total quality control
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A Seminar on
A Seminar on Total Quality Control
Presented by:- Aakash D. Bhongade 132130015 (M. Tech 1st Year)
1Concepts2What is quality?Dictionary has many definitions: Essential characteristic, Superior, etc.
Some definitions that are accepted in various organizations: Quality is customer satisfaction, Quality is Fitness for Use.
Quality is fitness for use(Joseph Juran)Quality is conformance to requirements(Philip B. Crosby)Quality of a product or services is its ability to satisfy the needs and expectations of the customer2What is TQMTotal - made up of the wholeQuality - degree of excellence a product or service providesManagement - act, art or manner of planning, controlling, directing,.
Therefore, TQM is the art of managing the whole to achieve excellence.
InspectionQuality ControlQuality AssuranceTQM3What does TQM mean?Total Quality Management means that the organization's culture is defined by and supports the constant attainment of customer satisfaction through an integrated system of tools, techniques, and training. This involves the continuous improvement of organizational processes, resulting in high quality products and services.
Quality4Why TQM?Ford Motor Company had operating losses of $3.3 billion between 1980 and 1982. Xerox market share dropped from 93% in 1971 to 40% in 1981. Attention to quality was seen as a way to combat the competition.
5The Three Quality GurusDeming: the best known of the early pioneers, is credited with popularizing quality control in Japan in early 1950s.Today, he is regarded as a national hero in that country and is the father of the world famous Deming prize for quality.JURAN: Juran, like Deming was invited to Japan in 1954 by the union of Japanese Scientists and engineers.Juran defines quality as fitness for use in terms of design, conformance, availability, safety and field use. He focuses on top-down management and technical methods rather than worker pride and satisfaction.
The Deming Cycle or PDCA CyclePlan a change to the process. Predict the effect this change will have and plan how the effects will be measuredImplement the change on a small scale and measure the effectsAdopt the change as a permanent modification to the process, or abandon it.Study the results to learn what effect the change had, if any.7Philip Crosby: author of popular book Quality is Free. His absolutes of quality are:
Quality is defined as conformance to requirements, not goodnessThe system for achieving quality is prevention, not appraisal.The performance standard is zero defects, not thats close enoughThe measurement of quality is the price of non-conformance, not indexes.
8Commonality of Themes of Quality GurusInspection is never the answer to quality improvement, nor is policing.
Involvement of leadership and top management is essential to the necessary culture of commitment to quality.
A program for quality requires organization-wide efforts and long term commitment, accompanied by the necessary investment in training.
Quality is first and schedules are second.
9TQM Six Basic ConceptsLeadershipCustomer SatisfactionEmployee InvolvementContinuous Process ImprovementSupplier PartnershipPerformance Measures(All these present an excellent way to runa business)10Elements of TQMLeadershipTop management vision, planning and support Employee involvementAll employees assume responsibility for inspecting the quality of their work.Product/Process ExcellenceInvolves product design quality and monitoring the process for continuous improvement.11Elements of TQM (contd)Continuous ImprovementA concept that recognizes that quality improvement is a journey with no end and that there is a need for continually looking for new approaches for improving quality.Customer Focus (on Fitness for Use)Design qualitySpecific characteristics of a product that determine its value in the marketplace.Conformance qualityThe degree to which a product meets its design specifications.12QC Process management13Planning and administrating the activities necessary to achieve high quality in business processes; and also identifying opportunities for improving quality and operational performance ultimately, customer satisfaction.Process simplification reduces opportunities for errors and rework.Processes are of two types value-added processes and support processes.Value-added processes those essential for running the business and achieving and maintaining competitive advantage. (Design process, Production/Delivery process)13Process management14
14Process control15Control is the activity of ensuring the conformance to the requirements and taking corrective action when necessary.Two reasons for controlling the processProcess control methods are the basis of effective daily management of processes.Long-term improvements can not be made to a process unless the process is first brought under control.Short-term corrective action should be taken by the process owners. Long-term remedial action should be the responsibility of the management.15Process control16Effective quality control systems includeDocumented procedures for all key processesA clear understanding of the appropriate equipment and working environmentMethods of monitoring and controlling critical quality characteristicsApproval processes for equipmentCriteria for workmanship: written standards, samples etc.Maintenance activities16
Continuous Process ImprovementView all work as process production and businessProcess purchasing, design, invoicing, etc.Inputs PROCESS outputsProcess improvement increased customer satisfactionImprovement 5 ways; Reduce resources, Reduce errors, Meet expectations of downstream customers, Make process safer, make process more satisfying to the person doing17Continuous ImprovementInputs processing outputs
InputMaterialsInfo, DataPeopleMoneyProcessWork methodsProceduresToolsProduction Cutting, Welding, etc.Bank deposit/withdrawal process, Kad Pintar Application Process at NRDOutputsProductsDelivered serviceIn-process jobs forms signed, drawing completedOthersAlso by-products, wastesConditionsfeedback182.HistogramsCheck Sheets4.Control Charts5.Run Charts3.Scatter DiagramsThe Five TQM Tools to see quality19
Check Sheets are simple documents that are used for collecting data in real-time. A Check Sheet is typically a blank form that is designed for the quick, easy and efficient recording of the desired information, which can be either quantitative or qualitative. When the information is quantitative, the check sheet is called a Tally Sheet.Check SheetsA histogram divides up the range of possible values in a data set into classes or groups. For each group, a rectangle is constructed with a base length equal to the range of values in that specific group, and an area proportional to the number of observations falling into that group.
HistogramsScatter Diagrams are used to present measurements of two or more related variables. A Scatter Diagram does not specify dependent or independent variables. Either type of variable can be plotted on either axis. Scatter Diagrams represent the association (not causation) between two variables.
Scatter DiagramsA control chart consists of the following:A Centre Line (CL) drawn at the process mean value.Lower and Upper Control Limits that indicate the threshold at which the process output is considered statistically unlikely.
Run Charts are similar in some regards to Contol Charts, but do not show the control limits of the process. They are therefore simpler to produce, but do not allow for the full range of analytic techniques supported by Control Charts.
Run chart: Measurement against progression of time.Control chart: Add Upper Control Limit and Lower Control Limit to the run chart.
Run Charts19201940196019802000 QualityImproved DesignTotal Quality Management (TQM)StatisticalProcessControl(SPC)InspectionQuality ThroughDesignQuality as a Function of Time and Methods25ISO 9000The International Organization for Standardization (ISO)ISO 9000 Series of Quality StandardsAn international set of standards for documenting the processes that an organization uses to produce its goods and services.
2627ISO 9000: 2000Defines quality systems standards based on the premise that certain generic characteristics of management principles can be standardized. And that a well-designed, well-implemented and well managed quality system provides confidence that outputs will meet customer expectations and requirements.Standards are recognized by 100 countries including Japan and USA.Intended to apply to all types of businesses. (Recently, B2B firm bestroute.com became the first e-commerce company to get ISO certification.)2728ISO 9000: 2000Created to meet five objectives:Achieve, maintain, and seek to continuously improve product quality in relation to the requirements.Improve the quality of operations to continually meet customers and stakeholders needs.Provide confidence to internal management that quality requirements are being met.Provide confidence to the customers that quality requirements are being met.Provide confidence that quality system requirements are fulfilled.28Benefits of TQMGreater customer loyaltyMarket share improvementHigher stock pricesReduced service callsHigher pricesGreater productivity
29Assuring Customer SatisfactionService RecoveryHow quickly a firm rectifies a service mistake has a strong e