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Total Quality tools


  • 1. Seven Quality Control ToolsPresented toDR.MAHR MUHAMMAD SAEEDPresented byMamoona ShahzadMP/2012-27

2. Objective Present an overview of Seven Quality Tools Address purpose and applications Highlight benefits 3. 47 QC Tools 4. 5What are 7 QC Tools ?QC tools are the means for Colletingdata , analyzing data , identifying rootcauses and measuring the results.Numerical DATA processing 5. 6Control ChartPareto ChartData Collecting Scatter Plot Ishikawa ChartHistogramStratification* ******** 6. 77 QC TOOLS Pareto Diagram StratificationScatter DiagramCause and Effect DiagramHistogramCheck SheetControl Chart 7. 8Pareto Diagram1. What is Pareto diagram ?A Pareto diagram is a combination of bar andline graphs of accumulated data, where dataassociated with a problem: A defect foundMechanical failureComplaint from a customerThese are divided into smaller groups bycause. 8. 9Pareto Diagram( No. of Occurrences)Used to identify a problem.Used to identify the causeof a problem.Used to review the effectsof an action to be taken.Used to prioritize actions.Allows clarificationof important tasks.Allows identificationof a starting point(which task to startwith).Allows projection ofthe effects of ameasure to be takenPareto DiagramMethod Usage Result 9. 10Stratification1. What is Stratification ?Stratification means to divide the whole intosmaller portions according to certain criteria. Incase of quality control, stratification generallymeans to divide data into several groupsaccording to common factors or tendencies (e.g.,type of defect and cause of defect). 10. 11StratificationGrouping by day,time, place, worker,or processXYZNumber of UnitsUsed to observe variationsamong strata.Used to identify therelationship between causeand effect.Used to identify a purposeand means to serve thepurposeAllows observationof variations amongstrata.By performing acause analysis usingthe stratified data, thefollowing can beaccomplished.1.Identification and control of aproblem2.Division of data (obtained byusing each QC tool) into severalgroupsMethod Usage Result 11. 12Scatter Diagram1. What is Scatter Diagram ?A scatter diagram is used to examine therelationship between the two, paired,interrelated data types, such as height andweight of a person. A scatter diagramprovides a means to find whether or notthese two data types are interrelated. It isalso utilized to determine how closely theyare related to identify a problem point thatshould be controlled or improved. 12. 13Scatter DiagramAbrasion (micron) Axisx AxisNumber ofRotations 13. 14Scatter DiagramMethod Usage ResultUsed to identify arelationship between twomatters.Establishcountermeasures basedon their cause and effectrelation.Scatter Diagram Axisx AxisAbrasionNumber ofRotationsCan identify causeand effect relation.Can understand therelationshipbetween tworesults. 14. 15Cause & Effect Diagram1. What is Cause & effect Diagram ?A cause and effect diagram is a fish-bone diagramthat presents a systematic representation of therelationship between the effect and affectingfactors. 15. 16Cause & Effect Diagram2. When is it used and what results will be obtained?A cause and effect diagram is mainlyused to study the cause of a certainmatter. As mentioned above, the use ofa cause and effect diagram allowsclarification of causal relation forefficient problem solving. It is alsoeffective in assessing measuresdeveloped and can be applied to otherfields according to your needs. 16. 17Cause & Effect DiagramMethod Usage ResultCan obtain a clearoverall picture ofcausal relation. (Achange in the causetriggers a variation inthe result.)Can clarifythe cause and effectrelationship.Can list up all causesto identify importantcauses.Can determine thedirection of actionUsed whenclarifying a causeand effectrelationship.[Usedduring a phase toanalyze causes.] Used to developcountermeasures.Caaussee aand EffffeeccttDiiaagrraamMachine ManMaterial MethodEffectCause (4Ms) Result(Controlled State) 17. 18Cause & Effect DiagramMechanism ofCopying MachineQuality ofCopying PaperUser SurroundingEnvironmentSmudges on thecopied surfaceInternal devices notworking smoothlyMalfunction ofthe rollerPrinting toolightlyToo thinFoldedRunning outof stockDampenedKeyboard handlingerrorError in selecting ascale of reductionError inplacement ofpaper (settingits face up)Error inselectingshadingDeterioration ofperformance dueto hightemperaturesNicotine-stainedDirt on theglasssurfaceDustMany Copying Errors! 18. 19Histogram1. What is Histogram ?Histograms are used to chart the frequencyof occurrence.How often does something happen?Frequency distribution diagrams 19. 20Histogram2. When is it used and what results will be obtained?A histogram is mainly used to analyze aprocess by examining the location of themean value in the graph or degree ofvariations, to find a problem point thatneeds to be improved. 20. 21HistogramMethod Usage ResultHiisttogramStandardRangeRange ofVariationsUsed to assess the actualconditions.Used to analyze a process toidentify a problem point thatneeds to be improved byfinding the location of themean value or degree ofvariations in the graph.Used to examine that thetarget quality is maintainedthroughout the process.X Axis (ValuesActuallyMeasured)Can identify thelocation of the mean(central) value ordegree of variations.Can find out thescope of a defect byinserting standardvalues.Can identify thecondition ofdistribution (e.g.,whether there is anisolated, extremevalue). 21. Flowchart Flowcharts are pictorial representationsof a processes. By braking theprocesses down into its constituentsteps, flowcharts can be useful inidentifying where errors are likely tobe found in the system.9/7/2014 22 22. Flow Chart 23. 24Check Sheet1. What is Check sheet ?A check sheet is a sheet designed in advance toallow easy collection and aggregation of data. Byjust entering check marks on a check sheet, datacan be collected to extract necessary information,or a thorough inspection can be performed in anefficient manner, eliminating a possibility ofskipping any of the required inspection items.A check sheet is also effective in performingstratification (categorization). 24. 25Check Sheet2. When is it used and what results will be obtained?It is frequently used in daily businessoperations, often not specifically forQC purposes. 25. 26Method Usage ResultEnsures collectionof required data.Allows a thoroughinspection of allcheck items.Can understandtendencies andvariations.Can recordrequired data.Check SheetCheck SheetDayProcessProcess 1Process 2Process 3Used to collectdata.Used whenperforming athoroughinspection. 26. 27Check SheetA check sheet used to identify defectsDateDefectVertical ScratchScratchDentTotal 27. Run Chart Records the output results of a process overtime. What is happening in the process as timegoes by. 28. 29Control Chart1. What is Control Chart ?A control chart is used to examine a process to see ifit is stable or to maintain the stability of a process.This method is often used to analyze a process. Todo so, a chart is created from data collected for acertain period of time, and dots plotted on the chartare examined to see how they are distributed or if theyare within the established control limit. After someactions are taken to control and standardize variousfactors, this method is also used to examine if aprocess is stabilized by these actions, and if so, tokeep the process in a stable state. 29. 30Control Chart2. When is it used and what results will be obtained?Types of control charts: Managerial purposes Analytical purposes.A control chart is used to identify dots that areoutside the control limit, which indicate someanomalies in a process. In addition, sevenconsecutive dots showing values that arebelow or above the mean (central) value, oran increment or a decline represented byseven consecutive dots also indicate aproblem in a process. 30. 31Control ChartMethod Usage ResultControll Chartx-R Control ChartUsed to observe achange caused byelapse of time.Can identify a changecaused by elapse oftime.Can judge theprocess if it is in itsnormal state or thereare some anomaliesby examining the dotsplotted on the chart.Control Chart for Managerial Purposes: Extends the line indicating the control limit used foranalytical purposes to plot data obtained daily to keep a process in a good state.Control Chart for Analytical Purposes: Examines a process if it is in a controlled state bycollecting data for a certain period of time. If the process is not controlled, a survey isperformed to identify its cause and develop countermeasures. 31. 32Control Chartx- Control ChartGroup NumberExamples of ValuesRepresented by DotsValues above thecontrol limitrepresented bysevenconsecutive dotsA declinerepresented bysevenconsecutive dots 32. Managements Role 33. Summary 1-2The tools listed above are ideally utilized ina particular methodology, which typicallyinvolves either reducing the processvariability or identifying specific problemsin the processes. However, othermethodologies may need to be developedto allow for sufficient customization to acertain specific process. In any case, thetools should be utilized to ensure that allattempts at process improvement include.9/7/2014 34 34. Summary 2-2 Furthermore, it is important to morethat the mere use of quality controltools does not necessarily constitutes aquality program. Thus, to achievelasting improvements in quality, it isessential to establish a system that willcontinuously promote quality in allaspects of its operation.9/7/2014 35 35. ThankYou


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