trematoda -usus

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  • CIRI UMUM TREMATODA:

    Bentuk seperti daunMempunyai oral sucker & ventral suckerTidak mempunyai Rongga Badan Alat pencernaan tidak lengkapHermaphrodite (kecuali Schistosoma)OviparTelur berkembang di airTelur beroperculum (kecuali Schistosoma)

  • (oral sucker)Ventral suckerTREMATODA(ventral sucker)

  • TREMATODA Trematoda hatiFasciola hepaticaClonorchis sinensisTrematoda ususFasciolopsis buskiHeterophyes heterophyesMetagonimus yokogawaiTrematoda paruParagonimus westermaniTrematoda darahSchistosoma japonicumSchistosoma mansoniSchistosoma haematobium

  • Fasciolopsis buski

  • Penyakit: fasciolopsiasis

    Hospes: manusia, babi

    Distribusi geografik :RRC,Taiwan,Thailand Vietnam, Indonesia

    Habitat: duodenum, jejunum

  • Fasciolopsis buski dewasa :

    2-7,5 cm x 0,8 2 cmLonjong, tebalWarna dagingKutikulum berdurio.s < v.sCaecum tidak bercabang2 testis bercabang, tandem1 ovarium bercabang

  • TELUR Fasciolopsis buski

    130-140 x 80 85 LonjongKekuninganOperkulum Dinding tipis, jernih

  • Image: Left: Fasciolopsis buski egg in an unstained wet mount. Center: Adult fluke of F. buski next to a scale. Right: Snail in the genus Hippeutis, an intermediate host for F. buski. Credit: DPDx, Image courtesy of Conchology, Inc, Mactan Island, Philippines.

  • Life cycle

  • Life cycleimmature eggs are discharged into the intestine and stool . Eggs become embryonated in water , eggs release miracidia , which invade a suitable snail intermediate host .In the snail the parasites undergo several developmental stages (sporocysts , rediae , and cercariae ). The cercariae are released from the snail and encyst as metacercariae on aquatic plants . The mammalian hosts become infected by ingesting metacercariae on the aquatic plants. After ingestion, the metacercariae excyst in the duodenum and attach to the intestinal wall. There they develop into adult flukes (20 to 75 mm by 8 to 20 mm) in approximately 3 months, attached to the intestinal wall of the mammalian hosts (humans and pigs) . The adults have a life span of about one year.

  • Gejala : nyeri epigastriummualdiareedemaileus akut

  • Diagnosa :gx klinis (bila didaerah endemi)menemukan telur dlm tinja

  • Terapi:diklorofenniklosamidpraziquantel

  • PencegahanMemasak atau merendam dalam air mendidih tumbuhan air yang akan dimakan

  • Heterophyes heterophyes( Penyakit :Heterophyasis )Distribusi geografis- Mesir- Palestina- Jepang- Cina- Korea- Taiwan- Filipina- IndonesiaHabitatMukosa ususDefinitif hostmanusia , mamaliaIntermediate hostI. Pironella conica Cerithidea cingulataII. Tilapia nilotica Mugil japonicus Acanthogobius

  • MorfologiTelur- 29 X 16 mikron- coklat muda- memiliki operkulum- kulit tebalDewasa- kecil, 1.3 X 0,5 mm- ventral sucker>oral- genital sucker

  • Adults of Heterophyes heterophyes are minute flukes, measuring 1-2 mm in length. The tests are large and paired, and are situated near a small ovary. The surface of the worm is covered with minute spines. Adults reside in the small intestine of the definitive host. In this figure, the following structures are labeled: oral sucker (OS), pharynx (PH), intestine (IN), ventral sucker, or acetabulum (AC), and eggs within the uterus (UT).

  • Life cycle

  • Life cycleAdults release embryonated eggs each with a fully-developed miracidium, and eggs are passed in the host's feces . After ingestion by a suitable snail (first intermediate host), the eggs hatch and release miracidia which penetrate the snails intestine . Genera Cerithidia and Pironella are important snail hosts in Asia and the Middle East respectively. The miracidia undergo several developmental stages in the snail, i.e. sporocysts , rediae ,and cercariae . Many cercariae are produced from each redia. The cercariae are released from the snail and encyst as metacercariae in the tissues of a suitable fresh/brackish water fish (second intermediate host) . The definitive host becomes infected by ingesting undercooked or salted fish containing metacercariae . After ingestion, the metacercariae excyst, attach to the mucosa of the small intestine and mature into adults (measuring 1.0 to 1.7 mm by 0.3 to 0.4 mm) . In addition to humans, various fish-eating mammals (e.g., cats and dogs) and birds can be infected by Heterophyes heterophyes .

  • Gejala klinisInfeksi ringan- tidak tampakInfeksi berat- diare menahun- kolik- rasa tidak enak dan nyeri diperut- terdapat eosinofili

  • Diagnosa dan pengobatanDiagnosa- pemeriksaan tinja telur

    PengobatanPrazikuantel 20 mg/Kg BB/po/dos.tunggalTetrakloroetilen 5 ml/po/dosis tunggal

  • PencegahanMasak ikan dengan sempurnaBuang air besar tidak disembarang tempatPendidikan kesehatanHewan sebagai sumber penularan

  • Metagonimus yokogawai( Penyakit :Metagonimiasis )Distribusi geografis- Jepang- Korea- Cina- Taiwan- Malaysia- Rusia- Spanyol- BalkanHabitat- mukosa jejunumDefinitif host- Manusia, anjing, kucing, babiIntermediate hostI. Semisulcospira, Thiara dan HuaII. Salmon, Plecoglossus

  • MorfologiTelur- 28 X 17 mikron- kuning keabuan- memiliki operkulum- dinding tebalDewasa- kecil 1,4 X 0,6 mm- vs > os- testis posterior- ovarium tengah

  • Metagonimus yokogawai adult flukes are minute intestinal flukes (1-2.5 mm in length) that resemble Heterophyes heterophyes. An important distinctive feature is the position of the ventral sucker (genitoacetabulum), which is to the side of the midline and closely associated with the genital pore. Adults reside in the small intestine of the definitive host. Adult M. yokogawai.In this figure, the following structures are labeled: oral sucker (OS), pharynx (PH), intestine (IN), genitoacetabulum (GA), ovary (OV), the large, paired testes (TE), and eggs within the uterus (EG).

  • Life cycle

  • Life cycleAdults release fully embryonated eggs each with a fully-developed miracidium, and eggs are passed in the hosts feces . After ingestion by a suitable snail (first intermediate host), the eggs hatch and release miracidia which penetrate the snails intestine . Snails of the genus Semisulcospira are the most frequent intermediate host for Metagonimus yokogawai. The miracidia undergo several developmental stages in the snail, i.e. sporocysts , rediae , and cercariae . Many cercariae are produced from each redia. The cercariae are released from the snail and encyst as metacercariae in the tissues of a suitable fresh/brackish water fish (second intermediate host) . The definitive host becomes infected by ingesting undercooked or salted fish containing metacercariae . After ingestion, the metacercariae excyst, attach to the mucosa of the small intestine and mature into adults (measuring 1.0 mm to 2.5 mm by 0.4 mm to 0.75 mm) . In addition to humans, fish-eating mammals (e.g., cats and dogs) and birds can also be infected by M. yokogawai .

  • Gejala klinisInfeksi ringan tanpa gejalaInfeksi sedang diare dan sakit perutInfeksi berat- demam- nyeri perut- kolik- eosinofili

  • Diagnosa dan pengobatanDiagnosa- menemukan telur dalam tinja

    Pengobatan- Prazikuantel 20 mg/Kg BB/po/tunggal- Tetrakloroetilen 5 ml/po/tunggal

  • PencegahanMasak ikan dengan sempurnaBAB tidak disembarang tempatPengawasan Hewan sumber penularanHygiene pribadi