topic 1_overview and introduction

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  • 8/9/2019 Topic 1_Overview and Introduction

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    PISMP Semester 7TSL3113 Action

    Research IWeek 1:

    Introduction to researchmethods in education

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    This session will cover

    •  The aims of educational research

    •  The characteristics of educationalresearch

    • Approaches in educational research – The positivist approach (quantitative)

     – The interpretive approach (qualitative)

    • Ethics of educational research – The important aspects of research ethics

     – Ethical codes

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    what is educationalresearch!

    Educational research is a eld of inquiry aimed at:

    • advancing knowledge of education

    • exploring the learning processes for improvement

    • developing of tools and methods to deal withlearning prolems

    Education researchers aim to descrie! understand!

    and explain:• how learning takes place throughout the life cycle

    • how formal and informal processes of educationa"ect learning! attainment! and the capacity tolead productive lives

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    what is educational research!"contd#$

    #reswell ($%%&) views educational research

    • as a cyclical process of steps that typically eginswith identifying a research prolem or issue of study

    • that involves

     – reviewing the literature

     – specifying a purpose for the study

     – collecting and analy'ing data

     – forming an interpretation of information

     This process nishes in a report! disseminated toaudiences! that is evaluated and used in theeducational community

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    The aims o% educationalresearch

    •  The unifying purpose for educationalresearch is to uild cumulative andsound knowledge aout human and

    social process of fundamentalsignicance to individuals! to groups!and to the larger society

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    The aims o% educationalresearch "contd#$

    • mprove practice

    • Add to knowledge

    • Address gaps in knowledge• Expand knowledge

    • *eplicate knowledge

    • Add voices of individuals toknowledge

    (#reswell! $%%$)

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    The characteristics o%educational research

    + *esearch egins with a question in the mind ofthe researcher

    $ *esearch requires a plan

    - *esearch demands a clear statement of theprolem

    . *esearch deals with the main prolem throughsu/prolems

    & *esearch seeks direction through appropriatehypotheses

    0 *esearch deals with facts and their

    meaning

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    The characteristics o%educational research "contd#$

    n his ook entitled Fundamentals of Educational Research!1ary Anderson has outlined ten characteristics that can eused to further understand what the eld of educationalresearch entails:

    + Educational research attempts to solve a prolem

    $ *esearch involves gathering new data from primary or rst/hand sources or using existing data for a new purpose

    - *esearch is ased upon oservale experience or empiricalevidence

    . *esearch demands accurate oservation and description& *esearch generally employs carefully designed procedures

    and rigorous analysis

    0 *esearch emphasi'es the development of generali'ations!principles or theories that will help in understanding!

    prediction and2or control

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    #ontd

    3 *esearch requires expertise4familiarity withthe eld5 competence in methodology5 technicalskill in collecting and analy'ing the data

    6 *esearch attempts to nd an o7ective!uniased solution to the prolem and takes greatpains to validate the procedures employed

    8 *esearch is a delierate and unhurried activitywhich is directional ut often renes the prolemor questions as the research progresses

    +% *esearch is carefully recorded and reported toother persons interested in the prolem

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    A&&roaches in educationalresearch

    9our ma7or approaches:

    • ositivist

    • nterpretive• ragmatic

    • Advocacy2participatory

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    the &ositivist a&&roach"'uantitative$

    • Aim – Explanation! control

    • ;nowledge

     –

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    the inter&retive a&&roach"'ualitative$

    • Aim – >nderstanding

    • ;nowledge

     – ?u7ective! contextualised! valuedependent

    • *esearcher

     – ndependent participant This approach is suitale to e used to develop the understanding required for evaluating if a variale is relevant or not to a givenprolem situation #ompared to the perspective on positivistapproach as counting! this approach can e seen as proposing

    which variables to count 

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    (thics o% educationalresearch

    • n writing up a study of three nurseries!the researcher realises that his analysis islikely to e interpreted y parents and the

    local media as suggesting that one ofthese nurseries does not meet currentinspection standards Should he&roceed to &u)lish the *ndin+s!

     ,our o&inion &lease---

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    EducationalResearch Ethics

    Ethics is defined asthe principles and

    guidelines that help

    us to uphold thethings we value

     Approaches Areas ofConcern

    EthicalPrinciples

    the im&ortant as&ects o%research ethics

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    the im&ortant as&ects o%research ethics

    Approaches

    @eontological

    ?ays ethicalissues must e

     7udged onasis of

    universal code

    Ethical?kepticism

    ?ays concreteand inviolatemoral codescannot eformulated

    >tilitarianism

    @o enetsoutweigh

    risks

     This approachis used y *B

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    Area of#oncern

    ?ocietyand

    ?cience

    rofessional ssues

    9raudulentActivity

    artial [email protected]

    ulication

     Treatmentof

    articipants

    the im&ortant as&ects o%research ethics

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    EthicalPrinciples

    MinimisingHarm

    Respecting Autonomy 

    ProtectingPrivacy 

    OfferingReciprocity 

    TreatingPeopleEquitably 

    the im&ortant as&ects o%research ethics

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    ethical codes

    • rofessional #ompetence

    • ntegrity

    • rofessional! ?cientic! and ?cholarly*esponsiility

    • *espect for eopleCs *ights! @ignity!and @iversity

    • ?ocial *esponsiility

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    Tutorial tasks

    Dork in groups of not more than four *ead thehandout Plants drink water and eat fertilizer.#omplete the following tasks:

     Task +:

    s AliciaCs attempts to solve the teaching/learningprolem in - awar an educational researchdentify the relevant characteristics

     Task $:

    Explain and 7ustify the approach Alicia has employed

     Task -:

    Dhat are some of the ethical issues that Alicia shouldconsider in planning her research