tổng quan về singapore

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  1. 1. Download thm ti liu ti: http://diendan.ngaodu24.com Cng ng Hng Dn Vin Vit Nam T NC V CON NGI SINGAPORE T NC Ch cch 1 v pha Bc ng xch o, o quc Singapore nm gn trong vng cc Nam bn o Malaysia vi tng din tch 692,7 km2 . Mc d Singapore c n 58 o nh trong vng lnh hi nhng phn ln c dn (3,89 triu) sinh sng ch yu ti hn o ln nht (o Singapore) c chiu di 42km t Ty sang ng v 23km t Bc xung Nam. Gn 2/3 din tch o Singapore khng cao qu 15m so vi mc nc bin. Ni cao nht ca o ny l Bukit Panjang trung tm o, cao 177m; pha ng ca o l cao nguyn thp b bo mn, c vi thung lng nh. Do gn ng xch o li l 1 qun o nn kh hu Singapore mt m quanh nm, ma nhiu v m cao. Nhit trung bnh khong 27 C v khng c s chnh lch ln gia cc ma cng nh trong 1 ngy. Thng c nhit thp nht trong nm l thng ging nhng vn t 25 C, cao nht l thng 7 cng ch ti 27,2 C. Ma gn nh ri u cc thng trong nm vi lng ma trung bnh hng nm l 2.359 mm. Cng ha Singapore phn cch vi quc gia lng ging ca n, Malaysia, bi mt eo bin hp ca bang Johor. N ni vi Malaysia bi 1 con ng p cao di 1.056 mt gm 1 ng t, 1 ng st v 1 ng ng dn nc xuyn qua eo bin Johor (theo tha thun k vi Malaysia vo nm 1962, ng ng dn nc ny cung cp cho Singapore 546 triu lt nc mt ngy); vi nhng hn o ln ca qun o Riau ca Indonesia bng nhng chuyn ph bin c l trnh ngn. Thi Lan v Philippines cng ch cch Singapore c vi gi bay. Thc t, vi nhng cng trnh xy dng mi ti sn bay quc t Changi phc v cho 69 Hng Hng khng (hin ti, Singapore ang xy dng nh ga th ba), Singapore l mt ca ng vo cc nc ng Nam . Pha Nam Singapore l hn o nh Sentosa, im du lch ni ting nht ca nc cng ha. V, c mt chuyn du lch ngh dng xa ri nhng n o v bi bm ca t lin, bn lun c th tm c ti hn o thanh bnh Pulau Ubin, nm pha ng Singapore. Bn Singapore c th c tm thy www.streetdirectory.com hoc ti www.can.com.sg. LCH S Lch s Singapore l mt s trn ln hp dn gia s tht v huyn thoi. Vo th k 13, c mt v hong t ca vng triu Srivijaya tn l Sang Nila Utama vt bin i tm ni lp thnh ph mi. Theo truyn thuyt, khi cho thuyn gh vo mt hn o, hong t thy mt con vt l m ng y c bo l con Singa, theo ting Phn ngha l con s t. Hong t cho l im lnh nn quyt nh lp ra thnh ph ca mnh ti y v t tn cho n l Singapura hay thnh ph S t. Singapore c cai tr bi quc vng bang Johor cho n thng ging nm 1819. Mt ngi Anh tn Thomas Stamford Raffles, lm vic cho cng ty ng n k mt hip nh vi Vua Johor, cho php ng t mt thng cng ti y. Ngay sau , ng tuyn b bin n thnh mt cng t do v Singapore tr thnh mt mi trng thng mi nng ng k t ngy y. (Raffles cng chnh l ngi hy b ch n l Singapore). T nm 1824 sau tha hip gia Anh v H Lan, Singapore tr thnh thuc a chnh thc ca Anh. Nm 1942, Nht ht cng ngi Anh v Singapore ri vo bn tay
  2. 2. Download thm ti liu ti: http://diendan.ngaodu24.com Cng ng Hng Dn Vin Vit Nam cai tr ca pht xt. Lc , Singapore b i tn thnh Senan (Chiu Nam) - ngha l nh sng phng Nam. Vi 2 qu bom nguyn t th xung Hiroshima v Nagasaki nm 1945, ngi Nht u hng v iu kin v Singapore mt ln na li b Anh h vo ngy 05.09.1945. Ngy 03.06.1959, Anh trao cho Singapore quyn quc gia t tr. Ngy 16.09.1963, Singapore t nguyn gia nhp lin bang Malaysia nhng ch c 2 nm th tch khi lin bang. n ngy 09.08.1965, Singapore tuyn b tr thnh mt quc gia c lp. Cng ha Singapore theo ch i ngh. ng Hnh ng Nhn dn nm quyn lnh o t nm 1959. Tng thng l ngi ng u Nh nc, do quc hi c vi nhim k 4 nm. Quc hi nm quyn lp php, gm 51 ngh s do dn bu. Ni cc l c quan hnh php, ng u l Th tng. Th tng v cc thnh vin ni cc do Tng thng ch nh. Th tng l th lnh ca ng chim a s trong quc hi. CON NGI V NGN NG Singapore l mt quc gia a chng tc, a tn gio v a ngn ng. 75% dn s l ngi Hoa, 14% l ngi Malay, 8% l ngi n v 3% l ngi lai u v cc dn tc khc. Bn thn o quc ny va l mt thnh ph, va l mt tiu bang, v cng l mt quc gia. Dn s l 4.608.595 ngi (s liu thng 7/2003). Singapore c 4 ngn ng chnh thc l ting Anh, Hoa, Malay v Tamil; ting Malay l ngn ng quc gia. Ting Anh, tuy vy li c s dng rt rng ri. N c dng trong dn chng v c xem l phng tin chnh trong giao tip gia cc dn tc khc nhau v vi ngi nc ngoi. Tt c hc sinh u hc ting Anh nh ngn ng th nht v phn ln cng dn Singapore u ni c hai th ting: ting m v mt ngn ng th hai. Singapore khng c tn gio no c coi l quc gio. C khong 27% theo o Pht, 25% theo o Gio, 16% theo o Hi, 10% theo o Thin Cha, 4% theo o Hindu, cn li l cc tn gio khc. VN DN TC 1/ Trc khi Singapore dnh c c lp, CN dn tc pht trin mnh c lc dn n mu thun gia cc dn tc (c bit l ngi Hoa v ngi Malay). Do vy, khi tr thnh mt quc gia c lp, chnh ph Singapore tch cc cng c s on kt gia cc dn tc thng qua hng lot bin php nhm xa b s ngn cch gia cc nhm dn tc. Bin php u tin l sp nhp mt s trng hc ca cc nhm dn tc li vi nhau di s gim st ca B gio dc. T nhng nm 1960 tr i, tt c cc trng tiu hc Singapore u phi hc song ng, gm ting Anh v ting m . Mc ch nhm m rng s giao lu vn ha, kinh t gia cc dn tc v gim bt s bt bnh ng trong tm vic lm gia nhng ngi hc ting Anh vi nhng ngi ch hc bng ting m . Trong gio dc, Singapore rt ch n vic xy dng v bi dng tinh thn dn tc thng nht. Hc sinh c hc t m v s ra i ca quc gia Singapore, v lch s dnh c lp, v quc k, quc huy v qu trnh hnh thnh cc nhm cng ng dn tc y. Chnh sch ha hp dn tc cn th hin nhiu lnh vc khc, chng hn nh Singapore cc i pht thanh v TV c pht xen k cc th ting. D nhin, ting Anh l th ting thng dng nn c pht vi thi lng nhiu hn. Ngi ta cn khuyn khch vic t chc cc cu lc b TDTT nhng khu dn c m ngi thuc cc dn tc khc nhau u c th tham gia. Trong xy dng nh , vic phn b xen k
  3. 3. Download thm ti liu ti: http://diendan.ngaodu24.com Cng ng Hng Dn Vin Vit Nam cc h ngi Hoa, ngi Malay v n tr thnh mt ch trng ca chnh ph nhm to iu kin xy dng mi quan h gn gi, thn thin ln nhau. Tuy nhin, iu quan trng nht vn l kinh t. Cc chnh sch u hng ti vic to ra nhng c hi bnh ng cho tt c mi cng dn trong vic hng th cc phc li x hi, trong tm kim vic lm v lm giu bng kh nng ca mnh. Chnh sch iu tit lng bng c li cho ngi lao ng trc tip, chnh sch tr cp gio dc v dy ngh cho nhng ngi gp nhiu kh khn, nht l cc h ngho M & n lm cho s chnh lch v mc sng v thu nhp dn thu hp li. iu khng ch c ngha v kinh t m cn gp phn to ra s n nh v chnh tr, cng bng x hi v ha hp dn tc. VN NH Ngay khi c lp, 2/3 dn c Singapore khng c nh . Chnh ph nhn thc rng s hu nh s khuyn khch s n nh x hi v lm cho ngi dn gn b hn vi t nc. Hi ng pht trin nh (HDB Housing Development Board) c thnh lp vo nm 1960. Ngay khi tin hnh cng nghip ha, chnh ph cho rng vi 1 quc gia t cht ngi ng nh Singapore th khu vc nh cng cng gi vai tr ht sc quan trng trong vic to dng 1 x hi pht trin, bo m trt t th v cnh quan mi trng. Mt khc, trong bi cnh nn kinh t th trng, khu vc nh cng cng vn phi l mt ngnh kinh t sinh li nhun d c ch trng mc tiu cng bng x hi n mc no i chng na. Ch c cng lc gii quyt hai vn trn th mi c th pht trin bn vng. Gi nh cng cng ca Singapore kh r, ch bng 1/3 so vi gi th trng. Theo quy nh, ngi mua nh do Nh nc xy dng lc u ch tr 5 10% gi tr cn h, s cn li tr gp ti a l 25 nm. c t v vn cho vic pht trin nh vi gi r, chnh ph thc hin nhiu bin php: lp qu t thng qua khai thc nhng m ly, i ni v ln bin; trng mua t t nhn; quy hoch tng th cc khu dn c; huy ng cc khon tin thu c t qu t cho ngi nc ngoi thu v cc khon tn dng u i di hn Chnh ph ra chnh sch cng bc tit kim: nhng ngi c thu nhp hng thng m cha c nh phi ng 1 khon tin vo Qu D phng Trung ng. Khon tin ny s c s dng tr dn khi mua nh. Nu ngi dn c nhu cu rng hn, h c th bn hoc tr li cn h c cho Nh nc vi gi khu hao v mua cn h mi. VN MI TRNG T cui nhng nm 1960, chnh ph a ra 1 quy hoch c th cho cc vng: - Khu vc trung tm ch yu dnh cho pht trin cc c quan thng mi, ngn hng, ti chnh, khch sn v b tr cc cng s ca Nh nc, vn phng i din ca cc Cng ty nc ngoi. - Khu vc th ha l vng ln cn khu trung tm dnh cho vic xy dng nh , cc c s o to, nghin cu khoa hc v cc nh my c k thut cao, khng gy nhim mi trng. - Vng b bin bao gm cc o ln & nh c dnh trng rng, pht trin nng nghip. - Ngnh cng nghip lc du c b tr cc o ngoi khi. V sinh c xem l iu hin nhin. Khng c ht thuc ni cng cng v nhng ni khng cho ht thuc; khng c x rc; ko cao su b cm tuyt i Nhn
  4. 4. Download thm ti liu ti: http://diendan.ngaodu24.com Cng ng Hng Dn Vin Vit Nam vin bu in, c quan hnh chnh, cnh st, bnh vin c lnh phc v sau cng nhng ngi n mc khng lch s, nhng thanh nin tc di. Bun bn ma ty s b kt n t hnh. K hoch lm sch v chng nhim sng ngi c thc hin t thp nin 70. Phn chnh ca k hoch l vic xy dng h thng cng rnh tt v cc nh my x l cht thi. H thng cng cng cng ca Singapore di 2.450km t di s kim sot ca S Qun l Cng. Nc thi c chia thnh 2 loi x l. Nc thi t sinh hot gia nh (cht thi t nh v sinh, nu nng, git gi) c x thng vo cng. Ring cht thi cng nghip phi c x l ti nh my (bo m tiu chun theo lut mi trng nm 1975) trc khi cho chy vo h thng cng cng cng nhm mc ch khng cho ha cht cn st li gy xi mn h thng cng v khng nh hng n vic x l nc thi bng phng php sinh hc. Nc thi c 134 trm bm vn chuyn n 6 nh my x l cht thi trong 6 khu vc chnh. VN GIAO THNG Vn giao thng Singapore tng i gay gt v quc gia ny c din tch rt nh. Chnh ph phi dng nhiu bin php hn ch s lng xe t lu thng. Thu nhp khu t bng 45% gi xe, ph giao thng hng nm ty thuc phn khi xe v thuc loi cao nht th gii. Nhng ngi mun sm xe phi mua giy php lu hnh ch c gi tr 10 nm. Gi xng Singapore cao gp i Malaysia. Chnh ph dng khon tin thu c ny b p phn no chi ph xy dng ng s. Hin nay, 70% lu lng khch vo trung tm thng mi ca thnh ph l bng cc phng tin giao thng cng cng. Cng Container nhn nhp nht th gii: Ln u tin trong 6 nm qua, Singapore qua mt Hng Kng tr thnh cng Container nhn nhp nht th gii trong nm 2005. N trung chuyn 23,19 triu TEU (n v o hng ha, tng ng 1 container tiu chun di 6,1 mt), tng 8,7% so vi nm 2004.Hng Kng ng th nh vi 22,43 triu TEU, tng 2% so vi nm 2004. Cc nh phn tch cho rng mc d lng hng trung chuyn ti Singapore ngy cng tng ln v qua mt c Hng Kng, nhng tc ny vn cn chm do s cnh tranh t Malaysia, ni c chi ph thp hn. Hai cng Thng Hi & Thm Quyn xp th ba v th t cng ang pht trin mnh. Ring Thng Hi trong nm 2005 trung chuyn c 18 triu TEU, tng 24% so vi nm 2004. TUYN IM 1) Cng vin S t bin (Merlion Park) : Con vt u s t mnh c bi