Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation & Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 1 Proposed Conservation

Download Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation & Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 1 Proposed Conservation

Post on 26-Dec-2015

215 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 1 Proposed Conservation Strategies for Diospyros celebica Prasit Amy Aileen Zue Rao Salwana Tedi Tri Zhuo Group 1 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 2 Presentation Outline Background/Rationale What are the critical biological information (BI) needed? How can we generate the BI? How can we translate these BI to environmental conservation strategies? </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 3 D. celebica </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 4 Taxonomy KingdomPlantae DivisionMagnoliophyta ClassMagnoliopsida OrderEricales FamilyEbenaceae GenusDiospyrosPlantaeMagnoliophytaMagnoliopsidaEricalesEbenaceae SpeciesCelebica </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 5 Population Status and Trends Status of origin: Endemic to Sulawesi (Minahasa and Bolaang Mongondow/North Sulawesi; Parigi, Poso, Donggala, Toli-toli, Kolonodale and Luwuk/Central Sulawesi; Maros, Barru, Luwu and Mamuju/South Sulawesi) Floristic element: Eastern provinces of Malesian element Major ecological region: Sulawesi Once a widespread species in Sulawesi, it is now comparatively rare, especially in the South Exported since 18th century When in forests, D. celebica tends to scatter irregularly </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 6 Rationale Rare plant conservation programs must be guided by the species biological attributes. Ecological and genetic processes often interact synergistically to influence the population viability and to determine the persistence of populations in the long run. Conservation has a cost and the resources available for conservation programs are always limited. Thus, CS must not only be scientifically justified but also practical in terms of resource availability. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 7 What Are The Critical BI? GENETICS ECOLOGY Distribution &amp; habitat Demography Germination Phenology Level of genetic diversity Spatial genetic structure Population differential Mating system Minimum population size </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 8 Ecological Distribution &amp; Habitat Ecological interaction between plants and their environment can influence population growth rates via their effects on fecundity, growth, or survivorship of individuals (Blundell and Peart, 2001; Peters, 2003) The studies on population dynamics and demography patterns will lead to a better understanding of the natural processes that operate within the population </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 9 Distribution and Habitat Common name Macassar Ebony Black Ebony Diospyros macassar (synonymous) Distribution Endemic to Sulawesi Can be found in rain and monsoon forests Can also grow in both humid conditions and in seasonal climate Habitat Can survive on a variety of soils Occurs in undulating areas up to 600m above sea level. </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 10 Legend : Natural distribution of D. celebica in Indonesia (Overall natural distribution) </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 11 Conservation status &amp; measures IUCN status available of the Vulnerable (VU) (International Union for Conservation Red Data Book, 1978) In Sulawesi, D. celebica is protected and there is a quota system in place. The Indonesian government has already started a planting program. It has not, however, been planted on a large commercial scale </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 12 Threats &amp; Utilization D. celebica is threatened by heavy exploitation since it is an important source of streaked ebony </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 13 D. celebica timber is used for piano keys, carvings, brush backs, inlaying, and parts of stringed instruments. </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 14 Ecological Approach In Conserving Ebony Population Dynamics &amp; Demographic Studies Phenology Spatial Distribution Germination Study Population Survey </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 15 1. Population Survey Study Plot 200 m Tagging Diameter measurement (DBH&gt; 5cm) Mapping &amp; coordinate using GPS &amp; GIS To know the population status and relative density of ebony in the area. </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 16 </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 17 Demography Involves population dynamics, species recruitment and mortality Field survey Set-up plot Long-term &amp; short-term survey </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 18 2. Spatial Distribution Information Soil Topography Climate To get information on habitat preference of ebony (ridge, valley, slope) from established plot </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 19 </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 20 65 km SE Manila shifting cultivation, burned and selectively logged Mature secondary forest with natural mixed stand Dominated by Celtis luzonica and Diplodiscus paniculatus Tropical monsoon Mt. Makiling Forest Reserve </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 21 </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> 22 113 tree species and 6 palms, &gt;5 cm dbh Highest density - Celtis Highest basal area - Diplodiscus Max. dbh by Ficus (balete, strangling fig) Max. mean height of 21m Structural characteristics of main canopy species </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 23 3. Popn Dynamics &amp; Demographic Studies 10m Regeneration Quadrat Plot WHY??? 1.Monitor growth 2.Seedling recruitment and mortality of the seedling (3 years; short- term study 3. First year seedlings will be identified, marked &amp; appearance will be recorded to know the changes taking place in the life cycle of ebony </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 24 4. Phenology of Ebony Reproductive biology will determine gene flow (mating system, pollination, fruit dispersal, etc.) &amp; recruitment rate of the species (Lee, 2006 personal commn) STEPS: Identify the ebony tree from the established plots/ Check and measure every month Do some ranking such as budding stage, peak bloom and mature seed of ebony. </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 25 Pollination Biology Observation Pollinators Study on Pollination Biology Dispersal strategy Observation Wind Animals Conserve animals that are seed dispersal agents Conservation strategy </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 26 Regeneration &amp; species role Flowering and fruiting occurs at the age of 5-7 years Seeds remain viable for only a short time Seeds vectors: Bats Birds Monkeys Found with Homalium celebicum </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 27 Germination study From established plot, set up seed trap for seedfall study of ebony Monthly seedfall collection will be done + seeds will be checked Correlation of seed weight to germination capacity of ebony For mature &amp; sound seeds, weighing &amp; germination test will be done to compare growth &amp; survival from natural forest condition To know the germination trait of ebony for ex-situ conservation. </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 28 In summary TopicPossible OutcomesConservation strategies DistributionLimited distributionConserve all remaining populations WidespreadDesignated conservation area based on ecological units (different in climate, soil and topography) Demography 1. Low recruitment rate (normal J distrbn) (normal J distrbn) 2. High mortality rate (inverse J distrbn) (inverse J distrbn) Vegetative propagation (Enrichment planting) Assisted Natural Regeneration Silvicultural treatment Germination 1. Recalcitrant 2. Orthodox 1. Immediate planting and establishment of seedling nursery 2. Seed storage Phenology 1. Regular 2. Irregular 1. - 2. Vegetative propagation and seed storage </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 29 Rationale for Genetic Info Allelic richness could contribute to population growth thru its effect on evolutionary potential, or the ability of a species to respond to changes in its selective environment. Reduced heterozygosity can result in decrease of population growth due to inbreeding depression. Therefore, we need to know the genetic diversity partition within and among populations </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Levels of Genetic Diversity Genetics Approach Conserving Ebony Population Differentiation Mating System Spatial Genetic Structure Minimum Population Size </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 31 1. Levels of Genetic Diversity To estimate level of genetic diversity that we need to generate information a CriterionAFLPRAPDSSRAllozymes Quantity of informationHigh Low ReplicabilityHighVariableHigh Resolution of genetic differences HighModerateHighModerate Ease of use and development ModerateEasyDifficultEasy Development timeShort LongShort aThe scoring scheme follows closely those in Hillis et al.2 and Karp and Edwards49. </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 32 Why Choose SSR Marker ? SSR- (microsatellite) marker was developed by (Weber &amp; May 1989 in human and found to be abundant in plant by Morgante &amp; Olivieri 1993) Very high degree of polymorphism &amp; codominance make them extremely informative Practical number of loci is 10 Few as 5 or 6 microsatellite loci can often answer many conservation genetic questions (e.g. paternity, pollen flow) that cannot be answered with 30 or more isozyme loci High reliability (reproducibility) If the resources is limited, we can use allozyme </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 33 How to Get The Parameters ? DNA extraction Microsatellite analysis Analysis data Sample Collection D.celebica leaf samples will collected from 40 populations base on 40 area divide based on soil, climate and slope From each population, about 30 adults will be sampled Develop primer PCR amplification For genotyping, PCR product will be electrophoresed along with GeneScan ROX 400 internal size standard using DNA automated sequencer DNA genomic will be extracted using Murray and Thompson (1980) and purified using High Pure PCR Template Preparation Kit Genescan analysis software and GENOTYPER software v3.7 D.celebica leaf samples will collected from 40 populations base on 40 area divide based on soil, climate and slope From each population, about 30 adults will be sampled Develop primer PCR amplification For genotyping, PCR product will be electrophoresed along with GeneScan ROX 400 internal size standard using DNA automated sequencer DNA genomic will be extracted using Murray and Thompson (1980) and purified using High Pure PCR Template Preparation Kit Genescan analysis software and GENOTYPER software v3.7 </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 34 Low genetic diversity means not enough sufficient gene pool for short term adaptation and long term evolutionary Result of Genetic Diversity Need to enhance by the introduction of new alleles through of new alleles through introgression following hybridization introgression following hybridization for long term conservation for long term conservation </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Training Workshop on Forest Biodiversity Conservation &amp; Management of Forest Genetic Resources; June 5-16 2006 Group 1 Presentation 35 2. Spatial Genetic Structure To determine genetic structure within a population Moran I Coefficient analysis statistical analysis Significantly structured Need sampling strategy for ex-situ conservation random Need capture all Choose and select </li> <li> Sl...</li></ul>

Recommended

View more >