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  • to my mum and dad

    in memory of my eternal grandmothers (Umbelina and Antnia)

  • Technical University of Lisbon Faculty of Human Kinetics

    Effect of head, trunk and foot position on

    knee passive extension torque-angle response

    Thesis submitted in the fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of

    Science (MSc) in High Performance Training

    PROVISORY DOCUMENT

    Advisor: Doutor Pedro Pezarat-Correia

    Co-advisor: Professor Sandro R. Freitas

    RICARDO JORGE NBREGA ANDRADE

    2013

  • vii

    Acknowledgments

    The reality of completing a MSc is that my efforts would not have been possible

    without the help of several people, involved at different stages throughout the process. I

    am very grateful for all those who have contributed to this MSc and would like to take this

    opportunity to thank them. In particular I would like to thank you very much:

    Professor Sandro Freitas, PhD candidate, for your never-

    ending patience and generous giving of your time and skills. I

    am very grateful for you guiding me through this work;

    rigorous and motivator Professor Pedro Pezarat-Correia, PhD;

    always available Joo Vaz, PhD candidate; Professor Paula

    Bruno, PhD, for statistical support; Professor Pedro Mil-

    Homens, PhD; Tiago Neto, MSc; Professor Maria Joo

    Valamatos, MSc; Professor Ral Oliveira, PhD; my MSc

    journey new friends Daniel Vilarinho, Andr Loureno, David

    Sousa, Lus Barnab, and Coach Paulo Reis (double thanks

    for you); old and friend Professor Joaquim Sousa; my

    supportive and friendly family for times not spent with them

    (special gratitude to godfather Maurlio Gouveia; Cirilo Vieira;

    Carlos Gouveia; Mnica Gouveia; Ftima Vieira; Miguel

    Andrade, Alexandra David and their young Martim, Carolina

    and Madalena); engineer Diogo Carvalho (articulate device

    mentor) and his future wife Catarina Marques; Tom Marques

    and Joana Silva; my fantastic sister Ana Raquel Nbrega

    Andrade; my parents (Jaime Andrade e Teresa Nbrega) for

    your never-ending encouragement to fully explore my

    curiosity. My gratitude and my admiration see no limitations;

    my more than ever Ins Dos Santos Marques (almost

    coworker).

  • xi

    Abbreviations and symbols

    % Percent

    Ankle Ankle angle

    Cervical Cervical angle

    Hip Hip angle

    Knee Knee angle

    Thoracic Thoracic angle

    Cm Centimeters

    EMG Electromyography

    F Force

    Fp Passive resistance to knee extension

    Hz Hertz

    Kg Kilograms

    L Length

    Lleg Leg length

    MAC Musculoarticular complex

    MSS Musculoskeletal system

    MTC Muscle-tendinous complex

    MVIC Maximal voluntary isometric contraction

    N m Newton meter

    Degree

    PEC Parallel elastic component

    PKE Passive knee extension

    PNS Peripheral nervous system

    PNS Peripheral nervous system

    PT Knee passive torque

    RMS Root mean square

  • xii

    ROM Range of movement

    SEC Series elastic component

    SECs Series elastic components

    sEMG Surface electromyography

    SI International System of Units

    SREC Short Range Elastic Component

    SSI Supersonic shear imaging

    STEMG Semintendinousus electromyography

    T- Torque-angle

    VAS Visual analogic scale

    VMEMG Quadriceps vastus medialis electromyography

  • xiii

    Table of contents

    Acknowledgments ....................................................................................................................... vii

    Abbreviations and symbols .......................................................................................................... xi

    Table of contents ........................................................................................................................ xiii

    List of figures ............................................................................................................................... xv

    List of tables ............................................................................................................................... xvi

    Abstract ..................................................................................................................................... xvii

    Resumo ...................................................................................................................................... xxi

    I. Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 1

    I.1. Aims and objectives of this Master research .................................................................. 6

    II. Review of literature ............................................................................................................. 7

    II.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................. 9

    II.2. Torque-angle factors and concepts ............................................................................ 9

    II.2.1. Passive properties and concepts of skeletal muscles and joints ....................... 9

    II.2.2. Joint passive factors ......................................................................................... 14

    II.2.3. Contribution of contractile tissue ...................................................................... 16

    II.2.4. Parallel elastic components contribution .......................................................... 18

    II.2.5. Series elastic components of contractile tissues contribution .......................... 21

    II.2.6. Joint contribution .............................................................................................. 21

    II.2.7. Connective tissues ........................................................................................... 22

    II.3. Joint passive torque-angle measurement methods ................................................. 23

    II.4. Neurodynamic features of the peripheral nervous system ....................................... 25

    II.4.1. Neurodynamics ................................................................................................. 25

    II.4.2. Peripheral nervous system responses to movement ....................................... 29

    II.5. Conclusion ................................................................................................................ 30

    III. Methods ............................................................................................................................ 31

    III.1. Design ...................................................................................................................... 33

    III.2. Subjects .................................................................................................................... 33

    III.3. Protocol Procedures ................................................................................................. 33

  • xiv

    III.3.1. Articulate device ............................................................................................... 36

    III.4. Main outcomes ......................................................................................................... 37

    III.4.1. Passive force .................................................................................................... 37

    III.4.2. EMG .................................................................................................................. 38

    III.4.3. Joint angle ........................................................................................................ 39

    III.4.4. Thigh stabilization ............................................................................................. 39

    III.4.5. Anthropometric measures ................................................................................ 40

    III.4.6. Data processing ................................................................................................ 40

    III.5. Statistical analysis .................................................................................................... 41

    IV. Results .............................................................................................................................. 43

    IV.1. Experimental condition ............................................................................................. 45

    IV.1.1. Test condition ................................................................................................... 45

    IV.1.2. Rest intervals between repetitions ................................................................... 47

    IV.1.3. Thigh clamping force ........................................................................................ 47

    IV.2. Maximum values ....................................................................................................... 47

    IV.2.1. Knee angle ....................................................................................................... 47

    IV.2.2. Peak torque ...................................................................................................... 48

    IV.2.3. Visual Analogic Scale ....................................................................................... 48

    IV.2.4. EMG ........................................