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    INDEX/SATAL 2010

    Tools of Exploration: ROV

    FocusRemotely operated vehicles (ROVs) for deep ocean exploration

    Grade Level9-12 (Earth Science/Physical Science/Technology)

    Focus QuestionHow do scientist use a remotely operated vehicle to help explore Earths deep ocean?

    Learning Objectivesn Students will be able to describe systems and capabilities of science-

    class remotely operated vehicles. n Students will be able to describe typical applications and limitations

    of imagery obtained with ROVs. n Students will be able to use ROV imagery to make inferences about

    deep ocean habitats.

    Materialsq None

    Audio-Visual Materialsq (Optional) Video projector or other equipment for displaying video

    images (see Learning Procedure Step 1d)

    Teaching TimeOne 45-minute class period

    Seating ArrangementGroups of 4-6 students

    Maximum Number of Students30

    Key WordsRemotely operated vehicle (ROV)Underwater video

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    Image captions/credits on Page 2. INDEX/SATAL 2010: Tools of Exploration: ROVGrades 9-12 (Earth Science/Physical Science/Technology)

    Background InformationNOTE: Explanations and procedures in this lesson are written at a level appropriate to professional educators. In presenting and discussing this material with students, educators may need to adapt the language and instructional approach to styles that are best suited to specific student groups. During the summer of 2010, scientists from Indonesia and the United States will work together on an expedition to explore the deep ocean surrounding Indonesia. This mission is called INDEX/SATAL 2010, since the expedition is focussed on INDonesia, EXploration, and the Sangihe Talaud (SATAL) region. Working from the Indonesian Research Vessel Baruna Jaya IV and the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, these ocean explorers expect to find new deep-sea ecosystems, undiscovered geological features, and living organisms that have never been seen before. New discoveries are always exciting to scientists; but information from ocean exploration is important to everyone, because:

    Biodiversity in deep-sea ecosystems includes new species that can provide important drugs and other useful products;

    Some deep-sea ecosystems include organisms that can be used for human food;

    Information from deep ocean exploration can help predict earthquakes and tsunamis; and

    Human benefits from deep ocean systems are being affected by changes in Earths climate and atmosphere.

    A major objective of the INDEX/SATAL 2010 expedition is to locate submarine volcanoes, hydrothermal vents, chemosynthetic ecosystems, and seamounts associated with active geologic processes in Indonesias deep sea. The primary strategy used aboard the Okeanos Explorer to find these kinds of features involves searching for anomalies; conditions that are different from the surrounding environment. Changes in chemical properties of seawater, for example, can indicate the presence of underwater volcanic activity, hydrothermal vents, and chemosynthetic communities. This strategy involves three major activities: Underway reconnaissance;

    Water column exploration; and Site characterization.

    Underway reconnaissance involves mapping the ocean floor and water column while the ship is underway, and using other sensors to measure chemical and physical properties of seawater. Water column exploration involves making measurements of chemical and physical properties from top to bottom while the ship is stopped. In some cases these measurements may be made routinely at pre-selected locations, while in other cases they may be made to decide whether an area with suspected anomalies should be more thoroughly investigated. Site characterization involves more detailed exploration

    Images from Page 1 top to bottom:The ROV Hercules being lowered into the water from the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer. Image credit: NOAA OER.

    NOAA scientists examining live video feed from the ROV Hercules. Image credit: NOAA OER.

    Mussels, shrimp, limpets, and crabs cover the slope of an underwater volcano near a hydro-thermal vent. Image credit NOAA

    Black smokers on the Kermadec Arc. Image courtesy of New Zealand American Submarine Ring of Fire 2007 Exploration, NOAA Vents Program, the Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences and NOAA-OE.

    The NOAA Ship Okeanos ExplorerFormerly: USNS CapableLaunched: October 28, 1988Transferred to NOAA: September 10, 2004Commissioned: August 13, 2008Class: T-AGOSLength: 224 feetBreadth: 43 feetDraft: 15 feetDisplacement: 2,298.3 metric tonsBerthing: 46 (19 Mission/science)Speed: 10 knotsRange: 9600 nmEndurance: 40 days

    Systems and Instumentation:Kongsberg EM302 Multibeam rated to

    7,000 mSBE 911 Plus CTDROVs -

    Little Hercules - 4,000 m depth rating; USBL tracking; depth, altitude, attitude/heading sensors; Seabird SBE 49 FastCat CTD; HD camera and HMI lights

    Camera platform with depth/altitude/heading sensors, HD cameraand HMI lights.


    Operations: Ship crewed by NOAA Commissioned Officer

    Corps and civilians through NOAAs Office of Marine and Aviation Operations; Mission equipment operated by NOAAs Office of Ocean Exploration and Research

    For more information, visit

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    Image captions/credits on Page 2. INDEX/SATAL 2010: Tools of Exploration: ROVGrades 9-12 (Earth Science/Physical Science/Technology)

    of a specific region, including obtaining high quality imagery, making measurements of chemical and physical seawater properties, and obtaining appropriate samples.

    Site characterization activities depend heavily upon remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), which are unoccupied robots linked to an operator by a group of cables. Underwater ROVs are usually controlled by an operator aboard a surface ship. Most are equipped with one or more video cameras and lights, and may also carry other equipment such as a manipulator or cutting arm, water samplers, and measuring instruments to expand the vehicles capabilities. For the INDEX/SATAL 2010 expedition, NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer will carry Little Hercules, an ROV whose primary purpose is to gather high quality video imagery. Little Hercules has four thrusters and can operate as deep as 4000 meters.

    For more information about other ROVs, visit

    This lesson is intended to introduce students to remotely operated vehicles and video imagery as they are used in the exploration strategy of the Okeanos Explorer. In the future, students will have access to additional video imagery collected by ROVs as the Okeanos Explorer continues its voyages of discovery in Earths deep ocean.

    Learning Procedure1. To prepare for this lesson:

    (a) Review introductory essays for the INDEX/SATAL 2010 Expedition at

    (b) Review information about the importance of deep ocean exploration in the Background section of the Earths Ocean is 95% Unexplored: So What? lesson;

    (c) Download the data file from, and install it on computers that students will be using to complete the activity. Alternatively, you may have students download this file onto their own computer systems.

    (d) Download one or more photographs of the Little Hercules ROV from (, and images of several other ROVs from You may also want to download a compilation of video clips collected by Little Hercules during a shakedown cruise off Kona, Hawaii, from

    Indonesias Research Vessel Baruna Jaya IV

    Port of Registry - Jakarta, IndonesiaPurpose - Oceanography, FisheryLaunched - 1995Length - 60.4 mWidth - 12.10 mDraft - 4.15 mDraft mean - 4.15mCruising speed - 10 ktsBPPT Indonesia - owner17 crew, 33 scientists, and engineers

    Deck Gear:6 ton A-Frame 3 ton Crane2 - Gilson Winches2 - Otter Trawl WinchesHydrographic Winch

    Oceanographic Equipment:Seabeam ELAXC1050D MultibeamSeabeam ELAC 1190 MultibeamELAC 4700Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler RDI

    BroadbandSea Bird SBE-911 CTD with RosetteAanderaa, MORS, RDI current metersGravity Core Sediment SamplerOretech 3000 Subbottom ProfilerEdge Tech 4200-MP Sidescan Sonar

    Fishery Equipment:Mid- and Deep-water Fisheries TrawlKoden Fish FinderSimrad EK 500Plankton Net