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  • KaushikRajashekara

    TheUniversityofTexasatDallasRichardson,TX

    Transportation Electrification Trends and Future Strategies

    1www.utdallas.edu/pedl

    November 7, 2015

  • WhyElectrificationofTransportation

    1. Reduce Emissions2. Reduce fuel consumption3. Meet the regulations and Standards4. To meet the increasing electrical power demand5. Higher efficiency of electrical systems compared to IC engines,

    pneumatic, and hydraulic systems6. Ease of control and operation

    2

  • 3

    Emissions StandardsAutomotive- CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy)

    The U.S. government current rules for the Corporate Average Fuel Economy, or CAFE, program mandates an average of about 29 miles per gallon, with gradual increase to 35.5 mpg by 2016.

    This will increase to 54.5 miles per gallon starting from 2025 model year Every state has set its own emission regulations

    Aerospace - ACARE (Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe) goals to be achieved by 2020) 50% reduction of CO2 emissions through drastic reduction of fuel consumption 80% reduction of NOx emissions

    International Civil Aviation Organization goals Improving fuel efficiency by an average two percent per year until 2050 Keeping the global net carbon emissions from international aviation from 2020 at the

    same level

  • 2020 European CAFE prospective

    4

  • Electrification of Vehicles

    5

    The continuous increase of functionality for comfort, safety, driver assistance and infotainment systems as well as the insertion of innovations raise the power requirements.In combination with the electrification of powertrain functions and ancillary units for CO2 reductions, these requirements drive todays vehicle power supply to its limits

  • 6

    Electronically controlled systems in an Automobile

    Heated windscreen Compartment warm-up

    Engine water pump

    Engine lubricant pump

    Automated gearbox

    Electric power steeringElectrically heated catalytic converter

    Electrical air conditioning compressor

    Electronic engine valve actuation

    Entertainment

    Electronically controlled suspension

    Brake by wire

  • GeneralMotorsEV1electricvehicle

    7

  • Powertrain:ModelSisarearwheeldriveelectricvehicle.Theliquidcooledpowertrainincludesthebattery,motor,driveinverter,andgearbox.Microprocessorcontrolled,60kWhlithiumionbattery(230milesrange.Itis300mileswith85kWh),

    Charging: 10kWcapableon

    boardchargerwiththefollowinginputcompatibility:85265V,4565Hz (Optional20kWcapableTwinChargersincreasesinputcompatibilityto80A)

    TeslaModel S

    8

    SuperchargerRatedupto135KWFor85KWhBattery,180milesfor30minsofcharging

  • HybridPowertrainTopologyConventional

    ElectricMotor

    Engine

    Battery

    Electric Motor

    Battery

    Micro HybridMicro Hybrid

    Full Hybrid

    Electric Vehicle

    Range extender

    Series Hybrid

    Parallel

    Fuel Cell

    Series

    Mild HybridMild Hybrid

    GeneratorEngineFuel Cell

    9

    Toyota Crown

    Chevy Volt withPlug-in capability

    Honda FCX

    Honda Insight

    Toyota Prius

    Nissan Leaf

  • Hybrid Vehicles classification

    10

  • Functions of different types of hybrid vehicles

    11

    Function Micro Hybrid

    Mild Hybrid

    Full Hybrid

    Plug-in Hybrid

    Fuel economy 5% to 10% 7% to 15% >30% >50%

    Power levels 3kW to 5kW 10kW to 15kW

    >20kW >20kW

    Automatically stops/starts the engine in stop-and go traffic

    Uses regenerative braking and operates above 60V

    Uses electric motor to assist a combustion engine

    Can drive at times using only the electric motor

    Recharges battery from an external supply

  • 48V Micro-Hybrid: Start/Stop system

    Start-stop technology is gaining momentum in last years due to stringent carbon emission norms enacted by European parliament and the need by vehicle manufacturers to meet these stringent norms.

    More than 50% of the newly registered vehicles will have start-stop as standard technology after 2013.

    Even though the technology is widely utilized for small / mid segment cars in Europe it also has high potential for compact and luxury car segments.

    It can be expected, that especially micro-mild hybrid technology will gain increasing relevance in the coming years as technological challenges are solved (high voltage electrical system, for e.g. 48V).

    Start-stop is a key technology to be used in conjunction with other fuel saving technologies to attain the stringent carbon norms of 2020

    12

  • 13

    2014 Insight Hybrid: Front Wheel DriveEngine: 1.3 liter, 4 cylinder; 98HP@5800rpmBattery: 100.8V DC (NiMH battery), 5.75 AhMotor/Generator: 13 HP @1500rpmPermanent Magnet Brushless DC

    Fuel consumption (City/Highway): 41/44 MPG with CVT

    Honda Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) Hybrid Architecture (Integrated starter/Generator)

  • 14

  • History of Toyota Hybrid Systems

    15

  • ChevroletVOLTConcept(PHEV)

    GlobalCompactVehicleBased ElectricDriveMotor

    120kWpeakpower 320Nmpeaktorque(236lbft)

    LiionBatteryPack 136kWpeakpower 16kWhenergycontent Homeplugincharging

    Generator 53kW

    InternalCombustionEngine 1.0L3cylinderturbo

    16

  • 2015 Toyota Mirai

    17http://www.toyota.com/mirai/fcv.html

    Toyota hydrogen fuel cell car Mirai will arrive in USA at the end of 2015. Cost is $57,500Range: 650 km5 kg of hydrogen at 70 Mpa, normal operating pressure245V, 1.6kWh NiMH battery

  • 18

    Name Toyota Fuel Cell System (TFCS)- 2015Toyota Mirai

    Number of occupants 4

    Max. Speed 111 mph

    Curb Weight 1850kg

    Time from (0 to 60mph) 9 seconds

    Motor

    Max. Output 113 KW (152hp)

    Max. Drive (Torque) 335Nm

    Type AC Synchronous Electric Motor (Permanent Magnet)

    Fuel cell stack

    Type Solid Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell

    Output 114 KW (153hp)Output Density: 3.1KW/L

    370 cells (single lining stack)

    Fuel

    Type Compressed Hydrogen Gas

    Storage High Pressure Hydrogen Tank

    Pressure 87.5MPa (maximum filling pressure)70 MPa (normal operating pressure)

    Capacity 5kg approx. Refueling time: approx. 5 min

    Battery 245V 1.6KWh (Nickel Metal Hydride)

    Range 650 km (404 miles)

    Exhaust 240ml of water for every 4km

  • Hondas Next Generation Advanced Powertrain Vehicles

    An all-new Honda plug-in hybrid model (PHEV) in 2018 An all-new Honda battery-electric vehicle (BEV) in 2018 Honda FCV Concept - next-generation Honda fuel-cell vehicle, launching in

    2016 The Honda FCV CONCEPT is equipped with a 70 MPa high-pressure

    hydrogen storage tank that provides a cruising range of more than 700 km. The tank can be refilled in approximately three minutes, making refueling as quick and easy as todays gasoline vehicles.

  • GridInterface

    PluginFuelCellVehicle

    SOFCAPU providesbackuporsustainedheatandpowertothehouse

    LiIonBattery consumessurplusoffpeakelectricity whenavailable provideshighqualitybackuppower(UPSfunction) providesshorttermbidirectionalgridsupportfunction.

    RangeextenderEV

    LithiumIonBatteryand

    SOFCrangeextenderFuel

    ElectricPower

    CommunityNetwork

    Heat

    Fuel

    (PEMFuelcellcouldalsobeused)

  • V2G and G2V Strategies Development of smart charging Integration of energy flow and

    information flow Bidirectional communication with distribution infrastructure Local wireless network architecture with connectivity between EVSE

    home area network gateway EVSE to EVSE communication networks and neighborhood area network

    that do not require any direct connection to the utility company Integration of ac charging and ultra fast dc charging in a single system

    that will have one charging inlet per vehicle, one integrated controller, and one charging communication

    Uber for Energy

  • Wireless Charging

  • ConnectedandAutomatedVehicles

  • Connected Vehicles Connected vehicles refer to the wireless connectivity enabled vehicles that can

    communicate with their internal and external environments, i.e., supporting theinteractions of V2S (vehicle-to-sensor on-board), V2V (vehicle-to-vehicle), V2R(vehicle-to-road infrastructure), and V2I (vehicle-to-Internet).

    The connected vehicles are considered as the building blocks of the emergingInternet of Vehicles (IoV), a dynamic mobile communication system thatfeatures gathering, sharing, processing, computing, and secure release ofinformation and enables the evolution to next generation IntelligentTransportation Systems (ITS).

  • Connected and Automated Vehicles A connected vehicle system is based on wireless communication

    among vehicles of all types and the infrastructure Automated vehicles are those in which at least some aspect of a

    safety-critical control function (e.g., steering, throttle, or braking) occurs without direct driver input.

  • ProbeData

    E-payment Transactions

    Signal Phase and Timing Information Real Time Network Data

    Situation Relevant Information

    Infrastructure Communications

    Opportunity for

    Innovation

    V2V Safety Messages

    The Network

    Connected Vehicles

  • MitsubishieX Concept

    27http://www.mitsubishimotors.com/en/events/motorshow/2015/tms2015/technology/

    TheMITSUBISHIeX Conceptisthecombinationofseveraltechnologies UsesthenextgenerationEVsystemwhichbringstogetheralongercruisingrangeas

    wellassuperiordrivingperformance. Ithasfrontandrear

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