinate, is often very scanty.The foregoing theoretical classification, although useful inindicating the considerations which underlie the drafting ofdifferent kinds of orders, is not a suitable one in the field,and on service orders should be divided into : (1) StandingOrders, (2) Eoutine Orders, and (3) Operation Oi'ders.Standing Orders in war time are practically what they

    are in peace, namely, permanent regulations dealing withlocal circumstances; they hold good irrespective of thefortunes that befall the opix)sing forces. They exist in peacetime in every district, garrison, camp and unit, and sj)ecialones are issued at the commencement of campaigns and evenof autumn manoeuvres. The care and completeness withwhich they are drawn up have no small eflect in reducingthe labour of writing orders for subsequent operations.

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    GENERAL PRINCIPLES. VStanding orders vary considerably with the theatre of warmanoeuvre, but a few examples will indicate their general

    Those issued by General Crawford for the Lightin the Peninsular War, will be found in extenso in

    I. of the ' Precis of Modern Tactics,' by Colonelsand Pratt. Those of the German army, for its next

    war, are contained in Part I. of its ' Felddienst-' (Orders for Field Service) ; those for its autumn

    are found in Part II. of the isame work,corps and divisions usually issue special ones inEvery Commander should frame orders for hiscommand, their existence should be assumed at all

    games and examinations, and orders drawn up at thesein answer to tactical questions, should contain no

    to Tuatters of daily interior economy and routine.examples are given in Chapter XII.

    Routine Orders are precisely the same in peacein war. They deal with the administration ofdiscipline, supply, pay, rewards, sanitation, replace-of wear and tear of personnel and materiel, and

    with matters which are only indirectly affectedthe movements of the enemy. They include all orders

    hold good for some length of time, such as referencesmeals, bands, bugle calls, hourly halts, appointment toetc., and should be issued quite separate from

    orders, and, as far as possible, at regular intervalshours, before noon when the force is stationary.

    Operation Orders are those issued for the movement orof troops in accordance with the dictates oi t-trategy

    tactics. They are entirely based on the actions of a realimaginary enemy, and are the only orders referred tothej remainder of this monograph, except in

    IX. and XII.

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    10 MANOSUVRE ORDERS.

    B. SYSTEM IN THE ISSUE OF ORDERS.On the barrack square small units may be watched by

    their leader and moved by his word of command, and whenassembled in larger bodies on the drill ground they can beguided by signals, or messages conveyed by orderlies as theoccasion for them arises. Once, however, troops are presentin large numbers, and distributed over considerable areas forreasons of strategy, tactics or supply, such hand-to-mouthmethods of command fail completely. The difficulty ofkeeping the leader fully informed of all that occurs entailsgreater decentralisation, and the limits to the supply of staffofficers and orderlies render imperative the adoption of somesystem which, by regularity and completeness, will reduceorders to a minimum.

    Such a system is more easily organised than would appearat first sight. The manoeuvring of troops in the field con-sists practically in the solution by the commander of a seriesof strategical or tactical problems which present themselveswhenever he receives information of suflicient importance towarrant a modification of his previous dispositions. Wlienthis occurs, the general considers the task he has to performand the means at his disposal, comes to a decision, and issuesthe necessary orders for carrying it out.

    XoNv the various kinds of ojierations which may be decidedupon are very limited in number, and all have certain pointsof resemblance. March orders may be given for an advance,a retreat or a flank movement ; combat orders may makedispositions for the attack or the defence of a position ; orhalt orders may distribute the force in camp, bivouacs orcantonments, and throw out outposts for their protectionbut beyond this there is little that troops under ordinarycircumstances can be called upon to perform. It is thuspossible to adopt for general use certain forms of written

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    GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 11which, with slight modifications, will be found nearlyapplicable.

    It will, no doubt, be objected that the method advocatedwriting orders according to certain forms is slc^w, cumber-

    and pedantic, that the infinite variety of the situationspresent themselves is so great that the instinct and

    of the commander are far better guides than anytypes, and that events, particularly on the battle-

    follow each other in such rapid succession that there isalways time to laboriously commit to writing orders of

    minor importance.All this is ver}" true, and order vjriting is, no doubt, irk-especially at war games and field days. But it mustremembered that verbal orders require to be at least as

    and complete as written ones, and the only labouris that of writing them down. And does this saving

    for the many advantages gained by writing? Let us consider what they are.The quantity of orders is diminished, for, before sending

    order which will take, perhaps, five minutes to write, itonly human to ask oneself whether, after all, it is worth

    Thus, the subordinate is given a freer hand, andshuttle-play of orderlies is lessened.The quality is increased, for phrases are more carefully

    especially those passages which have exceptionalsuch as information respecting the enemy, orfriendly troops.

    There is less likelihood of error respecting their meaning,the receiver can read them, if need be, aain_and again.Friction is avoided, for, in the case of misapprehension,

    can be fairly apportioned, and the umpire orcan say whether the error was due to want ofon the part of the issuer, or inaccuracy in the

    of a verbal message, or lack of ability on the part ofreceiver.

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    12 MANCEUVRE ORDERS.Finally, instruction is possible, and the director of the

    manceuvres can, without hesitation, place his finger on thevery paragraph which led to the disaster. With verbalorders control is almost impossible.

    In defence of the forms advocated, it may at once beadmitted that they are not intended for the use of experiencedleaders of men, but as a help to those whose opportunities ofhandling the three arms have, even on paper, been few andfar between. The habit of writing orders according to asealed pattern may, no doubt, lead at times to the omissionof some important point for which the pattern does notprovide. This should not happen, however, if care is used ;and system in the arrangement of orders unquestionablyincreases the facility with which their purport is grasped.This is no trivial consideration either, for orders, on service,often take long to filter down to the smaller units, and several,at least, of the recipients may have to be roused from sleepto read them by the light of dim lanterns prior to issuing thenecessary orders for their own commands.

    C. DESIDERATA.Orders should be clear, coucise and complete. "^ii|

    order is short when it does not contain a word tou much ;|com])lete, when there is not a syllable wanting ; clear, wheii|it can be comprehended at once by the meanest intellect'!(V. Hardegg). '

    What Orders should Contain.1. The latg^jt, information regarding the enemy and

    neighbouring meiidly troops, as far as it affects the sub-ordinate leaders.

    This forms the basis of the commanders intentions, andenables them to be more thoroughly understood.

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    GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 132. The aim and object of the operations, the inten-

    of the leader, and the action to be taken by the otherof the field force.

    It is most necessary that these be communicated as far asafiect the work immediately in hand. They enable

    to supply omissions in the orders and to meetcontingencies. In a word, they facilitate intelligent

    3. What is required of the various units. Thisbe briefly and concisely stated, but no doubt should be

    as to the wishes of the commander. The subordinatemust have instructions on those points that theyindividually and independently arrange for the attain-

    of the common object.The amount of detail that is gone into will depend upondegree of control the commander desires to exercise, andsmaller this is to be the more general will be the terms

    the orders. Thus instructions for a detached body, likelybe thrown on its own resources for some time, would bean expression of the views and wishes of the com-

    of the forces, than orders in the strict sense of the

    4. The place where the leader will be found. Thisreports to be sent with the minimum loss of time

    danger of miscarriage.

    5. The place, day and hour of issue. Between issue andthe situation may have undergone a material change.the subordinate have received other orders, he needsknow which of them, being the more recent, should beShould no subsequent instructions have reached

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    14 MANCEUTRE ORDERS.him, he will be enabled to judge how far he is justified intftkincr the serious respcmsibiliry of disobeyiniz.

    What Orders should Avoid.1. All unnecessary detail.The subordinate shouldknow ivhat he has to do, but he should not be told how he

    is to do it. He should notsave in cases requiring co-operationbe given instructions on points that he canindependently determine for himself, for they only tend tocramp his freedom of action. He is on the spot, and inminor matters is often the better judge of how things canbest be done. His is the responsibility, his should be theinitiative. This is especially the case with orders whichrequire a certain time in transmission, or which will have tobe carried out under circumstances that cannot be accuratelyforeseen.The rule applies also with regard to the selection of bodiesof men for certain duties. The superior gives orders only to

    those units immediately under him, and not to the fractionsof which they are composed. Thus, a brigade might beordered to furnish one battalion for an advanced guard, butthe selection of the battalion should be left to the brigadier.

    Further, " if troops are accustomed to have every detailof their normal duty pointed out in orders, they will getinto the habit of doing nothing when orders are not forth-coming " (V. der Goltz).A special form of this error, " the expression ' will awaitfurther orders ' should be most sparingly usedsuch ameasure paralyses subordinate leaders " (Moltke).

    2. All reasons for orders.They do not conduce toincreasing the confidence felt in the leader. Qui s'excuse,s'accuse. Besides, all men have not judicial minds, andmany a subordirute, though cajjable of giving admirable

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    GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 15to the orders he receives, may lack that trained judg-which is necessary to give due weight to the various

    on which the orders were based.Moreover, to err is human, and the leader's conjectures

    have been faulty even though success have been ulti-achieved. Enthusiasm and zeal are such potent

    in the field that no leader can afford to even run theof, in familiar phrase, " giving himself away."

    3. Prophecy, either as regards the enemy's doings or theto be taken in conseqtience.If orders forecast too much, they have to be rectified

    counter orders, and troops that feel they are being un-harassed are apt to become censorious and critical.

    4. All mention of a retreat, save perhaps in orders" a strategic movement to the rear." A retreat is, as athe result of a defeat, and it is very hard to foresee indirection it will be possible to retire.

    It will generally be made, if feasible, along the line thattroops have followed in their advance, but any arrange-

    that the general considers it necessary to make shouldcommunicated only to his chief staflf officer, or at most to

    few senior officers only.5. All unnecessary matter.This, besides making

    longer to take down, tends to obscure the pointsare really of importance to the recipient. A common

    is to quote superior orders at full length, or even tothem. It is nearly always preferable to make(taking care, of course, not to alter the sense) of

    is necessary for the subordinate to know.6. That vagueness of style or expression which leavessubordinate uncertain as to what his leader really wishes

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    MANfEUVRE ORDERS.is a serious blemish, and is not seldom the sign of a

    weak commander.How Orders should be Drawn Up.

    1. The sequence of ideas must be logical.The morethe orders follow the train of thought in the com-

    mind, the more readily will his intentions beThe normal process is as follows :(1) Consideration of the data of the problem, or, in

    other words, of the tactical and topographical situation(2) Weighing of the task presented by them, or by

    orders from su[)erior authority(3) Resolution of the action to be taken, and(4) Issue of orders for carrying it out.The first thing, therefore, to be set forth in all orders is

    the situation. This should include not only the position ofhostile and friendly troops, but also the condition of theenemy,if it be of a nature to especially encourage ourown forces.

    Information modifying that given on the map should beadded when it affects the operations, such as a bridge havingbeen destroyed, a river being in flood, or a canal having burstts banks.Then should come the decision of the commander as tothe action he intends to take, or else the task which hasbeen set him by higher authorityas the case may beand also any co-operation that will be given by neighbouringfriendly forces. This paragraph should be very concise. Itis developed in the next one, which details what is to bedone by the various units of the command.

    This is followed by the order for the ammunition columns,trains, ambulances, etc., and the last paragraph of all givesthe position of the commander during the march, combator halt.The principle of sequence should also be followed inallotting the rSles of the various units. They are generally

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    GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 17from front to rear and from right to left. Thus, in

    orders, the succession should be : advanced guard,body, flank guard and rear cruard ; while in defence or

    orders, each line should be detailed from right toIn cases where there is no real topographical succession,

    should be told off by arms and by seniority. Thisalso be the case in detailing the composition of a

    of which it was not desired to fix the order of marchan advanced or flank guard, the order of which would

    decided by its CO.).2. The style should be crisp and clear.Sonorous

    phrases are out of place in orders. Superfluousshould be avoided, but the longest sentence is pre-.^to a possibility of error. Only expressions universally ^should be employed. Orders should be divided '

    paragraphs which should be numbered. Headings toare unnecessary, but the word or w

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    18 MANn-:UVRE ORDERS.of HARLEY CROSS." There may be two liills of the sameheight, but even if there are not, the small figures are some-times hard to find. Double names should be given in full.Roads should be described by the name of two places onthem, and in the direction in which the troops are moving.The map referred to should be named, unless one has beenspecially issued to the force or else named in Standing Ordersas being the official one. Places not marked on the mapmay be described by reference to ones that are to be foundon it, e.g. " at HIP in SHIPBOURNE." Squares (e.g. D. 7),though useful in General and Special Ideas, should not bereferred to in orders : they would not be marked on mapsused on service.Any abbreviations of which the meaning is clear are per-missible ; units should be described hy the Army Listabbreviations* Any unit of which a portion is away onother duty should be described as that unit " less " theportion away. Thus, the Thirteenth Hussars which hadone squadron away should not be detailed as "2 squadrons13 Hrs." but as " 13 Hrs. less 1 squadron," unless, indeed, itwere intended to exclude the head-quarters from the order.The expressions " right," " left," " front," " rear," " on this

    side," " on the far side," etc., must be used with caution, andit is often wise to add" our " or " the enemy's." The pointsof the compass are, as a rule, safe. River banks are describedas right, or left, looking down stream. - --

    P.M. and A.M. should always be added to the time otday ; noon and midnight should be written in full; a night isindicated by the two dates, e.g. the idght of the 4/5 July.

    4 Although generally on the battle-field, and occasionallyon the line of march, se|>arate orders have to be iseued toindividual units, yet, whenever possible, joint orders should beissued to the whole command. This saves time and ensures

    * See Table 1. page 39.

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    GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 19unit being forgotten, and no point in the scheme beingunprovided for. It also enables every subordinate leaderknow what the others are doing.

    Separate orders are issued when necessary, for the ammuni-columns and baggage and supply sections of trains, on

    that specially concern them, such as communicationmagazines, refilling points, etc., but as much aboutas is necessary for the combatant units to know, should

    included in the general orders for the force.Specially organised detachments should have the com-

    as well as the composition named in orders.It conduces greatly to the rapidity with which orders are

    and their meaning comprehended, if they are writtena wide margin in which is given the distribution of thein a tabular form instead of including it all in the

    of the order,5. Orders should be preceded by a statement showing by

    authority they are issued, e.g. " Operation Orders byComg. 1st Division," and headed, on the right Bide

    the place and date of issue. Even if the body be one tem-formed (e.g. detachment, advanced guard, or outposts)name of the issuer should be added. Orders should beby a stafi" officer who will add to his signature his rank

    the title of the appointment he holds (or " General Staffhe belongs to it). Hour at foot of order.6. It is always well for the writer of an order to read it

    carefully, before issue, and ask himself whether it isto influence the recipient in the way only that is

    Clear writing is of the greatest importance.

    D. THE ISSUE OF ORDERS.With operation orders, that regularity of issue whichdistinguish routine ocders is out of the question, but

    s 2

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    20 MANCEUVRE ORDERS.every endeavour should be made to gret them out as early aspossible. The larger the command the longer they will taketo filter down, and in many cases (e.g. halt or march orders)an unduly late is.sue will seriously curtail the rest, not onlyof the minor statYs, but even of the troops themselves. Itmay be taken as a fair guide that, under circumstancesinvolving some little thought and consideration, divisionorders will take an hour and a half to prepare and issue, andbrigatle orders an hour. To this must be added the timethey take in transmission.

    Unlike Routine Orders, complete copies of OperationOrders ate not passed, on to the smaller units, but are onlyissued to the larger bodies immediately under the issuer'scommand. What these are will depend cn the situation.Thus, if the troops are more or less collected, the units willbe those mentioned in the Order of Battle. Division orderswould be given to the three brigades, the Divisional squadrons,the Divisional artillery, the Divisional engineers, the Ammu-nition column and train, and the field ambulances. If, how-ever, the force were distributed, the orders would be sent tothe bodies created by such distribution. Thus, on the lineof march copies would be sent to the protective cavalry, ifany, the advanced guard, the main guard, flank guard, andammunition a)lumns, and train.The rank of the representatives sent for operation ordersis higher than that of those who receive routine orders.They should be, as a rule, the staff officers of the units theyrepresent (though on the battle-field they will not un-frequently be the commandiuij officers themselves). Thisis desirable so that the general or his C.S.O. may be able tosupplement the orders with any explanation on minor pointswith which be doe.s not desire to burden the orders, and alsoso that the sufierior staff may be given full informationregarding tlie situation of the subordinate units.

    This is especially desirable after a battle, and officers

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    QKJJERAL PRINCIPLES. 21for orders should be carefal to bring with them j

    information which is likely to be of use, such as amount Iammunition and other supplies in possession, serious \

    captures of personnel and materiel that have beenposition of enemy and our own troops, and so on.

    It is not always possible, however, to assemble all theand copies may have to be sent to distant

    or else some unit which is on the way to another maydirected to pass on the original. Important orders shouldcarried by officers, and if there is danger of their being

    a dupHcate copy should be sent by a differentAfter orders have been dictated, one of the recipients

    read them aloud for errors to be corrected, watches |be set by headquarters-staff time, and the original '

    of the orders should have noted upon it, at foot, the /of transmission and actual numbers of all the copies,should be numbered coQsecutively.E. COMPLIANCE WITH ORDERS.

    1. " A formal order is never to be departed from, either inor spirit, so long as the officer who issued it is present,

    can see what is going on ; or, if he cannot see what ison, provided there is time to report to him withoutan opportunity or endangering a command.

    2. A departure from either the spirit or the letter of anis justified if the subordinate who assumes the respon-

    is conscientiously satisfied that he is acting as hiswould order him to act if he were present.

    3. If a subordinate, in the absence of a superior, neglectsdepart from the letter of his orders, vvlien such departureclearly justified by circumstances, and failure ensues, hebe held responsible for such failure." (F.S.K.)

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    22 MANOSUVRE ORDERS.

    CHAPTER II.INSTBUCTIOIf IN WBITING ORDERS.

    To write good orders a certain amount of practice isnecessary; the difficulty is how to obtain it. Even weremanoeuvres more frequent than they are, everyone cannotserve on the staff. IStaflf rides form an excellent mode ofinstruction, but they demand a certain amount of time, aresomewhat ex])ensive, and are rather beyond the reach ofjunior regimental officers.The best substitute is, perhaps, what may be called aMap Staff Ride, or War Game for orders only. The writerhas seen it produce such excellent results that he venturesto offer some hints for its organisation.

    It is somewhat like the ordinary war game, but differsfrom it in the following important respects :

    (a) The maps used are the one-inch OrdnanceSurvey.

    (b) No metal blocks are used to represent the troops.(c) The gam.e lasts one hour.(d) No conversation takes place save during the

    critique ; while the game is going on the umpire onlyreads out the situations and special ideas, and the playersmerely read out the orders they issue.

    (e) The special ideas are only communicated a fewminutes before the orders have to be given.

    (/) The same does not cease as soon as the playerscome to close quarters, but includes such operations asretreats, }mrsuits, etc.

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    INSTRUCTION IN WRITING ORDERS. 23To go now more into details. As the only requirementsa few one-inch maps and a couple of rooms, the game isconveniently played regimentally, one of the majorsas umpire or instructor, two captains commanding the

    forces, and subaltern officers acting as their sub-leaders. No assistant umpires are necessary.

    The day prior to the game each side is told :{a) The general idea(6) The situation(c) The commands the players hold

    no special ideas are given out beforehand, the intentioDto accustom officers to make up their minds quickly.At the commencement of the game one side comes into

    room, is given its special idea, and, after a few minutes'(but not consultation), issues its orders, thecommencing and the subordinates then reading out

    ones they issue, in consequence, to their respective units.instructor then criticises the orders qua orders, but nota tactical point of view. The side now withdraws, and

    opponents have their turn.The first two sets of orders will probably be for a march.In the second stage of the game the umpire, having judgedcircumstances under which the opposing forces will comecontact in accordance with these orders, gives specialinvolving a combat. Otherwise the procedure is theas before.

    In the third stage one side will probably have to issuefor a retreat out of action, and the other for a pursuit.

    Should there be a fourth stage, one side bivouacs, thegoes into billets, and both throw out qutposts; butany case the hour is not exceeded.

    Both sides now come in together, learn the special ideasto their opponents, and listen to a short critique on the

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    24 MANCEUVRE 0RDEK6.of the game by the umpire, or perhaps the colonel

    has been present. This last phase should not exceed aof an hour.

    lill the players are fairly proficient, the orders should beritten (Army Book 153 being used), and each game limited

    to a cou])ie of stages. Later on the orders may be givenverbally from brief notes, and three or four stages can beanaged. Similarly, the opposing forces should at first benly small detachments (the three arms being represented).When practice comes, mixed brigades may be used, but it is

    to employ divisions. Not only would the com-mands be too large for the experience of the players, but theorders would take too long to write.The tactical exercise just described, besides affordingpractice in writing orders to officers who would not get itat manoeuvres, has certain special peculiarities of whichevery advantage should be taken.

    Apart from the essential differences between peace andwar, the conditions which obtain at manoeuvres are unlikethose of a campaign in several respects which are the out-come of financial considerations. The units are on a peacefooting, the larger bodies are seldom organised in accordancewith field force tables, and movement is restricted to groundwhere the damage will be trifling. Bivouacs and billet-ing are rather exceptional, and standing camps the rule.

    These financial considerations, however, have no effect atwar games ; it is therefore specially to be recommended thatthe opportunity should be seized to practise at them ordersfor those operations which seldom take place atmanoeuvres, such as retreats, pursuits, bivouacs, bil-leting, post-combat arrangements on the battle-field, and so on.The non-combatant units must always be present, andinstructions must be issued for the movement or disposal of

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    INSTRUCTION IN WRITING ORDEIIS. 25ambulances, hospitals, bfnrgage and supply j-ections ofammunition columns, etc.

    All units should be at war strength, and the opportunitybe taken of gettincr accustomed to the compositionorganisation of our field army, the forces employed in the

    being taken from the Division to which the regimenton mobilisation. This, besides imparting instruction,

    additional interest to the game.

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    26 MANCEUVRB ORDERS.

    CHAPTER III.TABLES AND DATA.A. WAR ESTABLISHMENTS.*

    1- A Cavalry Brigade (with the Cavalry Divisions) con-sists of

    Headquarters.3 Cavalry Regiments, and 1 Signal Troop.

    Total : 1,718 personnel of all ranks.1,873 horses.

    6 machine guns ; 1 motor car.50 other vehicles.73 bicycles ; 3 motor cycles.

    2. A Cavalry Division consists ofHeadquarters.4 Cavalry Brigades.Cavalry Divisional Troops

    Cavalry Divisional ArtilleryHeadquarters.2 Horse Artillery Brigades.

    C'avalry Divisional EngineersHeadquarters. I 1 Signal Squadron.1 Field Squadron. |

    1 H.Q. Cavalry Divisional Army Service Corps.i Cavalry Field Ambulances.

    Total : 9,269 peisonnel of all ranks.9,815 horses.

    24 13-prs. ; 24 machine guns.425 other vehicles.23 motor cars.

    412 bicycles ; 18 motor cycles. Certain uuiis only have been insfrtid in this chapter. For other units

    vide "War Kstablishments, which gives all details in full. "First LineTran!

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    TABLEvS AND DATA. 2/3. An Infantry Brigade consists of

    Headquarters.4 Infantry Battalions.

    Total : 4.05.5 personnel of all ranks.247 horses.8 machine guns.

    67 other vehicles.36 bicycles.

    4. A Division consists ofHeadquarters.3 Infantry Brigades.Divisional Troops

    Divisional Mounted Troops1 Squadron Cavalry.

    Divisional ArtilleryHeadquarters.3 Field Artillery Brigades.I Field Artillery (Howitzer) Brigade.1 Heavy Artillery Battery and Ammunition1 Divisional Ammunition Column. [Column.

    Divisional EngineersHeadquarters.2 Field Companies.

    Divisional Signal Service1 Signal Company.

    1 Divisional Train.3 Field Ambulances.

    Total : 18.073 personnel of all ranks.5,592 horses.

    76 guns.24 machine guns.876 other vehicles.

    9 motor cars.275 bicycles.9 motor cycles.

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    28 MAN(EUVRE ORDERS.5. The Headquarters of a Cavalry Division consiBts

    15 officers, SI other rank^, 64 horses, 16 motor cars,1 water cart and 2 G.S. wagons (cook's and baggage),1 pack animal.

    6. The Headquarters of a Division consists of15 officers, 67 other ranks, 54 horses, 5 motor cars,

    1 water cart, 1 G.S. wagon (cook's), 2 G.S. wagons(supplies), and 1 pack animal.

    7. The Headquarters of a Cavalry Brigade consistsof

    6 officers, 41 other ranks, 33 horses, 1 cook's cart,1 motor car, 7 bicycles, 1 forage cart, 1 G.S. wagon(baggage).

    8. The Headquarters of an Infantry Brigade consistsof

    4 officers, 23 other ranks, 23 horses, 1 cook's cart. 3 G.Swagons (entrenching tools and baggage), and 1 foragecart (supplies).

    9- A Cavalry Regiment consists of24 officers, 5U> other ranks, 510 riding, 74 draught and

    6 pack horses. It is organised in headquarters, machinegun section and o squadrons. Each squadron consistsof 6 officers, 152 other ranks and 1G9 horses, and isdivided into 4 troops each of 4 sections.The regimental transport consists of: for headquarters3 bicycles, 1 INIaltese cart for medical equipment,1 G.S. wagon limbered for raft equii)ment, 1 watercart, 2 G.S. wagons (cook's and baggage), and 1 packhorse for veterinary equipment ; for each squadron2 G.S. limbered wagons for S.A.A. and tools andsignalling equipment, 1 G.S. wagon (baggage), and2 pack horses; for machine gun section4 G.S.limbered wagons for machine guns, tripods and S.A.A!

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    TABLES AND DATA. 2910. A Horse Artillery Brigade consists of

    Headquarters, 2 baiteries and an ammunition column.Headquarters consists of H officers, 35 other ranks and37 horses. Each battery consists of 5 officers. 200other ranks (including attached), 102 riding and 12Gdraught horses. It is armed with six 13-pr. gunaand divided into 3 sections. Tiie ammunition columnconsists of 4 officers, 223 other ranks and 280 horses.The transport consists of: for headquarters3 bicycles.1 telephone wauon, 1 Maltese cart, 1 G.S. wagon(cook's), 1 G.S. wagon (baggage); for each batterygun carriages with limbers, 12 ammunition wagons,1 G.S. wagon (baggage), 3 bicycles, 1 water cart; forthe ammunition column1 water cart, 38 wagonswith ammunition, 2 G.S. wagons (baggage), and3 bicycles.

    11. A Field Ai'tiilery Brigade consists ofHeadquarters, 3 batteries and an ammunition column.Headquarters consists of 3 officers. 33 other ranksand 32 horses. Each battery consists of 5 officers.193 other ranks. 50 riding and 122 draught horses.It is armed with six 18-pr. guns. The ammunitioncolumn consists of 3 officers. 155 other ranks and196 horses.The transport consists of: Headquarters1 bicycle.1 Maltese cart. 1 telephone wagon, 1 G.S. wagon(baggage), 1 G.S. wagon (cook's) ; eacli batteryguns. 1 bicycle, 1 water cart. 12 ammunition wagons,1 G.S. wagon (baggage) ; ammunition column7 S.A.A. carts, 1 water cart, 25 wagons ivith ammuni-tion, 2 G.S. wagons (baggage), and 1 bicycle.

    N.B.The composition of the Field Artillery (How-itzer) Brigade differs slightly from the above.

    12. A Heavy Artillery Battery and AmmunitionColunm consists ofG ofl&cers, 190 other ranks and 144 horses. It is armed

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    TABLES AND DATA. 31a Divisional Signal Company (cable) consists of

    ofiScers. 155 other rank:-. 60 horses, 9 motor cycles,32 bicycles. Headquarters and -i sections, 9 detacli-ments, each capable of working 10 miles length ofcable with terminal offices, and o telephone detach-ments with 8 miles of cable and 10 portable telephones.Transport 1 cook's cart, 1 water cart. 3 cable wagons,6 light spring R.E. wagons. 1 forage cart.

    An Infantry Battalion consists of29 officers, 971 other ranks and oo horses and mules.

    9 bicycles. It is formed in headquarters, machinegun section and 4 companies. Each company con-tains 6 officers and 221 other ranks.The transport consists of: for headquarters9 bicycles,2 pack mules. 4: draught horses, 5 S.A.A. carts, 2wagons for tools. 1 Maltese cart, 2 water carts, 1 wagonG.S. ( : ok's) ; machine gun section1 limbered G.S.wagon, 1 S.A.A. cart ; each company2 pack animals,1 travelling kitchen.*A Divisional Train consists of

    H.Q. and -i companies A.S.C. with 26 officers, 402 otherranks and 378 horses. Its transport consists of 1Maltese cart, 5 forage carts, 4 water carts. 117 G.S.wagons and 7 carts for supplies, baggage, stores, etc.,8 G.S. wagons (cook's), 23 bicycles, 4 motorcars.

    A Cavalry Field Ambulance consists of6 officers, 118 other ranks including attached, and 78horses. It is formed in two sections, each of whichconsists of one half of the bearer division and onehalf of the tent division.

    Its transport consists of 2 water carts, 2 forage carts,4 six-horsed ambulance wagons, 6 two-horsed ambu-lance wagons, 3 G.S. wagons for baggage, etc, 1 G.S.wagon (cook's), and 2 bicycles.

    When this is provided the G.S. wagon (cook's) will not be issued to Il.y.

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    32 MANCEUVRB 0RDEB8.20. A Field Ambulance consists of10 oflBcers, '2-i2 other ranks including attached nnd G6

    horses. It is formed in three sections, each of whichconsists of one-third of the bearer division and one-third of the tent division.Its transport consists of S water carts, 3 forage carts.10 ambulance waijons,^ G.S. wagons for baggage, etc.,1 cook's cart and 1 bicycle.

    Xote.For other formations and unitsas well as for tablesgiving in detail the distribution in tlie field of amu'unition,rations, forage, tools and explosivessee " War Establishments,Part I., Expeditionary Force 1914."

    B. AMMUNITION COLUMNS AND TRAIN.The principle of always establishing a superiority of numbers

    at the important point demands that when there is any prospectof an encounter with the enemy every consideration shouldgive way to that of bringing the largest number of troopspossible on to the battle-field in the shortest titue.The non-combatant part of tlie larger formations, such asarmies or divisions, takes up, however, nearly as much road

    space as do the combatant troops, and it becomes necessary toeliminate from the fighting columns whatever is not necessaryin battle. The units can then be closed up, and the baggage,etc., can march in greater security some distance in reaj.The transport of each unit is therefore divided into

    1st line, which comprises all that is necessary in action,with the addition of cook's vehicles and water carts. Itinvariably accompanies the unit.2nd line, which includes the supplies and stores whichare necessary in bivouac or billets. It is mobilized withthe unit and accomj.anies it oversea, but on reaching thearea of concentration it is withdrawn and organized in theA.S.C. "Trains."* Each company of the "Train" isorganized in two sectionsBaggage and Supply.* The baggage of R.E. units, ammunition columns and field ambulauce.-^,remains with tiiese uiiita.

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    TABLES AND DATA. 33This principle must at the same time not be carried too far,the endurance of the troops will be unduly tried. It gives

    discomfort for men to be separated for long from theirand they should, as a rule, be in possession of it every

    In a similar manner the non-combatant portion of a divisiondivided into those units which are needed in action : thecolumn and field Jimbulancesand those whichnot : the baggage and supply sections of the train. When

    is probable, the columns to march nearest the troopsbe those they needed in action. When the enemy is

    distance the comfort of the men would be the first con-

    Koughly speaking, the system for supplies is as follows :

    From To Carried by Underorders ofBaseStation

    Regulating StationRailheadRendezvous |Refilling Points \

    Points Troops

    I Railway( SupplyJ Columns (M.T.;( Mechanical transportJ Supply section of( Trains

    \ Inspector-f General of- Communi-

    1 cationj (l.G.C.)Army orDiv. Com-mander

    Thus the supply column (JNI.T.) leaves Railhead early eachso as to reach the Refilling Point ordered by 9 or 10 a.m.

    section of train meets it there, fills up with suppliesrejoins force as ordered. Supplies issued to units samemeals cooked iind eaten by troops, balance of supplies

    in cooks' vehicles which accompany units when theyain march. Supply section of train returns to Refillingcarrying any sick or wounded. wJiom it hands over tocolumn (M.T.) when drawing fresh supplies next day.

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    MANCEUVRE ORDERS.The normal arrangement of these bodies in a Division would

    be somewhat as follows :(a) If fighting were likely

    Combatant troops.(Distance of say 2 miles.)

    Ammunition Columns.Field Ambulances.

    (Distance of say ^ to 8 miles.)Train.

    (b) If fighting were unlikelyCombatant troops.

    (Distance of 1 to 2 miles.)Baggage section of train.

    (Distance of 4: to S miles.)Supply sections of train (after refilling).Ammtumtion Columns.

    The foregoing typical disposition is one that would probablybe adopted under normal circumstances when not in actualcontact with the enemy, but it would not be always suitable.The orders given to the train and ammunition columns dependentirely on the position of the enemy.

    If he is in front it may(1) Park, and await instructions.(2) Follow at a specified interval (of time or space).

    If he is on a flank it may(1) March close up to the column,(2} Follow a parallel road.

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    TABLES AND DATA. 35If he is in rear, and the force retreating, it wouldBe sent on in front.During a combat it will generally park and await events.

    Trains should not be ordered to form up along main roadssuitable formation is either parked on some open space orcolumn of route on a bye-road with the leading vehicle at the

    with the main road along which the march will takeBa.sfgage should be in the same order of march as the

    to which it belongs, and the vehicles of each unit shouldin the following order : 1, supply ; 2, kits, etc. ; 3, stores.For nature of orders to baggage and other columns, see

    38.*

    C. ROAD SPACES.These are calculated for infantry in fours, cavalry in

    artillery and train in column of route, spare, ledpack horses in pairs. The combatant column includesline transport Vehicles with 6 horses require 20 yards,

    four horses 15 yards, and with 2 horses 10 yards.not in draught require i yards. Bicycles, motor

    and lorries in single file 6 yards. The distance betweenis 25 yards. Between one battery and another or between

    transport of units it is 10 yards.Allowance for opening uut. " Add 20 per cent, in the casegood marchers or mounted troops : from 25 to 40 per cent,mdiiferent marchers. The full amount of opening out will

    * Detailed regulations with regard to trains, supply columns (.M.T.). etc.,recently been issued, and are to be tound in memorandum explaining

    reorganized systems of supply, etc., dated February 1, 1912 (79/ii9il), andpp. 162-163, F.S. Pocket Book, 1913.

    c 2

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    36 MAN(EUVRE ORDKRS.be reached wlien troops have been inarehiiigr for about anhour."

    I FightingExamples from F.S. Pocket Book.j

    Portion, i Transport.I Yards. Yards.

    Divisional Headquarters 20|

    80Infantry Brigade Headquarters .. 15

    |

    35Cavalry Regiment . . , . ' . . .

    ;570 ' 405

    ' Squadron i 160 80Battery R.H.A I 440,

    75 R.FA 390 65

    Field Company|

    400 90Infantry Battalion

    ,625

    , 320

    At the commencement of a march 1 minute may be allowedfor a squadron to pass the starting point at a walk, 2 minutesfor a field co. R.E. or a bearer co., 3 minutes for a batteryand 6 minutes for a battalion.For complete tables see F.S. Pocket Book. pp. 32-36, 1913

    Edition.

    D. RATES OF MARCHING.Brigades of infantry under favourable circumstances will

    march 3 miles an hour, field artillery 4 miles, cavalry and horseartillery 5 miles, but with larger bodies the rate is slower, asevery check is felt right through the whole column. Moreover,in contact with the enemy, mixed bodies move at the rate ofthe slowest arm. A division will not get over more than 2h miles

    hour, or an army on one road more than 2 miles. Cavalryover ordinary coimtry at about 5 miles an hour

    marcij at 2^ miles an hour.

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    38 MANOEUVRK ORDERS.

    H. ORDERS FOR TRAINS. AMMUNITIONCOLUMNS, ETC.Operation Orders No.... Copy No....

    by Place.comg Date ofReferences to "Map. issue.

    1- Information ^e the movements of the combatant units.2. March or Halt Orders for

    Trains, ammunition columns, field ambulanceB, parks, etc.

    3. Special Orders for vehicles to(a) Join combatant units.(&) Return to depots to fill up.

    4. Reports and Returns respecting moveuients, suppliesavailable, casualties, etc., to be sent to

    (a) Head Quarters.(h) Units concerned.

    How communicated and hour. Signature.Copy No... .to by

    "at

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    ABBREVIATED TITLES OF REGIMENTS. 39^ABBREVIATED TITLES OF REGIMENTS

    AS FROM ARMY LIST.Regiment.

    Horse GuardsLife GuardsDragoon GuardsDragoonsHussarsLancers

    Horse Artillery Field Garrison Engineers

    Guards...

    and Sutherland HighlandersEegt. . .

    Eegt., RoyalRegtHighlandersRegt.RangersLight Infantry, Duke ofRegtRegt

    Fusiliers, Royal. .Light Infantry...

    Essex RegtTGloucestershire Regt. . .Gordon Highlandersampshire Regt

    Army List Abbreviation.R.H.G.1 L.G.1 D.G.1 Dns.3Hrs.5 Lrs.R.H.A.R. Fd. Art.R. Garr. Art.R. Eng.C. Gds.G. Gds.I. Gds.S. Gds.Arg. & Suth. Highrs.Bedf. R.R. Berks. R.Bord. R.Cam'n Highrs.Ches. R.Conn. Rang.D. of Com. L.I.Devon R.Dorset R.R. Dub. Fus.Durh. L.I.Essex R.Glouc. R.Gord. Highrs,Hamps. R.

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    MAN(EUVRE ORDERS.Regiment. Army List Abbreviation.

    Highland liipht Infantry

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    ABBREVIATED TITLES OF REGIMENTS. 41Regtment.

    Eegt., EastRegt.. Royal WestRegt., RoyalBorderers, South...

    Regt., RoyalFusiliers, Royal ...Regt. ...Regt

    RegtRest.

    & Lancaster Regt.Light InfantryRegtRegt., East ...Regt., West ...

    Medical Corps, RoyalService CorpsVeterinary Corps...

    Regt. ...& Suffolk Cyclist Bn.Regt.

    rtfordshire Regt.Cyclist Bn.Cyclist Bn. ...Regt

    Regt.Cyclist Bn.

    African Regt.India Regt. ...

    Army List Abbreviation.Suff. R.E. Surr. R.R. W. Surr. R.R. Suss. R.S. Wales Bord.R. War. R.R. W, Fus.Welsh R.W. Rid. R.Wilts R.Wore. R.York & Lane. R.Yorks L.I.York R.E. York R.W. York R.

    R. A. Med. Corps.A. S. Corps.A. Vety. Corps.Camb. R.Essex & Suff. Cvclist

    Bn.Hereford R.Herts. R.Highl. Cyclist Bn.Kent Cyclist.Lond. R.Mon. R.N. Cyclist Bn.W. Afr. R.W. L R.

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    MARCH ORDERS. 43Body inorder of march.

    Cavalry.Infantry.Artillery.Infantry.Engineers.

    (or Left)Flank Guard.CO.

    Cavalry.Artillery.Engineers.Infantry.

    Guard.CO.Troops.

    etc., inorder of march.

    AmmunitionColumn.Field Ambulances.

    Trains.Bridging Train.

    etc., etc.

    communicated and hourNo.. ..to by

    at...m.

    5. Order for Advanced Guard.Starting point.Any special duties.

    6. Order for Main Body.Starting point.Hour of start.

    7. Order for Flank Guard.Place and hour at which it leaves

    the main column.Direction of reconnaissances, orHow long any position is to be held.

    8- Order for Outpost Troops.Hour of withdrawal.Instructions for joining the column.

    9. Order for Rear Guard.10. Order for Trains, etc.

    Escort.Hour and formation of Assembly.Direction of march.Hour of start, or distance in rear.Place at which to await further

    orders.11- Special Instructions.

    Refilling Points, etc.12. Communication by

    Signalling, etc.Position where G.O.C. willmarch, and to which reports areto be sent.

    Signature.

    13.

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    44 MANCBUVRE ORPERS.

    B. OUTLINES FOR ADVANCED GUARDORDERS.Operation Orders No.... Copy No....by Place.comg Date of

    Keferences to " Map. issue.Advanced Guard i. Information rewarding-

    Cavalry, (a) Enemy.CO. (fe) Our own forces.Troops. (c) Topography.

    Vanguard. 2. Intentions of O.C. AdvancedQ Q Guard.Eng^Jers. ^- Distribution of Troops.

    4. Order for Advanced GuardMain Guard in Cavalry.

    order of march. Place and hour of start.Cavalry. Direction of march.Infantry. Reconnoitring.Artillery. Special tasks.Infantry.

    *>. Order for Vanguard.Right Cor Left) Point and hour of start.Flank Guard. R^ad to be followed.Q Q Any special instructions.En^n^rs. ^- Order for Main Guard.Infantry. Starting point.Hour of start, or (preferably)

    Distance in rear of vanguard. At night or in close country.

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    MARCH ORDERS. 457. Order for Flank Guard.Point and hour at which it will

    leave main column.Road to be followed.Directions for reconnaissances.Instructions re occupation of any

    position.8. Order for Outposts.Hour of withdrawal.Place they will take in the column.

    9. Arrangements for Signalling.^Maintenance of communication be-tween different portions of A.G.,

    also with Main Body.10. Position of O.C. Advanced Guardon the march.

    How communicated and hour. Signature.No,. ..to by

    at...m.

    C. OUTLINES FOR ORDERS FOR ARETREAT.Operation Orders No. . . Copy No. . .

    by Place.comg ^ Date ofReferences to "Map. issue.tn order 1. Information regarding

    of march. (a) The enemy.(6) Our own forces.Guard.

    2. Intentions of the G.O.C.ngineers

    3, Distribution of Troope.

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    46 MAN(EUVRE ORDERS.Main Body ^- Order for Trains.

    order of march. Escort.Eno-ineers Hour and formation of assembly.Infantrv

    * Direction of march.Artillery. Hour of start.Infantry. 5. Order for Advanced Guard.Cavalry. Starting point.Hour of start.

    Rear Guard. Instructions re defensive prepara-Q Q tions.Cavalry. 6. Order for Main Body.Artillery. Starting point.Infantry. Hour of start.Route.

    Flank Guard. Distance from rear guard. *O.c. '^- Order for Rear Guard.Cfivalry Point and hour of start.Artillery. Any reconnoitring.Infantry. Special demolition duties.

    8. Order for Flank Guard.Point and hour of start.Road to be followed.Reconnaissances.

    9. Order for Outposts.Hour of withdrawal.Position in column of route.

    10. Arrangements for Signalling.11. Position of O.C, to which re-

    ports will be sent.How aymmunicated and hour. Signature.

    Copy No.. ..to byat..,m.

    * In savage warlart.

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    MABCH ORDERS. 47

    MARCH ORDERS FOR A MIXED BRIGADE.Copy No....

    Orders No.... Crown Hotel,by Maj.-Gen. X. Comg. 9th Infy. Bde. MOTTRAM,Eeferences to " Map No.... 2/7/11.Guard. 1. The Enemy has occupied HEY-O.C: Lt.-Col. Brown.'B' Sqdn. 13 Hrs.

    (less 1^ troops),let. Bn. Oxf. & BucksL.I.

    2.Body, in orderof march.

    1 troop ' B ' 13 Hrs. ^2nd Bn.R.W. Kent R.28th Batt. R. Fd. Art. 4.Ist Bn. Durh. L.I.4th Bn.Rif. Brig., less

    1 coy.(now outposts).5.

    etc., in order ofmarch.

    No. 9 Fd. Ambce.No. 10 Co. A.S.Corps. .Train. ^

    Guard.1 coy. 4th Bn.Rif. Bde.1 sect. 13 Hrs. '^

    WOOD. Hi^ cavalry patrols arereported in BLACKLEY andROWTON.The 10th Brigade bivouacs atDENTON.

    The 2th Brigade will resume theoflfensive to-morrow.

    The Distrihution is given in themargin.

    The Advanced Guard will march onOGDEX, reconnnoitring towardsLIDGATE, driving back anyhostile bodies.

    The Main Body will follow theadvanced guard by ASHWAY,moving from the starting point,the Foundry, at 6 a.m.

    The Outposts will close as soon asthe advanced guard Las passedtheir line, and join the main bodyat BIRCH chapel.

    The Ambulance and Baggage sectionof the Train will follow the mainbody, and start from the Foundryat 7.30 a.m. The supply section ofthe Train will proceed to STOCK-HAM, refill there and rejoin force

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    48 M^ANCEUVRE ORDERS.OGDEN by 4 p.m. Escort : 1 sect.13 Hrs. under an officer.

    8. Bde. Sig. Officer will establish andmaintain signalling communica-tion between units and G.O.C.

    9. The G.O.C. will march at head ofmain body.Dictated to reps, of units.Copy No.... to O.C. outposts by Corp. X. (Signature)

    at 5 p.m. No.. ..to by

    E. ADVANCED GUARD ORDERS(Based on prev. orders). Copy No...,

    Operation Orders No.... Red House,by Lt.-Col. Brown, Comg. A.G. MOTTRAM,References to " Map No.... 2/7/11

    Advanced Guard 1. The Enemy has occupied HEY-Cavalry. WOOD. His cavalry patrols are'B' Sqdn. 13Hrs. reported in BLACKLEY and

    (less 1^ troops). ROWTON.The lOth Brigade has reachedVanguard. DENTON. The 9th Brigade re-O.C. : Maj. Smith. sumes the offensive to-morrow1 coy. 1st Bn Oxf.& Bucks L.I. 2. The Advanced Guard will march

    to-morrow on OGDEN. StartingMain Guard. point, the Foundry.I sect. ' B ' sq. 13 Hrs.1st Bn. Oxf. & Bucks 3. The Distribution is given in t)ie

    L.I. (less 1^ coys.). margin.4, The Adv. Gd. Cavalry will march

    at 5.30 a.m. on OGDEN by ASH-WAY, and will reconnoitre towardsLIDGATE. Communication to bekept up with 10th Brigade.

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    MARCH ORDERS. 4!>Flank Guard.CO. : Capt. Robinson.

    2 platoons. Ist Bn.Oxf. & Bucks L.I.

    No.... toO.C. B Squad. 1-

    by orderly.6 p.m.

    5. The Vanguard will start at samehour and move on OGDEN byASHWAY.

    6. The Main Guard will follow with aquarter of a mile distance.

    7. The Left Flank Guard will marchat 5.30 a.m. to HANK HILL, whichit will hold till the main guard hascrossed the PIKE brook. It willthen rejoin the column.

    8. The Sig. Officer (Oxf. & Bucks L.I.)will establish communication by sig-nalling between the parts of theA.G. and O.C.

    9. I shall march at the head of themain guard.Hrs. A. Brown,

    Lt-Col. Oxf. & Buelis L.L,Comg. Adv. Guard.F MARCH ORDERS FOR ADIVISION. Copy No...

    Operation Orders No.... Town Hall,by Maj.-Gen. X., Comg. Fourth Division. FLOCKTON,

    Eeferences to " Map No.... 16/7/11Protective Mounted I. The Enemy was defeated yesterday

    by our First Army at HALIFAX,and has retired behind the riverRENDLE.The bridges at KIRKBY and NOR*TON have been destroyed.

    Troops.A Squad. 13 Hrs.Advanced Guard.*CO. Brig.-Gen. Y.1 Battery 25th Bde.R.Fd.Art.

    * The units of the Advanced Guard are not shown " in order of inarch." a*,would be given by the Advanced Guard Commander in his own Advancedorder. The battery allotted would be selected by the O.C. 25th Bdg.

    A., and the two BattaliouB by their Brigadier ; their number or r.ameii a:therefore given iu the Division operation order.

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    50 MANCEUVRE ORDERS.7th Fd. Co. R.Eng. 2.10th Infy. Brigade,

    less 2 Bns.Bearer Sub-Div. 9th ?>.

    Fd. Ambulance. 4.Main Body in orderof march.

    2 Bns. lOth Infy.Brigade.

    4th (8ignal)Co. R.Eng.25th Brig. R.Fd.Art.

    (less 1 Battery).29th Brig. R.?M.Art. ^32nd Brig. R.Fd.Art. "37th Brig. R.Fd.Art.

    (Howitzer).24th (Heavy) Battery

    R.Garr.Art.11th Infy. Brigade. ^12th Infv. Brigade.9th Fd. Co. R.Eng.Bde. Amm. Column

    R.Fd.Art. 7.Amm. ColumnR.Ciarr.Art.

    9th Fd. Amb. (less 8.Bearer Sub-div.).10th Fd. Ambulance.

    12th Fd. Ambulance.4th Divisional Ammn.Column. 9,4th Divisional Train

    ^Nos. o, 14, 25 &38 Cob. A. S.Corps.

    The Fourth Division will continueits advance to-morrow on DEWS-BURY.The Distribution is given in themarginTTie Divisional Squadron will marchat 6 a.m. on BIRSTAL, and willcover the front and right flankof tlie advance. An officer'spatrol will be sent at davbreak inthe direction of MIRFIELD.The railway is to be interruptednear BERRYDALE.The Advanced Guard will march byHEDLEY to the rising groundnorth of WROTE, which it willoccupy. Endeavour will be madeto repair the bridge at KIRK BY.

    The Main Body will march (startingpoint LINDFIELD paper mills)at 7.30 a.m., and move onBLACKTON.

    Water carts and cooks' vehicles willmarch with 1st Line transport ofall units.

    The Outpost Troops will concentrateat tlie Powder Mills as soon asthe advanced guard has passedthe line of piquets, and will jointhe column as detailed.

    The Brigade and Divisional Ammu-nition Columns and 3 Fd, Ambcs.will follow the Division, leavingLINDFIELD at 9.30 a.m. Escort2 Companies to be detached byG.O.C. 12th Brigade.

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    MARCH ORDERS. 51The Train will follow, marchins: assoon as it has refilled at Refilling:Points, ou BLAL'KTOX. Escort1 company to be detailed byG.O.C. 12th Brig.10. The O.C. Divl. Sig. Co. will arrangefor communication by field tele-phone, cyclists or signalling be-tween brigades and G.O.C.

    11. Reports will be sent to the G.O.C.at the head of the main body.

    to Brigade Majors, Adj. E.A., (Signature)Orderly Oflicers R.E. and E.A.M.C.Xo.... to O.C. Outposts by Sergt. Z.

    No.... to O.C. A Squadron 13 Hrs.by Corpl. Y., etc. etc. at 4 p.m.G. ARMY* MARCH ORDERS.

    Operation Orders No.... Copy No....bv Lt.-Gen Bull Inn,comg SOUTH WARNBOEOUGH,References to " Map. 3/7/11

    The First Cavalry Brigade having defeated the Enemy'sCavalry at HAETFOED BEIDGE FLATS and thrustit behind the river BLACKWATEE, has been ordered tomove northward to the THAMES.The Army is ordered to detach a Division in support.The remainder of the Force is to advance onCHEETSEY.The Army moves on GUILDFOED.The Army moves on CEANLEY.

    The Enemy is reported to have occupied the FEIMLEY-FEIMHUEST ridge with a force of all arms. The Ueut.-G^ueral intends to attack him.

    * A. group of Divisions. D 2

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    52 MAN(EUV^RE ORDERS.3. The Army will march to-morrow as under:

    First Division from UPTON GREY at 6 a.m. onREADING, via NORTH WARNBOROU(iII, underinstructions conmiuuicated diiect to the G.O.C. theDivision.Seoond Division from SOUTH WARNBOROUGHat 6 a.m. on BLACKWATER, via ODIHAM,ST. MARY'S and YATELEY COMMON.

    lliird Division from LONG SUTTON at 7 a.m. onGALLEY HILL and COVE.The Third Division will furnish a ri^rht flanking detachmentto march via CRONDALL and ALDERSHOT.

    The Protective Cavalry will march at 5 a.m. on STAINES.An officer's patrol will start at daybreak, reconnoitre theFOX HILLS as far north as the Canal, and report directto Army Head Quarters.The Bridging Trains and ISth Co. R.Eng. are placed at

    the disposal of the G.O.C. Second Division.The remainder of the Army Troops, Divisional Ammu-nition Columns and Field Ambulances will rendezvousat point 310 (1" map, f mile N.N.E. of SOUTHWARNBOROUGH) at 7.30 a.m., and follow theSecond Division, under command of Colonel K.The Trains of Divisions (First Div. excepted) andof Army Troops, on return from Refilling Points, willrendezvous at point 310 (see above) at 11 a.m., and followthe Second Division as far as HARTFORD BRIDGEFLATS, where they will park and await ordersThe Army Troops Battalion will furnish the escort ofthe above baggage and trains, and also the rear guard ofthis column.

    5. Army Head Quarters ^i\\\e(t.y&\^0\3Tn WARNBOROUGH7 a.m. and more to BLACKWATER, for BAGSHOT.

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    MARCH ORDERS. 53The Lieut.-General Comg. will start at 7 a.m., andmarch at the head of the main body of the Second

    Division (with which the Third Division will maintaincommunication).

    Dictated to D.A.A.G.'s of Divisions {Signature)and Adjutants of Corps Troops.

    No.... to General Hd. Qtrs. by Lieut. P. No.... Corps Cavalry by Sergt. N.

    at 10 p.m.

    H. MARCH ORDERS FOR A BRIGADE.(Up to assembly only.)

    Operation Orders No.... Copy No....by Brig.-Gen Blua Post,comg. 1st Cav. Brigade. SULHAM,

    References to " Map. 4/9/11Gd. 1. The Enemy is reported to have re-

    4 D.G. sumed his march northward, andto have occupied HARTON andBody, in order of THORPE with cavalrv. Hostilemarch. infantry has reached' HURST.

    9 Lrs. The wires were cut this morning" " R.H.A. between BURWOOD and WAS-Signal Troop R.Eng. ING.Fidd Troop R.Eng. ., q^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ to-morrowon UPTON, and the South Armyon ASHFORD.

    3. The Brigade will rendezvous to-morrow at .") a.m. in column ofroute on SULHAM-CRANFORDroad, advanced guard at CRAN-FORD. The distribution is de-tailed in the margin. The 3 Hrs.(now outp.'sts) will cover theassembly of tlie Brigade.

    3 Hi

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    54 MANOEUVRE ORDERS.4. The O.C. 4 D.G. wQl detail an

    officer's patrol to report at Bde.Hd. Qrs. ut 4.30 a.m. for instruc-tions.

    5. The Train and Fd. Ambce. willpark at POYLE at 6 a.m., andawait orders.

    6. Commanding Officers will reportpersonally to G.O.C. at CRAN-FOKD at 5 a.m. for orders.

    Dictated to Ordy. Officersat 10 p.m. {^Signature)Copy No....

    J. MARCH ORDERS FOR A DIVISION.(Assembly in two columns.)

    Operation Orders No. . . Copy Noby Lt.-Gen Hill House,comg. Fifth DiWsion. BURTON,

    References to ' Map No.... 6/9/11Bight Col. 1. No fresh news of the Enemy. Our

    G.O.C. Army crosses the FLODDEN to-13th Infy. Bde. morrow below SELLS.24th & ^Sth R. Fd. to-morrow in two columns, theirr^^Sj ?-^^T> -r, head of the right column leavingV

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    56 MAN(KUVRE ORDERS.otf, at one spot, the battalions destined to brins; up tbe rear ofan Army corps would have to remain five or six hours at theplace of assembly. It is better, therefore, to collect them intosmall bodies according to the situation of their night quarters,and to make these groups defile by the bye-lanes into the highroads and unite, just as tributary streams join one another andform a large river " (Von der Goltz).

    " The starting point is not that where all the details of thecolumn ought to join the main road, for troops may sometimesbe on the main road without having passed the initial pointit is the point after passing which each detail is to march inits proper order, and at its correct distance. It is selected infront of the cantonments, in order that all the troops may

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    MARCH ORDERS. 57changes during the night, and fresh instructions are re-from superior authority. For this reason the coursefollowedsave when the enemy is at some distanceis

    issue two sets of orders. One set, issued overni^rht, ordersassembly of the troops ; the second set, issued on the morrow,to the collected commanders of units shortly beforestart, contains the iutitructions for the move.

    Notes on the '* Army " Orders {Example G}. Para. 3. Itnot considered desirable to make public the orders given toCavalry Brigade. Para. 4. The EnL'iaeers have been sentthe left column (of the two), that being the one by which

    as far as present information goesthe main attack will beA patrol is sent to the Fox Hills, as it is not knownfar the enemy's left extends. Allusions to other Forces

    would usually give them under the names of theire.g. " General Grierson's Force," etc. Or theybe styled " Armies." See Definition F.S.R., Part II. 1909.

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    58 MANCEDVRE ORDERS.

    CHAPTER V.COMBAT ORDERS.

    A. OUTLINES FOR ATTACK ORDERS.Operation Orders No.... Copy No....by Place.comg Date of

    References to " Map. issue.1- Information.

    (a) Position or Approach of the Enemy (in detail).(b) Our own other Troops.2. General Intentions of the G.O.C.

    Nature, direction and points of attack.3. Order for the Artillery.

    (a) Position.(6) Target, and time of opening fire.

    4. Order for the Attack.(a) Secondary (in general terms).(6) Main : i. Commander ; ii. Route ; iii. Objeotive.

    5. Order for the Reserve.(a) Troo})s, and commander.(6) Distance at which it will follow, or position it willtake up.

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    COMBAT ORDERS. 596. Order for the Cavalry.

    (a) Distribution on the flanks.(6) Special patrols.

    7. Order for S.A.A. Reserve and AmmunitionColumn.8- Order for the Engineers.9. Order for the Dressing Stations and Field Am-

    bulances.Order for the Cooks' Vehicles and Trains.Position of G.O.C.communicated and hour. Signature.No.... to by

    at.

    ATTACK ORDERS FOR A MIXED BRIGADEOF ALL ARMS.Operation Orders Xo.... Copy No....

    by Brig.-Gen The Kectory,comg. 9th Brigade. PADWORTH,

    References to " Map. 2 /6/11. The Enemy, strength about 2 battalions, 1 troop. 1 battery,iu position on the crest of BRADFIELD DOWN. His

    rest on the single cottage north of PLAISTOW FARM,on the copse east of NORRIS. His cavalry is at

    2. The Brigade will attack the enemy in front the leftbeing pushed liome. This morning's march orders are

    3. The 12th Brigade R.Fd. Art. will come into action on thewest of HALL'S FARM. Target: the enemy's ariillery.

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    60 MANCEUVRE ORDERS.4. The Ist Bn. Oxf. & Bucks L.I. will make the secondary

    attack on both sides of the Great Western Road.Tlie main attack will be made thr()Uo:h CORDERY wood

    alon.s: the ridge south of STARVEACRE by the 2nd Bn.R. W. Kent \i. an.l ist Bn. Durh. L.I. Commander: Col. Smith.Objective: HOLLY COTTAGES.

    5. The 4th Bn. Rif. Brig, will form a reserve at disposal ofG.O.C., and will form up 300 yds. east of HAW LEY HOUSE.

    6. The 2 troops 'B ' sqdn. l^th Bus. will cover the left flankand send a patrol to SHINFIELD.7. The empty S.A.A. carts will return to the ammunitioncolumn and till up. Brigade Reserve S.A.A. will be atHAWLEY HOUSE.8. A dressing station will be established at HAWLEYHOUSE.9. The Cooks Vehicles will park at the R.M. COLLEGiv

    Trains will remain at refiUing-poiut till further orders.10. The G.O.C. will be near the Batteries.Verbally to O.C. units.Copy No.... to O.C. Cavalry by (Signature)Copy No.... to O.C. Baggage Column by

    at 9 a.m.

    C. ATTACK ORDERS FOR A DIVISION.Operation Orders No.... Copy No....

    by Lieut.-Gen Town Hall,Comg. Fifth Division. LIPPURE,References to " Map 16/7/11

    1. The Enemv has retired across the DODDER, destroyedthe bridges at KELLS and BANTRY, and occupied ROANEand the ridge north of the village with 8 battalions and 2 bat-teries. MAHER ford is passable for infantry.

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    COMBAT ORDERS, 612. The Division will attack the eneniy and envelop liiB left3. The Artillery will come into action forthwith near

    Target : the enemy's artillery.4. The 9th Infy. Brisrade will make the secondary attack ou

    village.The 10th Infv. Brigade will cro^is the DODDER byMAHEK ford and attack the ridge north of ROANE.o. The 11th Infy. Brigade will constitute a reserve at the

    of the Lieut.-General and form up at JOHNSTOWN6. The Divisional Squadron will cover the left flank. One

    will be posted on the right flank and patrol towards7. The Ammunition (Columns will at once advance to

    8. The R.E. Company will repair the bridge at KELLS.9. Field Ambulances will be established at (1) TAGGART(2) MITTAS.

    10. The Trains will halt on receipt of this order. Cooks'will park at last night's bivouac.

    11. Reports will be sent to the Lieut.-General at PRITTLEto Brig. Majorsand Adjutants. (Signature)

    No.... to O.C.A.G. by Lieut. Black. No.... Train by Sergt. K. at 8.30 a.m.

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    COMBAT ORDERS. 63Order for Dressings Stations and Field Ambulances.Order for Train.Position of G.O.C. (generally by main artillery posi-

    tion).How communicated and hour. Signature.

    E. DEFENCE ORDERS FOR A MIXEDFORCE OF ALL ARMS.Operation Orders Xo.... Copy No....by Major-Gen KELLY'S FAKM,

    comg. Teeth Brisrade. 4/5/11Keferences to " Map.1. The Enemy has not pursued beyond LISDUFF, and the

    at FAERANFOEE has been destroyed. A strong hos-column of tlie three arms occupied BANCE last night,patrols are reported in TARA and KILLEEX.The 9th Jnfy. Brigade marches from MANXERSTOWXthis morning to our support2. The 10th Infy. Brigade will take up a position at CAPPER,oppose the passage of the river DARTRY. This morning's

    orders are cancelled.3. Tlie Artillery will occupy positions in observation on

    slope of the spur X. of "the village, enfilading the roadTARA.4. The 27id Bn. Samps. R. will occupy the section from themill to tlie R.C. Chapel, both inclusive. The \st Bn.and Derby R. will hold CAPPER viUage.5. The Isi Bn. York R. and 2nd Bn. E. York R. will form the

    reserve X.E. of DRUM wooi under Lt.-v^ol. A. B.Capt. A. SMITH. D.A.A. and Q.M.G., will be

    as Staff OflBcer. Tlieir machine guns are attached to1st Bn. Notts and Derby R.

    6. The half squadron loth Hrs. will cover the left flank ; awill patrol towards KILLEEX.

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    C50MBAT ORDERS. 654. The ISth Infy. Brigade will occupy the west edge of

    woods.The Uth Infy. Brigade will occupy the line SHERLOCKvillage-BINFIELD WOOD, tx)th inclusive.5. The loth Infy. Brigade will form a general reserve at the

    of the Lieut.-General, and take post in the hollowof BOWLES GREEN.

    6. The Divisional Squadron will reconnoitre towardsand OAKBRIDGE. respectively.7. The wood and village (v. para. 4) will be prepared for de-The Field Co. R.Eng. will throw three foot-bridges acrossWINDLE brook between SHERLOCK and the flour-mill.8. The Ammunition Columns will form up one mile north ofGREEN, and the Fieki Ambulance at BIRLEY

    (lodge gate).9. The Train will refill by local requisitions and park at10. The Lieut.-General will be at BOWLES GREEN.

    to Brigade Majorsand Adjutants at 9 a.m. {Signature)to O.C. Advanced Guard by Sergt. X.

    Cavalry by Corp. Y.,, Amn. Col. by Sergt. K. (To be sent on to Train.)

    Notes on Defence Orders.Occupation of a Position. '' The defence is always based onand its great danger lies in too hasty or too tardy

    Character,judgment, foresight and luck are all requiredenable a general to keep every single man in his grasp untilknows what the enemy is doing, and then to employ the

    of his strength at the decisive point. Until the enemy'sE

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    Q6 MANCEUVRE ORDERS.approach is reported, or its direction ceases to be doubtful, andwliile the commander is uncertain whether he will have tomarcli or to fight, the troops should be collected in a prelimi-nary position in readiness for all emergencies." (' Instructionin Tactics.')

    Brigade Ammunition Columns. " The position of the columnsduring a battle will normally be regulated by artillery brigadecommanders in accordance with the instructions of divisionalartillery commanders. It may sometimes be necessary for thehigher commanders to issue sjiecial orders as to their positions.The positions selected should offer facilities for interconununi-cation and movement, and should be about a mile in rear of thebattery vcagon lines. When an action is imminent divisiojialammunition columns will be ordered to form reserves at conve-nient points. The position of these points will be fixed bydivisional headquarters, if necessary under instructions fromarmy headquarters, and should usually be about two miles inrear of brigade ammunition columns." (F. A. T. 1912.)

    Dressing Stations and Field Ambulances. Their position isdecided by the G.O.C. in whose command they are. It ishardly possible to change it the day of action, and for thisreason it should be selected with care and deliberation.A dressing station should be sheltered from rifle tire, and ifpossible also from that of artillery. A good road should com-municate with the front. Abundance of water and straw aredesirable. If available large well-lighted rooms siiould beutilised ; failing these, barns or tents may be used. About amile behind Ihe firing line is a suitable position for a dressingstation. A field ambulance should be about double this distance.

    Brigade Reserve S.A.A. is formed preparatory to an actionby detaching from each Battalion 2 IS.A.A. carts, i.e. about athird of its regimental reserve ; these follow in rear of theBrigade under an oflBcer detailed by the G.O.C.

    If the Brigade has to advance over broken ground or throughwoods, or otherwise inter-communication becomes diflicult, theBrigade S.A.A. carts may be distributed between battalions.(I. T. 1914.)

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    68 MAN(EUVRE ORDERS.B. OUTLINE FOR OUTPOST ORDERS.

    Copy No....Operation Orders No.... Place.

    by Date.conigReferences to " Map.

    1. Brief Statement of General Situation.Information re enemy and country in front.Position of our main guard and main body.

    2. Task of the Outposts.General line to be taken up (if extensive, sections and

    C.O.'s of sections).Allotment of units.Which piquets are to be cavalry, and which infantry.

    3. Order for Outpost Mounted TroopsTouch and line of observation.Spec, directions re patrols, roads, woods and ravines to be

    especially searched and watched.Measures for security of flanks ; roads to be barricaded,bridges to be prepared for demolition or destroyed.

    Cavalry to be attached to inf. supports and to reserve.^ Order for Outpost Companies.

    Approximate position of supports.Special patrols to be sent out.Cyclist orderlies.

    5. Order for Reserve.Troops (infantry and artilleryif any).Position.Any special protective measures.

    6. Dispositions in case of attack.Line and degree of resistance.

    . Arrangements for Signalling.

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    HALT ORDERS. 69Arrangements * baggag^e, supplies, cooking, firesand smoking.Position of O.G. Outposts.Hoio communicated and hour. Signature.

    No....to byetc.

    . OUTLINE FOR OUTPOST AFTER-ORBERS.Copy No..,.

    Operation Orders No.... Place.by Date.comg

    References to " Map.Any fresh information re enemy,Order for Outpost Mounted Troopsnight dispositions.Hour at which piquets will be relieved by infantry.Task, cantonment, degree of readiness during night.Hour next moridng when cav. will furnish piquets.Hour at which patrols will start.

    Order for Outpost Companiesnight dispositions.Hour at which infantry piquets will relieve the cavalry.Degree of readiness to be maintained.Special iustructions re patrols and communications.Hour next morning when cavalry will relieve infantry

    piquets.Order for Reservenight dispositions.Degree of readineso.Defensive measures.

    Position of Examining Post.Countersign.How eommunioated and hour. Signature.No. . . .to by

    at...

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    ha.lt orders. 71

    E. OUTPOST ORDERS.(Based on prev. Halt Orders.) Copy No. . .

    Operation Orders No.... MARSHFIELD x ROADS,by Lt.-Col. Smith, lO/b'/llcomgReferences to " Map.

    1. The Enemy has crossed the TAVY.The Main body of the Division has reached NORFIELD.The mainguard is going into billets in DENTON.

    2. ' i? ' Srjdn. 13 Hrs. and Ut Bn. Notts and Derby R. will takeup an outpost line from MARSHFIELD HOUSE to theMonastery (both inclusiye).

    No. 1 Section: MARSHFIELD HOUSE to ALDERHOLT (both inch). CO. : Maj. Brown.No. 2 Section : Tlie Canal to the Monastery (incl.). CO. :Maj. Black.The piquets will be furnished by the 13 Hrs.

    No. 1 Support : A. Gov. Notts and Derby R. No. 2 Sup. :B. Coy. Notts and Derby R.

    3. ' B' Sqdn. 13 Hrs. will take up a Line of Observation fromGIBBET HILL to CARTON windmill. MATT foot-bridge will be burnt, and the road to BIRLEY patrolled3 orderlies will be detailed to left support.

    4. The right support will occupy ALDER FARM ; four cycliststo be attached.The left support wiU hold FURZE HILL.

    5. The 1st Bn. Notts and Derby R. less 2 Coys, will form theReserve and occupy alarm quarters at the Cotton Mill.

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    MANCEDVRE ORDERS.In case of attack the line MARSHFIELD HO.-the Monas-

    tery will be defended.Signalling will be established between the Cotton Mill and

    DENTON.Reports will be sent to the Cotton Mill.

    J. Smith. Lt.-Col.,No.... to 13 Hrs. by Pte. K. O.C. Outposts.

    to O.C. other units,at 4.30 p.m.

    F. OUTPOST AFTEE-ORDERS.(To follow previous Orders.)

    Copy No....Operation Orders No.... COTTON MILLS

    by Lt.-Col. Smith, 10/6/11comgReferences to " Map.

    The Cavalry piquets will be withdrawn at 8,30 p.m.The Squadron will occupy alarm quarters at NEWLANDSHOUSE.Balf a troop under an officer will patrol towards LUCANduring the night.Day positions will be resumed at 5.30 a.m. Patrols to start5 a.m.

    The Injantry piquets will take up their night positions at8 p.m., and can withdraw at 6 a.m. when relieved.

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    HALT ORDERS. 73HEATH COTTAGE will be placed in a state of defence,

    and the road barricaded between it and the WIvSHbrook.

    An Examining post under 2nd Lieut. Polyglotte will befurnished by D Company, and posted at the CanalBridge,

    Counteriffn : WATERLOO.J. Smith, Lt.-Col.,

    O.C. Outposts.No.... to O.C. No. 1 Section by Pte. M.

    No. 2 ., N.B Squad. 13 Hrs. by Pte. O.to Ord. OflScer of Reserve,

    at 7 p.m.

    Notes on Outpost Orders.Mixed Outposts. When the nature of the country andamount of cavalry available permit of it, the system by

    the line of observation hy day is provided by the cavalrythat of defence by the infantry, is not only best suited to

    the strength of the troops and to take full advantagethe characteristics of the two arms, but quite authorised byregulations.By night the cavalry piquets are of course replaced by

    ones.Division of Orders into Halt Orders, Outpost Orders,

    Outpost After-Orders. Outposts are usually postedthe force halting after the day's march during an advance or

    retreat. Less frequently they are placed on arrival in athat is to be occupied defensively, or which has beenas the result of a battle. It will happen, therefore,although the orders for outposts are issued some little timedusk the troops are generally fatigued, and it is desirable

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    74 MANG5:UVRE ORDERS.to give them whatever rest is attainable with as little delay aspossible.

    In order to maintain touch with the enemyif it has beenalready gained as well as to employ those units which havealready some knowledge of the ground, the Outposts will usuallybe found by the Advanced Guard, and the Officer commandingit receives, at the same time as he gets the order to halt, tlienecessary instructions with regard to the outposts.

    Should only a portion of the advanced guard be needed foroutposts the CO. A. Gd. at once, by the aid of the map, pro-ceeds to issue Advanced Guard Orders. Should the whole of theadvanced guard be required, its commander issues only OutpostOrders ; and it is desirable, should there be some commandingpoint in the immediate vicinity whence a good idea of thecountry can be obtained, that he should make a brief personalreconnaissance. This must not take too long, however, andusually he will have to rely on the map.Although " it is desirable that all orders when feasible shouldbe made known to the outposts before they march off," it isequally so that they should not be kept waiting about unneces-sarily, and for this reason " the more important points shouldbe " at once " communicated, leaving the others till tlie com-mander inspects the position selected "The Orders thus naturally consist of Outpost Orders and Out-post After-Orders, but are still called Operation Orders.As marches are rarely continued till dusk it will generallyhappen that the first orders issued contain the day arrange-ments. The commander will, therefore, when he makes hisinspection, "decide on the dispositions for night duty, and com-municate his orders to all concerned." This he does in the after-orders, which, if the halt is going to extend over the next day,will also contain instructions for the reoccupation of the daypositions and tlie relief of the troops that have been on outpostduty all night.

    If the march is to be resumed on the morrow the After-Orders will contain information regarding the forward (or rear-ward) movement, the time the outposts are to be withdrawn (in

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    HALT ORDERS. 75advance, generally, wlien the new vanguard has passed thf

    line), and the place which the units at present onduty are to take in the marcliing column.

    OUTLINES FOR ORDERS AFTER A COMBAT.Copy 'So....

    Operation Orders No.... Place.by Date.comgKeferences to " Map.

    Measures for Security.Billet or Bivouac Areas.Replacing expended ammunition; position of columnClearing the battlefield ; distrib. of area among units.Instructions regarding the wounded.Disposal of prisoners and captured equipmentand horses.Rations ; nature and issue of supplies.Movements of baggage, columns, etc.

    Hour may be expected.Position of Head Quarters.

    Hour orders will be issued, andAny special returns to be brought by representatives.communicated and time. Signature.No.. ..to by

    at...

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    76 MANCEUVRK ORDERS.

    H. ORDERS AFTER A COMBAT.(Bivouac on battle-field.) Copy No....

    Operation Orders No.... ROANE CASTLE,by Gen Comg. Fifth Division. 31/7/11

    References to " Map.1. An Advanced Guard will move to SANTRY, and throw out

    a line of outposts along the river MODDER. CO. :Col. Smith.T'r.^r.T. i^ Squadron 13 Hrs.iroop3|2 Bns. 13th Brigade.

    2. The Division will bivouac as follows :13th Infy. Brig, (less 2 Bns.) round ROANE, south ofPRITTLE-KELLS road.14th Infy. Brigade (less 1 Bn.) round ROANE, north ofPRITTLE-KELLS road.The 15tli Infy. Brigade in ARDEEN.Divisional troops (less Div. Cavalry), with and west of 13th

    Brig.1 Bn. 14th Brig, in MAHER, covering the left flunk.

    3. The troops will at once replace expended ammunition fromDivisional Ammunition Col. now at JOHNSTOWNFARM.

    4. The 13th Infy. Brig, will char the battlefield soutli of thePRITTLE-KELLS road. The 14th Infy. Brig, north ofthe same road.

    5. The wounded will be taken to the Field Ambulances,14th an

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    HALT ORDERS. 77The Prisoners will be sent to MITTAS under an escort to be

    furnished by the 14th Infy. Brig. They will march thenceunder same escort at 7 a.m. to-morrow to TAGGER.The captured arms and equipment will be stacked inROANE churchyard.Captured horses will be handed over to the 30th Bde.R.Fd. Art. in their bivouac W. of ROANE.

    In tlie event of units not being able to obtain supplies in theirbivouac areas, the reserve ration may be consumed.

    The trains have been ordered up from MARTINSTOWN,and may be expected about midnight. Guides to besent to conduct them to bivouacs of units.

    Divisional Ed. Quarters are at BYRNE'S FARM, 1 milewest of ROANE. Orders will be issued there at 6 a.m.to-morrow. Representatives to bring brief lists of casual-ties, captures, and ammunition expended and in pos-session.

    to D.A.A.G.'s and Adjutants. (Signature)No.... to O.C. 13 Hrs. by Lt. Smith,at 8 p.m.

    I. OUTLINE FOR BILLET ORDERS.Copy No....

    Operation Orders No.... Place,by Date.References to "Map.Areas or buildings allotted to units.Localities outside a