To Autumn 1. SEASON of mists and mellow fruitfulness, 1. SEASON of mists and mellow fruitfulness, Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun; Conspiring with

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To Autumn 1. SEASON of mists and mellow fruitfulness, 1. SEASON of mists and mellow fruitfulness, Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun; Conspiring with him how to load and bless With fruit the vines that round the thatch-eves run; With fruit the vines that round the thatch-eves run; To bend with apples the moss d cottage-trees, To bend with apples the moss d cottage-trees, And fill all fruit with ripeness to the core; And fill all fruit with ripeness to the core; To swell the gourd, and plump the hazel shells With a sweet kernel; to set budding more, With a sweet kernel; to set budding more, And still more, later flowers for the bees, And still more, later flowers for the bees, Until they think warm days will never cease, Until they think warm days will never cease, For Summer has o er-brimm d their clammy cells. For Summer has o er-brimm d their clammy cells. Slide 2 2. Who hath not seen thee oft amid thy store? Who hath not seen thee oft amid thy store? Sometimes whoever seeks abroad may find Sometimes whoever seeks abroad may find Thee sitting careless on a granary floor, Thee sitting careless on a granary floor, Thy hair soft-lifted by the winnowing wind; Thy hair soft-lifted by the winnowing wind; Or on a half-reaped furrow sound asleep, Or on a half-reaped furrow sound asleep, Drowsed with the fume of poppies, while thy hook Drowsed with the fume of poppies, while thy hook Spares the next swath and all its twin d flowers: Spares the next swath and all its twin d flowers: And sometimes like a gleaner thou dost keep And sometimes like a gleaner thou dost keep Steady thy laden head across a brook; Steady thy laden head across a brook; Or by a cyder-press, with patient look, Or by a cyder-press, with patient look, Thou watchest the last oozings hours by hours. Thou watchest the last oozings hours by hours. Slide 3 3. Where are the songs of Spring? Ay, where are they? Where are the songs of Spring? Ay, where are they? Think not of them, thou hast thy music too, Think not of them, thou hast thy music too, While barred clouds bloom the soft-dying day, While barred clouds bloom the soft-dying day, And touch the stubble plains with rosy hue; And touch the stubble plains with rosy hue; Then in a wailful choir the small gnats mourn Then in a wailful choir the small gnats mourn Among the river sallows, borne aloft Among the river sallows, borne aloft Or sinking as the light wind lives or dies; Or sinking as the light wind lives or dies; And full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly bourn; And full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly bourn; Hedge-crickets sing; and now with treble soft Hedge-crickets sing; and now with treble soft The red-breast whistles from a garden-croft; The red-breast whistles from a garden-croft; And gathering swallows twitter in the skies. And gathering swallows twitter in the skies. Slide 4 Stanza 1 Autumn: a season of harvest; fruiting stage Autumn: a season of harvest; fruiting stage Metaphors of the autumn: close bosom-friend of the maturing sun, Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness Metaphors of the autumn: close bosom-friend of the maturing sun, Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness him the sun him the sun bless with fruit the vines that round the thatch-eves run bless the vines that run round the thatch-eves with fruit bless with fruit the vines that round the thatch-eves run bless the vines that run round the thatch-eves with fruit load and bless : Autumn and the sun not only load but also bless the vines with fruit. The effects of using the word bless may include autumn s benediction over the ripening of the fruits and its power to enrich the fertility of nature. load and bless : Autumn and the sun not only load but also bless the vines with fruit. The effects of using the word bless may include autumn s benediction over the ripening of the fruits and its power to enrich the fertility of nature. To bend with apples the moss d cottage-trees To bend the moss d cottage-trees with apples The apples become so numerous that their weight bends the trees. To bend with apples the moss d cottage-trees To bend the moss d cottage-trees with apples The apples become so numerous that their weight bends the trees. to set budding more : -ing form suggests activity that is continuing to set budding more : -ing form suggests activity that is continuing And still more suggests the mushrooming of flowers And still more suggests the mushrooming of flowers Use of flashback : line 9 - line 11(cause and effect are reversed) Use of flashback : line 9 - line 11(cause and effect are reversed) Slide 5 Stanza 2 Autumn: lax or resting; the stage of slowing down; personification of autumn as a reaper or a harvester Autumn: lax or resting; the stage of slowing down; personification of autumn as a reaper or a harvester sound asleep, Drows'd Autumn is listless and even falls asleep sound asleep, Drows'd Autumn is listless and even falls asleep Thou watchest the last oozings hours by hours : The end of the cycle is near. The squeezing of the apple cider is nearly finished ( the last oozings ) Thou watchest the last oozings hours by hours : The end of the cycle is near. The squeezing of the apple cider is nearly finished ( the last oozings ) Slide 6 Stanza 3 Autumn: Description of the beauty of autumn. Keats blends living and dying, the pleasant and the unpleasant, because they are crucial elements of the mixed nature. Autumn: Description of the beauty of autumn. Keats blends living and dying, the pleasant and the unpleasant, because they are crucial elements of the mixed nature. Mention of spring : 1. representing process; the proceeding flow of time (like the summer in stanza 1) 2. Spring is a time of rebirth of life which contrasts with the seemingly dying autumn of stanza 3. Mention of spring : 1. representing process; the proceeding flow of time (like the summer in stanza 1) 2. Spring is a time of rebirth of life which contrasts with the seemingly dying autumn of stanza 3. the soft-dying day : Its dying also creates beauty (as the following lines present) the soft-dying day : Its dying also creates beauty (as the following lines present) While barred clouds bloom the soft-dying day, And touch the stubble- plains with rosy hue : the setting sun casts a bloom of rosy hue over the stubble left after the harvest While barred clouds bloom the soft-dying day, And touch the stubble- plains with rosy hue : the setting sun casts a bloom of rosy hue over the stubble left after the harvest And full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly bourn : sheep will be slaughtered in autumn (Note: why is Keats using the term lambs rather than sheep ?) And full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly bourn : sheep will be slaughtered in autumn (Note: why is Keats using the term lambs rather than sheep ?) And gathering swallows twitter in the skies : The swallows are gathering for their winter migration suggesting that the autumn will cease And gathering swallows twitter in the skies : The swallows are gathering for their winter migration suggesting that the autumn will cease Slide 7 We could compare To Autumn with s, which describes autumn as a withering season rather than a season of harvest and beauty. But it also has some similarities with To Autumn as in which correlate with stanza 3 (ex: And full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly bourn ) We could compare To Autumn with s, which describes autumn as a withering season rather than a season of harvest and beauty. But it also has some similarities with To Autumn as in which correlate with stanza 3 (ex: And full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly bourn ) Slide 8 Images Keats wrote a letter to his friend J. H. Reynolds after he wrote "To Autumn." Keats wrote a letter to his friend J. H. Reynolds after he wrote "To Autumn." Even the letter alludes to ancient myths, where Diana (in Roman myth, or Artemis in Greek) is the moon and the goddess of chastity and hunting. Even the letter alludes to ancient myths, where Diana (in Roman myth, or Artemis in Greek) is the moon and the goddess of chastity and hunting. Slide 9 Letter to J. H. Reynolds How beautiful the season is now -- How fine the air. A temperate sharpness about it. Really, without joking, chaste weather -- Dian skies -- I never lik'd stubble-fields so much as now -- Aye better than the chilly green of the Spring. Somehow a stubble plain looks warm -- in the same way that some pictures look warm -- This struck me so much in my Sunday's walk that I composed upon it. How beautiful the season is now -- How fine the air. A temperate sharpness about it. Really, without joking, chaste weather -- Dian skies -- I never lik'd stubble-fields so much as now -- Aye better than the chilly green of the Spring. Somehow a stubble plain looks warm -- in the same way that some pictures look warm -- This struck me so much in my Sunday's walk that I composed upon it. Slide 10 Images Keats did not believe in gods and goddesses. He did, however, take a great interest in the poetry of ancient Greece, and "To Autumn" is the sixth in his famous sequence of odes, poems ancient Greeks wrote to the various gods in their polytheistic world. To the Greeks, a god was not a distant, disembodied entity. Thus a god could dwell at the site of a river, for it was the spirit of the river. Even one of the mightiest gods, Apollo, was at some level simply the sun. Keats did not believe in gods and goddesses. He did, however, take a great interest in the poetry of ancient Greece, and "To Autumn" is the sixth in his famous sequence of odes, poems ancient Greeks wrote to the various gods in their polytheistic world. To the Greeks, a god was not a distant, disembodied entity. Thus a god could dwell at the site of a river, for it was the spirit of the river. Even one of the mightiest gods, Apollo, was at some level simply the sun. In "To Autumn," Keats treats autumn as a kind of god or goddess whose presence can be felt in many occurrences of late