TOPIC 1: ANATOMY SKELETAL SYSTEM Lessons 1-5. Lesson 1: Skeletal System Parts Axial vs Appendicular Types of bones Bones of the skeletal system Injuries,

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  • Slide 1
  • TOPIC 1: ANATOMY SKELETAL SYSTEM Lessons 1-5
  • Slide 2
  • Lesson 1: Skeletal System Parts Axial vs Appendicular Types of bones Bones of the skeletal system Injuries, deformities
  • Slide 3
  • SKELETAL SYSTEM 206 bones (adult) Two main divisions Axial: 80 bones- functions are supports, protects, attachment & movement. Appendicular: 126 bones- functions are support, attachment, movement, blood cell formation & mineral storage. Axial vs Appendicular Tutorial
  • Slide 4
  • Slide 5
  • Types of Bones Bones are classified by their shape. Long bones- femur, humerus Short bones- carpals, tarsals Irregular bones- vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx Flat bones- sternum, ribs, pelvis Seismoid bones patella Bone types website
  • Slide 6
  • Skeletal System Tutorial
  • Slide 7
  • Vertebral Column [axial skeleton] Cervical (C1-C7)C1 & C2 Atlas & Axis- rotational movement, ROM Thoracic (T1-T12) Rib attachment=less movement but protect organs Lumbar (L1-L5) biggest, strongest =weight bearing, absorb shock Sacrum (fused) transmit weight from body to legs Coccyx (fused) Column provides support, protects spinal cord, transmits weight, attachment for ribs and muscles. Transverse foramen- vertebral arteries, veins nerves. Vertebral foramen- Spinal cord.
  • Slide 8
  • The Thoracic (Rib) Cage [axial skeleton] Protect organs, provide support for muscles and organs. True ribs- 1 st 7pairs attach directly to sternum False ribs- Pairs 8-10 attach indirectly via cartilage to sternum False floating ribs- last 2 pairs do not attach to sternum All rib pairs attach to the 12 thoracic vertebrae
  • Slide 9
  • Pectoral Girdle [Appendicular Skeleton] Shoulder girdle Made up of scapula and clavicle Connection point between axial and appendicular skeletons
  • Slide 10
  • Pelvic Girdle [appendicular Skeleton] Made up of hip bones (os coxae) =ilium, ishium & pubis, sacrum and coccyx. Large load bearing bones Connect axial and appendicular skeletons
  • Slide 11
  • Upper Limb Consist of humerus, ulna, radius and wrist/hand bones. Wrist/hand contain 27 bones= provide a lot of movement. 8 carpals 5 metacarpals 14 phalanges
  • Slide 12
  • Lower Limb Consist of femur, patella, tibia, fibula and ankle/foot bones. Ankle/foot contain 26 bones 7 tarsal 5 metatarsal 14 phalanges
  • Slide 13
  • Injuries and conditions Fracture Greenstick fracture Spinal deformities (curvature of the spine) Cervical lordosis Thoracic kyphosis Lumbar lordosis Scoliosis
  • Slide 14
  • Page 65 Dynatomy
  • Slide 15
  • Lesson 2: Anatomical Directions Anatomical position Use terms to locate bones and other regions of body Inferior Superior Proximal Distal Medial Lateral Anterior Posterior Superficial Deep
  • Slide 16
  • Activity Describe the location of the following body parts. Use whatever terms you know. Head, forearm, hand, foot, thigh & heart. Humerus, sternum, fibula, cranium, phalanges.
  • Slide 17
  • Superior (cranial) is a term used to describe a place that is toward the upper part of the body. For example the skull is superior to the shoulders. Superior can also be used to mean above. Superior (cranial) is a term used to describe a place that is toward the upper part of the body. For example the skull is superior to the shoulders. Superior can also be used to mean above. When the lower part of the body (or below is referred to, the term inferior (caudal) is used. For example, the knees are inferior to the shoulders. When the lower part of the body (or below is referred to, the term inferior (caudal) is used. For example, the knees are inferior to the shoulders. Anatomical Directions
  • Slide 18
  • Lateral means towards the side of the body or away from the middle imaginary body line (the midline). For example, the humerus is lateral to the sternum Lateral means towards the side of the body or away from the middle imaginary body line (the midline). For example, the humerus is lateral to the sternum Medial is used to describe the position of a part of the body located towards the midline. For example, the spine is medial to the carpals. Medial is used to describe the position of a part of the body located towards the midline. For example, the spine is medial to the carpals. Anatomical Directions
  • Slide 19
  • Anterior (ventral) is used to describe the front or towards the front of the body. For example, the sternum is anterior to the vertebrae. Anterior (ventral) is used to describe the front or towards the front of the body. For example, the sternum is anterior to the vertebrae. Posterior (dorsal) is used to describe the back of the body. For example, the vertebral column is posterior to the sternum. Posterior (dorsal) is used to describe the back of the body. For example, the vertebral column is posterior to the sternum. Anatomical Directions
  • Slide 20
  • Proximal means closer to the center of the body. For example, the shoulder is proximal in relation to the hand. Proximal means closer to the center of the body. For example, the shoulder is proximal in relation to the hand. Distal means away from the center of the body. For example, the hand is distal in relation to the head. Distal means away from the center of the body. For example, the hand is distal in relation to the head. These are only used when discussing limbs Anatomical Directions
  • Slide 21
  • Superficial refers on the surface or exterior. Deep refers to internal or inside. A structure closer to the surface of the body is superficial, while a structure further away from the surface is deep. Anatomical Directions
  • Slide 22
  • Activity: Give an example of the use of the following terms in relation to body parts, bones or muscles: e.g. the carpals are_________ to the humerus. Inferior/Superior : (Caudal/Cranial) Inferior/Superior : (Caudal/Cranial) Proximal/Distal Proximal/Distal Medial/Lateral Medial/Lateral Posterior/Anterior : (Dorsal/Ventral) Posterior/Anterior : (Dorsal/Ventral) Superficial/Deep Superficial/Deep Anatomical Directions
  • Slide 23
  • Lesson 3: Anatomy of a Long Bone Draw and annotate the internal & external anatomy of a long bone Epiphysis Diaphysis Spongy bone Compact bone Articular cartilage Bone marrow Marrow cavity Blood vessels Periosteum
  • Slide 24
  • Structure of a long bone tutorial Diaphysis is the long central shaft. Epiphysis forms the larger rounded ends of long bones. Structure of a Long Bone
  • Slide 25
  • Articular Cartilage Spongy Bone Epiphyseal Plate Compact Bone Medullary Cavity Yellow Marrow Periosteum
  • Slide 26
  • Compact bone is the tissue that forms the surface of bones Spongy bone is the tissue that makes up the interior of bones In long bones, spongy bone forms the interior of the epiphyses; the diaphysis (shaft) consists of compact bone surrounding the central marrow cavity. Structure of a Long Bone
  • Slide 27
  • Articular cartilage reduce friction and absorb shock. Periosteum provides a good blood supply to the bone and a point for muscular attachment. Structure of a Long Bone
  • Slide 28
  • Bone marrow cavity contains bone marrow Bone marrow is the flexible tissue found in the hollow interior of bones. In adults, marrow in large bones produces new blood cells. Blood vessel supply oxygenated blood. Structure of a Long Bone
  • Slide 29
  • Lesson 4: Connective Tissue Function of connective tissue Cartilage Ligaments Tendons
  • Slide 30
  • Cartilage is a hard, strong connective tissue that provides support for some soft tissues and forms a sliding area for joints so that bones can move easily (reduce friction). Cartilage is a hard, strong connective tissue that provides support for some soft tissues and forms a sliding area for joints so that bones can move easily (reduce friction). During development (before birth) cartilage forms most of the skeleton. During development (before birth) cartilage forms most of the skeleton. It is gradually replaced by bone. In a mature individual it is found mainly at the end of bones, in the nose, trachea, and in association with the ribs and vertebrae (discs). It is gradually replaced by bone. In a mature individual it is found mainly at the end of bones, in the nose, trachea, and in association with the ribs and vertebrae (discs). Connective Tissue
  • Slide 31
  • Slide 32
  • A ligament is a band of tough fibrous connective tissue that connects one bone to another, serving to support and strengthen a joint. A ligament is a band of tough fibrous connective tissue that connects one bone to another, serving to support and strengthen a joint. Connective Tissue
  • Slide 33
  • Tendons connect muscles to bones. They are specialized skeletal structures that generally transmit muscular pull to bones. Tendons connect muscles to bones. They are specialized skeletal structures that generally transmit muscular pull to bones. Connective Tissue
  • Slide 34
  • Lesson 5: Joints of the Body Types of joints Cartilagenous Fibrous Synovial Types of Synovial Ball & socket, hinge, pivot Gliding, condyloid, saddle
  • Slide 35
  • A joint is where two or more bones meet. A joint is where two or more bones meet. Joints can be classified as: Joints can be classified as: Fibrous Fibrous Cartilaginous Cartilaginous Synovial Synovial Joints are classified according to the type of movement allowed Joint type tutorial Joints of the Body Joint type video clip
  • Slide 36
  • Fibrous -synarthrosis: This type of joint is held together by only a ligament. Examples teeth sutures in skull radioulnar and tibiofibular joints. Joints of the Body
  • Slide 37
  • Cartilagenous (Amphiarthrosis) These joints occur where the connection between the articulating bones are made up of cartilage. Synchondroses:temporary joints, only in children, up until the end of puberty. Symphesis joints are permanant cartilagenous joints. Joints of the Body
  • Slide 38
  • Synovial (diarthrosis): Most common classification of joint within the human body. They are highly moveable and all have a synovial capsule surrounding the entire joint. Joints of the Body
  • Slide 39
  • Features of a synovial joint include: Articular capsule joint capsule; the saclike envelope enclosing the cavity of a synovial joint. Articular capsule joint capsule; the saclike envelope enclosing the cavity of a synovial joint. Articular cartilage reduce friction and absorb shock. Articular cartilage reduce friction and absorb shock. Synovial membrane the inner layer of the capsule which secretes synovial fluid Synovial membrane the inner layer of the capsule which secretes synovial fluid Synovial fluid a lubricating liquid Synovial fluid a lubricating liquid Bursae a small fluid-filled sac situated in places in tissues where friction would otherwise occur. Bursae a small fluid-filled sac situated in places in tissues where friction would otherwise occur. Meniscus A disk of cartilage that acts as a cushion between the ends of bones in a joint. Meniscus A disk of cartilage that acts as a cushion between the ends of bones in a joint. Ligaments connective tissue, bone to bone Ligaments connective tissue, bone to bone Joints of the Body
  • Slide 40
  • The 6 types of synovial joint are: The 6 types of synovial joint are: Ball and socket Ball and socket Hinge Hinge Pivot Pivot Gliding Gliding Condyloid (ellisoid) Condyloid (ellisoid) Saddle Saddle synovial joint types Joints of the Body
  • Slide 41
  • Hinge Joint: Flexion/Extension Elbow
  • Slide 42
  • Joints of the Body Pivot: Rotation of one bone around another. Neck at C1 & C2 Radius-ulna joint
  • Slide 43
  • Joints of the Body Ball and socket joint Flexion/Extension/Adduction/Abduction/Internal & External Rotation/ Circumduction
  • Slide 44
  • Joints of the Body Saddle Flexion/Extension/Adduction/Abduction/Circumduction Carpometacarpal joint
  • Slide 45
  • Joints of the Body Condyloid (Ellipsoid) (reduced ball & socket ) Flexion/Extension/Adduction/Abduction/Circumduction Similar to ball & socket but with less movement wrist Radiocarpal joint
  • Slide 46
  • Joints of the Body Knee - Bicondyloid Flexion/Extension/rotation Sometime called a modified hinge.
  • Slide 47
  • Joints of the Body Gliding Gliding movements/ sliding back and forth Intercarpal joints
  • Slide 48
  • Slide 49
  • Joint Injuries Activities Directions: Walk around the room in groups completing the injuries activity.
  • Slide 50
  • Ligaments of the knee There are four major ligaments that surround the knee joint, keeping it in place when the leg is bent or straight: the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) (center of knee) the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) (center of knee) the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) (outer knee) the medial collateral ligament (MCL) (inner knee) Meniscus semi-lunar discs of fibrocartilage that allow bones to fit more tightly together. This provides greater cushioning and stability to the joint Can you complete the diagram in your workbook?
  • Slide 51
  • ACL Injuries The anterior cruciate ligament is crucial in keeping the tibia from sliding beneath the femur; it is frequently injured among athletes who take part in skiing, basketball and football. It can be torn or injured in a variety of ways: quickly twisting or changing direction slowing down while running direct hit (like a football tackle) landing after a jump Men and women alike can suffer from sports related injuries like ACL tears, but according to data collected* since 1995 there is a difference between men and women in the same sport. ACL injuries among women basketball players are twice that of their male counterparts. Women who play soccer are four times more likely to suffer from an ACL tear than men who play the same sport. Part of the problem is the way many women jump, turn and pivot. They don't usually bend their knees as much as men do when landing from a jump. That puts increased pressure on the knee joint. Many women also are in a more erect position when turning and pivoting. That also can strain the ACL. Learning to crouch and bend at the knees and hips, could take some of the stress off the ACL. If you suffer from an ACL injury, you may not even realize it right away. You may just hear a popping noise and feel your knee give out from under you. Two to twelve hours later, there will be swelling accompanied by pain. *A...

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