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Transportation Electrification Trends and Future Strategies
November 7, 2015
1. Reduce Emissions2. Reduce fuel consumption3. Meet the regulations and Standards4. To meet the increasing electrical power demand5. Higher efficiency of electrical systems compared to IC engines,
pneumatic, and hydraulic systems6. Ease of control and operation
Emissions StandardsAutomotive- CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy)
The U.S. government current rules for the Corporate Average Fuel Economy, or CAFE, program mandates an average of about 29 miles per gallon, with gradual increase to 35.5 mpg by 2016.
This will increase to 54.5 miles per gallon starting from 2025 model year Every state has set its own emission regulations
Aerospace - ACARE (Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe) goals to be achieved by 2020) 50% reduction of CO2 emissions through drastic reduction of fuel consumption 80% reduction of NOx emissions
International Civil Aviation Organization goals Improving fuel efficiency by an average two percent per year until 2050 Keeping the global net carbon emissions from international aviation from 2020 at the
2020 European CAFE prospective
Electrification of Vehicles
The continuous increase of functionality for comfort, safety, driver assistance and infotainment systems as well as the insertion of innovations raise the power requirements.In combination with the electrification of powertrain functions and ancillary units for CO2 reductions, these requirements drive todays vehicle power supply to its limits
Electronically controlled systems in an Automobile
Heated windscreen Compartment warm-up
Engine water pump
Engine lubricant pump
Electric power steeringElectrically heated catalytic converter
Electrical air conditioning compressor
Electronic engine valve actuation
Electronically controlled suspension
Brake by wire
Micro HybridMicro Hybrid
Mild HybridMild Hybrid
Chevy Volt withPlug-in capability
Hybrid Vehicles classification
Functions of different types of hybrid vehicles
Function Micro Hybrid
Fuel economy 5% to 10% 7% to 15% >30% >50%
Power levels 3kW to 5kW 10kW to 15kW
Automatically stops/starts the engine in stop-and go traffic
Uses regenerative braking and operates above 60V
Uses electric motor to assist a combustion engine
Can drive at times using only the electric motor
Recharges battery from an external supply
48V Micro-Hybrid: Start/Stop system
Start-stop technology is gaining momentum in last years due to stringent carbon emission norms enacted by European parliament and the need by vehicle manufacturers to meet these stringent norms.
More than 50% of the newly registered vehicles will have start-stop as standard technology after 2013.
Even though the technology is widely utilized for small / mid segment cars in Europe it also has high potential for compact and luxury car segments.
It can be expected, that especially micro-mild hybrid technology will gain increasing relevance in the coming years as technological challenges are solved (high voltage electrical system, for e.g. 48V).
Start-stop is a key technology to be used in conjunction with other fuel saving technologies to attain the stringent carbon norms of 2020
2014 Insight Hybrid: Front Wheel DriveEngine: 1.3 liter, 4 cylinder; 98HP@5800rpmBattery: 100.8V DC (NiMH battery), 5.75 AhMotor/Generator: 13 HP @1500rpmPermanent Magnet Brushless DC
Fuel consumption (City/Highway): 41/44 MPG with CVT
Honda Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) Hybrid Architecture (Integrated starter/Generator)
History of Toyota Hybrid Systems
LiionBatteryPack 136kWpeakpower 16kWhenergycontent Homeplugincharging
2015 Toyota Mirai
Toyota hydrogen fuel cell car Mirai will arrive in USA at the end of 2015. Cost is $57,500Range: 650 km5 kg of hydrogen at 70 Mpa, normal operating pressure245V, 1.6kWh NiMH battery
Name Toyota Fuel Cell System (TFCS)- 2015Toyota Mirai
Number of occupants 4
Max. Speed 111 mph
Curb Weight 1850kg
Time from (0 to 60mph) 9 seconds
Max. Output 113 KW (152hp)
Max. Drive (Torque) 335Nm
Type AC Synchronous Electric Motor (Permanent Magnet)
Fuel cell stack
Type Solid Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell
Output 114 KW (153hp)Output Density: 3.1KW/L
370 cells (single lining stack)
Type Compressed Hydrogen Gas
Storage High Pressure Hydrogen Tank
Pressure 87.5MPa (maximum filling pressure)70 MPa (normal operating pressure)
Capacity 5kg approx. Refueling time: approx. 5 min
Battery 245V 1.6KWh (Nickel Metal Hydride)
Range 650 km (404 miles)
Exhaust 240ml of water for every 4km
Hondas Next Generation Advanced Powertrain Vehicles
An all-new Honda plug-in hybrid model (PHEV) in 2018 An all-new Honda battery-electric vehicle (BEV) in 2018 Honda FCV Concept - next-generation Honda fuel-cell vehicle, launching in
2016 The Honda FCV CONCEPT is equipped with a 70 MPa high-pressure
hydrogen storage tank that provides a cruising range of more than 700 km. The tank can be refilled in approximately three minutes, making refueling as quick and easy as todays gasoline vehicles.
LiIonBattery consumessurplusoffpeakelectricity whenavailable provideshighqualitybackuppower(UPSfunction) providesshorttermbidirectionalgridsupportfunction.
V2G and G2V Strategies Development of smart charging Integration of energy flow and
information flow Bidirectional communication with distribution infrastructure Local wireless network architecture with connectivity between EVSE
home area network gateway EVSE to EVSE communication networks and neighborhood area network
that do not require any direct connection to the utility company Integration of ac charging and ultra fast dc charging in a single system
that will have one charging inlet per vehicle, one integrated controller, and one charging communication
Uber for Energy
Connected Vehicles Connected vehicles refer to the wireless connectivity enabled vehicles that can
communicate with their internal and external environments, i.e., supporting theinteractions of V2S (vehicle-to-sensor on-board), V2V (vehicle-to-vehicle), V2R(vehicle-to-road infrastructure), and V2I (vehicle-to-Internet).
The connected vehicles are considered as the building blocks of the emergingInternet of Vehicles (IoV), a dynamic mobile communication system thatfeatures gathering, sharing, processing, computing, and secure release ofinformation and enables the evolution to next generation IntelligentTransportation Systems (ITS).
Connected and Automated Vehicles A connected vehicle system is based on wireless communication
among vehicles of all types and the infrastructure Automated vehicles are those in which at least some aspect of a
safety-critical control function (e.g., steering, throttle, or braking) occurs without direct driver input.
Signal Phase and Timing Information Real Time Network Data
Situation Relevant Information
V2V Safety Messages
TheMITSUBISHIeX Conceptisthecombinationofseveraltechnologies UsesthenextgenerationEVsystemwhichbringstogetheralongercruisingrangeas