total quality management

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Total Quality Management, Quality Engineering, Quality concepts


  • 1. Copyright 2006, New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers Published by New Age International (P) Ltd., Publishers All rights reserved. No part of this ebook may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microfilm, xerography, or any other means, or incorporated into any information retrieval system, electronic or mechanical, without the written permission of the publisher. All inquiries should be emailed to rights@newagepublishers.comISBN (13) : 978-81-224-2534-5PUBLISHING FOR ONE WORLDNEW AGE INTERNATIONAL (P) LIMITED, PUBLISHERS 4835/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi - 110002 Visit us at

2. This book is dedicated to lotus feet of Lord VENKA TESHWARA VENKATESHWARA and to our Beloved Parents 3. PREFACE Total Quality Management has now emerged as the most spectacular aspect of Management. This book covers fundamental concepts of Total Quality Management, its Principles & Practices and Tools and Techniques. Sufficient theory is presented to ensure that the reader has a sound understanding of the subject. This book will serve the instructional needs of Engineering and Management students in technical institutions and universities. Apart from this, it also provides needs of various business organizations, healthcare and manufacturing industries. This book covers a brief introduction of probability distributions followed by leadership theory and tools and techniques of total quality managemett. Other chapters discuss Control Charts for Variables and Attributes, Statistical Process Control (SPC), Quality Systems, Bench Marking, Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Quality by Design, Experimental Design, Taguchis Quality Engineering Products, Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), Total Productive Maintenance, ISO 9000 and Management Tools. This book also contains a number of solved problems for ease of grasping and appended with a good number of exercise problems at the end of each chapter. Statistical Quality Control Tables are also provided in order to facilitate ease of viewing the tables while using the book. The authors wish to express their sincere thanks to the Principals and Managements of their respective colleges. Further, they would like to thank Mr. Saumya Gupta, Managing Director and Mr. V.R. Babu, New Age International (P) Limited, Publishers for their commitment and encouragement in bringing out this book in time with good quality.BangaloreDr. N.V.R. Naidu Dr. K.M. Babu Sri G. Rajendra 4. This page intentionally left blank 5. This page intentionally left blank 6. This page intentionally left blank 7. This page intentionally left blank 8. This page intentionally left blank 9. CONTENTS Preface...(v)1. Quality and Quality Control Inspection... ...1 1Quality Characteristics 2. Probability Distributions... ...6 11Introduction Probability... ...11 11Binomial Distribution Poisson Distribution... ...15 18... ...24 26Evolution of Quality Definition... ...26 27TQM Concepts Basic Approach... ...28 29The Demings Philosophy Gurus of Total Quality Management... ...30 32The Five Principles of TQM History of Quality Control in India... ...37 37... ...40 41Introduction Characteristics of Quality Leaders... ...41 41Role of TQM Leaderships Continuation Process Improvement... ...42 50The PDSA Cycle Six Sigma (6) Quality... ...51 57... ...62 63... ...63 63... ...72 90...90Normal Approximation to the Binomial 3. An Overview of Total Quality ManagementTQM Organization 4. LeadershipConclusion 5. Tool and Techniques of TQM Introduction Benchmarking and Competitive Analysis Quality by Design 6. Statistical Process Control Introduction 10. (xii) TQC Tools...90Process Capability Summary... ...131 137... ...138 138... ...138 154... ...162 176Introduction Types of Sampling Plans... ...176 177Operating Characteristics Curve Double Sampling Plan... ...178 181... ...206 206... ...217 222Introduction to Design of Experiments Terminology Used in Design of Experiment... ...222 222Some Important Design Quality Control... ...226 227Taguchis Quality Philosophy Parameter Design... ...227 234Tolerance Design Statistical Quality Control Tables... ...235 236Binomial Distribution Poisson Distribution... ...236 237Normal Curves t Distribution... ...242 244Chi-Square Distribution F Distribution... ...245 247Random Numbers Factors for Computing 3 Control Limits... ...251 2527. Control Charts for Attributes Attribute Control Charts p-Chart np-Chart C-Chart or U-Chart 8. Acceptance Sampling9. Reliability Definition Redundancy 10. Experimental Design 11. 1Quality and Quality ControlINSPECTION Inspection is the most common method of attaining standardisation, uniformity and quality of workmanship. It is the cost art of controlling the product quality after comparison with the established standards and specifications. It is the function of quality control. If the said item does not fall within the zone of acceptability it will be rejected and corrective measure will be applied to see that the items in future conform to specified standards. Inspection is an indispensable tool of modern manufacturing process. It helps to control quality, reduces manufacturing costs, eliminate scrap losses and assignable causes of defective work. Objectives of Inspection (1) To collect information regarding the performance of the product with established standards for the use of engineering production, purchasing and quality control etc. (2) To sort out poor quality of manufactured product and thus to maintain standards. (3) To establish and increase the reputation by protecting customers from receiving poor quality products. (4) Detect source of weakness and failure in the finished products and thus check the work of designer. Purpose of Inspection (1) To distinguish good lots from bad lots (2) To distinguish good pieces from bad pieces. (3) To determine if the process is changing. (4) To determine if the process is approaching the specification limits. (5) To rate quality of product. (6) To rate accuracy of inspectors. (7) To measure the precision of the measuring instrument. (8) To secure products design information. (9) To measure process capability. Stages of Inspection (1) Inspection of incoming material (2) Inspection of production process (3) Inspection of finished goods. 1 12. 2TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT(1) Inspection of incoming materials. It is also called receiving inspection. It consists of inspecting and checking of all the purchased raw materials and parts that are supplied before they are taken on to stock or used in actual manufacturing. Inspection may take place either at suppliers end or at manufacturers gate. If the incoming materials are large in quantity and involve huge transportation cost it is economical to inspect them at the place of vendor or supplier. (2) Inspection of production process. The work of inspection is done while the production process is simultaneously going on. Inspection is done at various work centres of men and machines and at the critical production points. This had the advantage of preventing wastage of time and money on defective units and preventing delays in assembly. (3) Inspection of finished goods. This is the last stage when finished goods are inspected and carried out before marketing to see that poor quality product may be either rejected or sold at reduced price. Inspection Procedures There are three ways of doing inspection. They are Floor inspection, Centralised inspection and Combined inspection. Floor Inspection It suggests the checking of materials in process at the machine or in the production time by patrolling inspectors. These inspectors moves from machine to machine and from one to the other work centres. Inspectors have to be highly skilled. This method of inspection minimise the material handling, does not disrupt the line layout of machinery and quickly locate the defect and readily offers field and correction. Advantages (1) Encourage co-operation of inspector and foreman. (2) Random checking may be more successful than batch checking. (3) Does not delay in production. (4) Saves time and expense of having to more batches of work for inspection. (5) Inspectors may see and be able to report on reason of faculty work. Disadvantages (1) Difficult in inspection due to vibration. (2) Possibility of biased inspection because of worker. (3) Pressure on inspector. (4) High cost of inspection because of numerous sets of inspections and skilled inspectors. Suitability (1) Heavy products are produced. (2) Different work centres are integrated in continuous line layout. Centralised Inspection Materials in process may be inspected and checked at centralised inspection centre which are located at one or more places in the manufacturing industry. 13. QUALITY AND QUALITY CONTROL3Advantages (1) Better quality checkup. (2) Closed supervision. (3) Absence of workers pressure. (4) Orderly production flow and low inspection cost. Disadvantages (1) More material handling. (2) Delays of inspection room causes wastage of time. (3) Work of production control increases. (4) Due to non-detection of machining errors in time, there may be more spoilage of work. Suitability (1) Incoming materials inspection. (2) Finished product inspection. (3) Departmental inspection. (4) High precision products of delicate products. (5) Small and less expensive products. Combined Inspection Combination of two methods what ever may be the method of inspection, whether floor or central. The main objective is to locate and prevent defect which may not repeat itself in subsequent operation to see whether any corrective measure is required and finally to maintained quality economically. Methods of Inspection There are two methods of inspection. They are 100% inspection and Sampling inspection. 100% Inspection This type will involve careful inspection in detail of quality at each strategic point or stage of manufacture where the test involved is non-destructive and ever