transitions in hydraulic engngineering

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Contribution of Delta Works in NL to hydraulic developments


  • 1. Transitions in HydraulicEngineeringImpact of the Delta Works on the RecentDevelopments in Hydraulic Engineering Krystian W. Pilarczyk(former) RijkswaterstaatHydraulic Engineering Institute,

2. Transitions inHydraulic EngineeringContent: Introduction (brief) History of Netherlandsin coping floods Delta Works overview Impact of Delta Works onrecent developments inhydraulic engineering Conclusions- erosion scour - closures bottom protection revetments filters geotextiles 3. IntroductionThe NetherlandsLow-lying countryWith dikes"God created the world, and the Dutch createdWithout dikes the Netherlands" 4. Dutch History "God created the world, and theDutch created the Netherlands" Flood protectionin The Netherlands through thecenturies 5. Dutch history(MSL) 6. Watersystem & Rainfall problems in NLStorage StorageStoragelandRiverSea Polder waterwaterwater"God created the world, and the Dutch created the Netherlands." 7. Zeeland about 1500 8. Turning point: Disaster 1953 Dike breaches andinundation 9. Why is flood defenceimportant ? Flood events:flood event damage victimsSea 1953 1.500 1061835Meuse 1993 250 106----6Rhine 1995 500 10 ----Meuse 1995 165 106----Rainfall 1998 1.100 106----Road and Hydraulic Engineering Devision, Delft 1 US $=2 fWe can not avoid the floodsbut we can/must minimize theconsequences(victims, economical damage)High safety standards needed 10. 1997From Disaster 1953 (open)Eastern Scheldt barrier Western Scheldtto Delta WorksAntwerpDeltaplan 11. Closure Techniques Dike wheel Scour hole Caisson-closureCable-line(also during the 1st stageEastern Scheldt closure) scourBottomprotection 12. From Closed to OpenEastern Scheldt ProjectEnvironment & Ecology 1973 start discussion on environmental issues !974 stop execution full closure 1976 decision Open Storm Surge Barrier 13. Storm-surge barrier Eastern Scheldt Final 14. From the past to the presentEasternScheldtZierikzeeRotterdam City rights 1248VlissingenZierikzeeEastern ScheldtView from the ExpoCenterVlissingenEastern Scheldt Storm Surge Barrier 15. TechniquesOverview of theEastern ScheldtStorm Surge Barrierscour bottom protection foundation superstructure high tolerance requirements 16. Techniques 17. TechniquesFrom traditional to modern 18. Modern Techniques 19. TechniquesStorm-surge barrier Rotterdam (1997) 20. Transition into integrated/multidisciplinary approach Transitions inhydraulic engineering Impact Delta Works Soil Water Structure interactionsbut also Environment Environmental Impact Assessment 21. Transition from deterministic to probabilistic approachDesign Philosophy & MethodologyFailure or inundation RiskLoading ResistanceFailure modes & Failure tree 22. Transition from traditional to Closure by dumpedmodern techniquesmethod (rock, blocks, bags) Closing using cable-line techniques Gradual closures Horizontal VerticalPrinciples of closuretechniques Sand closures Pipe discharged Dumped Sudden closures Caissons 23. Transition to innovative techniques Sand Closures 24. Techniques & problemsGrevelingen Dam and sluice(Siphon) High salinityDensityLow salinitycurrent High salinityanderosion Low salinity 25. Scour andBottom protection600m 26. Scour and Bottom protectionEastern Scheldt Barrier 27. Research as design toolScour researchScour prediction 28. ScourresearchPrototype tests Brouwersdam Discharge sluice 29. Scourprototype resultsunderminingPrediction instability of upper slope- still a problem 30. Flow slides Flow slide (Zeeland)schematic viewof a flow-slideAfter flow-slideBefore flow-slide 31. Liquefactionand flow slide in sandmaximum 200mAverage slope Shear failure 30 m after flo w s lide in sand maximum 50 maverage slopeclay30 mloose sand after flow slide with cla y on top 32. Scour & bottomprotectiondesign rules 33. Transition in design techniques of revetments Revetments Riprap/rubble mound structures From Hudson: Hs/Dn50 = (KD cot)1/30.2Hs = 6.2 0.18 S -0.5 Into Van der Meer: P m Dn 50 N 34. From riprap into pitched stone/blocks BlockRevetments Internal erosion 35. BankTo RotterdamProtectionBasic researchModel testsPrototype testsAlsoPIANCguidelinesApplication To Antwerp 36. environmentalTechniquesSalt-fresh water separation 37. Transition in filter design: fromextension of design criteria for filtersgeometrically closed into load-based designGranular FiltersVarious test facilities 38. FiltersFrom granular filters into geotextiles andcomposite filters ; from geometrically open tohydrodynamically sandtight (based on loading)geotextiles 39. FiltersPossible extension of designcriteria for filters 40. Some other aspects Geosynthetics Geosystems Waste & Alternative materials Technology Transfer 41. Disseminationof knowledgeValidation 42. Knowledge development: Laboratory testsSimulation of the flow through adikeTesting grass cover as revetment gap Delta flume 43. Transition into Alternative TechniquesSand and clay bags closureGranular filters frombrick material 44. ConclusionsLarge projects (like Delta Works) need usually some specific solutions.It stimulates new research andinnovation, which contribute strongly to new developments in hydraulic & coastal engineering A systematic & comprehensiveapproach must be taken to solvestream & shoreline problems 45. Knowledge isKnowledge cyclesalways going ahead We are always in Transition 46. Thank you foryour attentionFurther 47. I wish you a pleasant stay in the Netherlands 48. The, (english, downloads)


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