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    ENGLISH IITIAGO SILVA PEREIRA - 8907

    FERNANDO JOS LIMA ALVES - 9107

    COSTS LOGISTICS

    AND

    TRANSPORTS MEANS

    VALENA, 27 APRIL 2012

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    INDEX

    1. INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................... 3

    2. What is Logistics?.......................................................................................................................... 4

    3. What is the objective of Logistics? ............................................................................................... 4

    4. Logistic costs .................................................................................................................................. 5

    I. Cost of Storage........................................................................................................................... 5

    II. Costs of Stock: ....................................................................................................................... 6

    III. Cost of Transport .................................................................................................................. 6

    5. TRANSPORTS .............................................................................................................................. 7

    I. ROAD TRANSPORT................................................................................................................ 7

    II. RAIL TRANSPORT ............................................................................................................. 8

    III. WATER TRANSPORT ........................................................................................................ 9

    IV. AEREAL TRANSPORT..................................................................................................... 11

    6. BIBLIOGRAPHY .......................................................................... Erro! Marcador no definido.

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    1. INTRODUCTION

    This work was realized to the English discipline. The teacher proposed some themes to

    choice and we choose the logistic theme. In the logistic theme we choose the following

    topics: cost logistics and transport means.

    We know that today's the logistic is an area that has developed much. So it is

    increasingly important to identify the costs of logistics and quantify them. In contrast,

    the means of transport also has developed a lot, and that is why today we increasingly

    globalized logistics. We fail to supply the markets close, but also the global market.

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    2. What is Logistics?Logistics management is the area responsible for providing resources, information and

    equipment to perform all activities of a company.

    Logistics was born also to institutions and organizations comprising numerous militaryorigins. Can you say - if, however, that the military has always been the most striking

    development in terms of logistics.

    Logistics in this area included five large components:

    Supply Transportation Maintenance Hospitalization Evacuation of Wounded

    3. What is the objective of Logistics?The main objective of logistics is to make products and services are available where needed,

    when they are desired at the lowest possible cost and level of service required by the client.

    Can say that the logistics has with objective to minimize the cost and maximize profits.

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    4. Logistic costs

    Logistics costs are all costs related to the logistics of a company, such as:

    Cost of Storage Cost of Stock Cost Acquisition Cost Order Cost of Break Cost of Ownership of Stock Cost of Transport

    I. Cost of StorageStorage costs are generally fixed and indirect, realizing at the outset the difficulty of

    managing the operations and especially the impact of their costs. The high proportion of fixed

    costs in power storage that costs are proportionate to the existing capacity in the warehouse,

    regardless of the warehouse is full or empty, the costs remain the same, since all the players

    continue to exist (Workers, Space, Equipment).

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    However, one of the storage costs can pass through the cost of warehouse, having regard for

    this is not their own can be rented, resulting in a main storage costs.

    II. Costs of Stock:Stocks are in fact a very important component in the management of any company, not only

    because immobilize capital, but also because they also involve other costs. Such as:

    Cost Acquisition- Is the part that should be paid to the supplier acquired by the unit, this

    amount is simply the cost of units purchased.

    Cost of Order- This cost is fixed independently of quantity ordered. Are administrative costsof the services that make the placement and monitoring of orders.

    Cost of Break- are the costs associated with the lack of a particular product, they can be very

    damaging to the company. However, the existence of break can lead to loss of confidence of

    its customers.

    Cost of Ownership of Stock- corresponds to the cost of keeping in stock a unit of a product

    over a period of time.

    III. Cost of TransportThe transport service involves the use of several types of resources and hence various types of

    costs. That is, the cost transport is all the capital invested in the movement of products to the

    final customer. These costs are considered one of the largest logistics costs having great

    importance in the final product price.

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    5. TRANSPORTSDefinition of transports

    Transports is a mean of moving of goods or people of one location to other location

    Exists various types of transports, and in this work we present four. Are it road, rail, water

    and air.

    All transports use infrastructures, for moving.

    I. ROAD TRANSPORTFrom the first times, that the Man met the necessity of moving. For centuries the mean of

    transport that they used to moving was done by animals.

    With the evolution of times, the Man needed of others means of moving, faster between two

    points.

    With the industrial revolution, appeared the first machine to steam.

    Henry Ford launched the Model T, launching definitely the era car

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    With roads development, the road transport gain ground to the rail, that was the big

    competitor

    Presently, with a big roads development, the cars arrive to all points of Country or Europe.

    In Logistic, the roads transport is the big important area to the cost. The total cost of

    companies in this type of transport is the 20%, and the companies want down this cost.

    Advantages

    - Flexibility

    - Transport door-to-door

    - Economic and faster to the short distances

    Disadvantages

    - Traffic intense- High fuel consume- Pollution atmospheric- Low capacity of charge

    II. RAIL TRANSPORTIn 1705, Thomas Newcomen invents the first steam machine, and James Watt improved in

    1765. The first steam machine was presented to the public in 1814, by George Stepherson

    During the Industrial Revolution, was the increase the production of goods and the necessity

    of transport more faster, and in big scale in two points, that take the more use the steam

    machine.

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    The Europe started to encourage this mean of transport, and started to network development

    in your countries.

    The rail transport is fundamental in logistics chain, that facilitating commercial interchange,

    and economic growing. Is a mean of transport with a high capacity of charge and

    energetically efficient.

    This transport usually transports charges with o low value, like products agricultural and

    fertilizers, ores, and others.

    Advantages

    - Comfortable- Pollution Low- Economic to long distances- Low fuel consume

    Disadvantages

    - Fixed route- High cost in infrastructures maintenance

    III. WATER TRANSPORT

    The water transpor is a aquatic transport that use as passage the open sea.

    During the century XIX, were made great advances due to steam technology evolution.

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    The improvement to the water transport was stimulated by concentration the people into the

    coast and river areas.

    With the development the automobile industry and aviation the importance this mean of

    transport decreased.

    The water transport, includes various types of charges, such as fuel, chemists, cereals,

    automobiles, foods, etc

    Generally the charge is transported by pallets, boxes, containers and barrel.

    From the years 60, the charge more used is containers and are contributed by development

    this transport.

    The first boat to use a steam machine, in a transatlantic crossing was the Savannah, in 1819.

    Advantages

    - Transport high charge and big quantity- Low cost

    Disadvantages

    - Low speed- High distance between the maritime ports and industries- Little flexibility of charge

    http://www.google.pt/imgres?imgurl=http://www.bebseguros.com/imagens/foto%20navio%20de%20carga.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.bebseguros.com/noticias.asp?noticia=1721&h=384&w=512&sz=34&tbnid=n48uXC0PQknflM:&tbnh=100&tbnw=133&zoom=1&docid=wKWTuITBHwbJ2M&hl=pt-PT&sa=X&ei=IIOQT8qxFeTH0QWY7tXhAQ&ved=0CF0Q9QEwAQ&dur=743
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    IV. AEREAL TRANSPORTThe aerial transport is the movement of people or goods by the air, with the use of aeroplane

    or helicopters. This type of transport is used preferentially to transport people, urgent goods or

    high cost goods

    The aerial transport is the form more modern of transport, and that more quickly was

    development.

    After the First Big World War, that the aerial transport achieved greater notoriety.

    This mean of transport was more contributed for reduction of time into dislocation between

    two points distant.

    The airplanes imply the construction of infrastructures specials. The airports, require bigspaces and complicated inputs and outputs flights.

    Advantages

    - Faster to transport people and goods a long distance

    - Security and confortable

    - Appropriate to transport goods high cost or urgent

    Disadvantages

    - Big pollution atmospheric- Big sound pollution together airports- High cost- High fuel consume

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    6. CONCLUSIONIn this work, we intend to address the costs will Logistica, and also what are the principal

    means of transportation exist in Logistics. The costs considered were: Cost of Storage, Cost of

    Stock, Cost Acquisition, Cost Order, Cost of Break, Cost of Ownership of Stock and Cost of

    Transport.

    Means of transport was made to approach the origin of transport in Logistics and what its

    usefulness. The means of transport have been addressed, Road Transport, Rail Transport,

    Water Transport and Aereal Transport.

    7. BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Carvalho, Jos Crespo. Logistica e Gesto da Cadeia de Abastecimento, Edies Silabo

    Dias, Joo Carlos Quaresma. Logistica Global e MacroLogistica, Edies Silabo

    Lima, Jonas Henrique. Fundamentos de Logistica (2011), Gesto da Distribuio e Logistca -

    IPVC