Tier 2 Reading Instruction Nicole Fenty, Ph.D University of Louisville.

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  • Tier 2 Reading InstructionNicole Fenty, Ph.DUniversity of Louisville

  • TodayResponse to Intervention (Three Tier Model): Tier 1 Academic InstructionSupplemental ProgramsCurriculaCharacteristicsFive Key Components of ReadingSample strategies

  • Multi-tier ModelApproximately what percentage of the students in your classroom are receiving or are in need of tier 2 reading interventions?

  • Tier 2: CharacteristicsTier 2 and Beyond consists of general education instruction plus the following intervention:Small-group instruction (2-4 students)3-4 intervention sessions per week (30-60 minutes per session)Conducted by trained and supervised personnel (not the classroom teacher)Conducted in and out of the general education classroom9-12 weeks in duration (repeated, as needed)


  • Tier 2: CharacteristicsSmall GroupsPoint system for motivationImmediate corrective feedbackMastery of content before moving on More time on difficult activitiesMore opportunities to respondFewer transitionsSetting goals and self-monitoringSpecial relationship with instructor


  • Example of Tier Level InterventionsCurricular FocusFrequency of Progress MonitoringTier I905 areasCoreEvery six to eight weeksTier 2120Less than 5Core+SupplementalWeekly or greaterReadingHow frequently are students who receive tier 2 reading interventions in your classroom/school being assessed?

  • Sample Common Supplemental Reading CurriculaSRA Early Interventions in ReadingCorrective ReadingReading MasteryAre there any additional supplemental reading programs that your school is using?

  • Characteristics of Effective Tier 2 Reading ProgramsResearch-based instructional strategies that explicitly teach strategies and skills; Systematic, sequential, and very often scripted instruction that moves children from simple to more complex skills and strategies; Ample practice opportunities that allow children to practice skills and strategies in reading and writing text; Assessment tools for diagnosing children's needs and monitoring progress; and Provide professional development that will ensure teachers have the skills necessary to implement the program effectively and meet the needs of their children.


  • The Role of AssessmentDIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills)STAR Early Literacy and STAR Reading AssessmentAimswebDRA (Developmental Reading Assessment)Running RecordsWhat are some additional assessments that your school uses to determine if students need tier 2 reading interventions?

  • Low RiskGood to GoColors provide a quick indication of the students progress and the risk that they have of not achieving the expected level of proficiency.Risk Status

    Moderate RiskCaution

    High RiskDANGER!

  • Who Needs Extra Support?

    High Risk:7

    Moderate Risk:3

    Low Risk:9

  • Five Key Components of the Core Reading ProgramPhonological/Phonemic AwarenessPhonicsFluencyVocabularyComprehension

  • Phonological/Phonemic Awareness

    Phonological AwarenessThe conscious understanding about how speech can be broken down into different size parts The ability to manipulate those partsPhonemic AwarenessThe conscious understanding that spoken words are made up of individual sounds

    Note: Phonological Awareness is notthe same as phonics - no letter-sound correspondence is involved. It may be an essential skill for phonics instruction to make sense, however.

  • Excerpt from Kindergarten Class: DIBELS Phoneme Segmentation FluencySTUDENT SCORING CORRECTWORD:SAYS: PROCEDURE: SEGMENTS

    trickt...r...i...k/t/ /r/ /i/ /k/ 4 /4catk...a...t/k/ /a/ /t/ 3 /3

    Assessment 4Benchmark 36StudentScoreRecommended Instructional LevelStudent 622Strategic (Tier 2)Student 932Strategic (Tier 2)Student 1210Strategic (Tier 2)

  • Elkonin BoxesCount the sounds in the word with the child.Draw one box for each sound.Use chips to represent sounds at first.

  • right, shoe, lip

  • rightshoelip

  • Phonics

    Phonics is the knowledge that letters represent sounds and when these sounds are blended or pronounced, the result is reading words.SkillsLetter-sound correspondence, blending, onset-rimes/word families, multi-syllable wordsActivities used for phonological awareness can also be used for phonics instruction just include letters

  • Excerpt from Kindergarten Class: DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency

    Assessment 4Benchmark 26StudentScoreRecommended Instructional LevelStudent 221Strategic (Tier 2)Student 316Strategic (Tier 2)Student 615Strategic (Tier 2)


    Student Says

    Scoring Procedure

    Correct Letter Sounds





    t o b

    d o s

    3 /3

    3 /3

  • Phonics: StrategyModel individual sound in isolationAsk students to repeat the soundPractice the sound by manipulating in the context of different real and nonsense wordsIf available practice the sound in the context of connected textReview previous soundsReview new sound

  • These letters go together to make the soundSay it with me Again say it with me Your turnaySRA Early Interventions in Reading

  • Using a Marker Board or Manipulative Lettershay

  • Using a Marker Board or Manipulative Lettersday

  • Using a Marker Board or Manipulative Letterslay

  • No WayMaybe you can play a trick, said Kay.Maybe you can say, Bark, bark!Excerpt from SRA Open Court ReadingBy Jennifer Ball

  • Sound Review


  • Texts for Teaching PhonicsDecodable books and materialsGuided reading books

  • Fluency Fluency accuracy speed/rate

    prosodyA readers fluency rate depends on the complexity of the text

  • *Second Grade Class



    Kindergarten0Winter 021

    First Grade1Spring 022

    Teacher ReportsSecond Grade2Fall 023

    Third Grade3Winter 034

    Instructions:Spring 035

    1. Please select Grade, District, and School Year.Fall 036

    2. Click the "Run Reports" button.DistrictNameDistrictIDWinter 047

    DVISD1Spring 048

    AISD2Fall 049

    Winter 0510

    Spring 0511

    SchoolYearFall 0512

    2001-2002Winter 0613

    2002-2003Spring 0614

    2003-2004Fall 0615

    2004-2005Winter 0716

    2005-2006Spring 0717

    2006-2007Fall 0718


    Center groups


    (2) Wilburn, Pam(1) Barnett, Theresa(1) Buswell, Lori

    (3) Wadzeck, Sue(3) Glazier, Marge(4) Thompson, Evelyn

    (4) Hightower, Ginger(5) Ashton, deAnna(2) Cecil, Sharon

    (5) Campbell, Sue(2) Pietsch, Jessica(2) Kneisc, Shawna

    (5) Smith, Kathy

    Tiger LilyPetunia

    (1) Vernau, Angie(1) Worrell, Carla

    (5) Nelson, Heidi(4) Wallace, Sarah

    (3) Everth, Tonna(5) Dewald, Melissa

    (4) Willey, Lorraine(3) Kumpf, Lisa

    Teacher groups

    Group 1Group 2

    Fall 04Fall 04



    Group 3Group 4Group 5

    Fall 04Fall 04Fall 04




    Fall 04Comments


    Tiffany441954Accurate reading; few errors with multi-syllable words

    Allison261837Reading some NWs sound by sound first

    Amber152522Few HF words read accurately, reading S x S

    Erin B231525Few HF words read accurately, reading S x S

    Sheri494169Accurate and fluent reading, good skills with MS words

    Carson564581Accurate and fluent reading, good skills with MS words

    Tavia332363Difficulty with MS words and HF words

    Haleigh413861Few HF words read accurately, difficulty with MS words

    Jacqueline532842Many cvc words read with long vowel sounds

    Shane391459Distracted; multiple errors with MS and HF words

    Matt473645Long for short vowels, confuses nonsense for real words

    Meagan30832Used initial consonants to guess; NWF confusion

    Amanda401170Slight difficulty with MS words and confusion with some HF words

    Cheryl492557Accurate reading; few errors with multi-syllable words

    Alex723594Fluent, accurate; good prosody; good CVC automaticity

    Erin T512248Fluent and accurate, but hesitant; long vowel sounds in cvc words

    Jennifer583451Few errors with multi-syllable words, long for short vowels

    Tessa734978Accurate and fluent reading, good skills with MS words

    Marissa57055Good reading, not able to retell; shy?

    Ashley442553Right at the benchmark; some hesitancies, but accurate

    Katie12*20Slow, labored reading; word by word; poor blending,

    Stacy231525Few HF words read accurately, reading S x S



    No. ss below BM98

    Total students tested2121

    % ss below BM43%38%

    &COral Reading FluencySecond Grade, 2004-2005

    Benchmark Key




























  • Excerpt from 2nd Grade Class: DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency

    Assessment 1Benchmark 44StudentScoreRecommended Instructional LevelAllison26Strategic (Tier 2)Tavia33Strategic (Tier 2)Haleigh41Strategic (Tier 2)Shane39Strategic (Tier 2)Meagan30Strategic (Tier 2)Amanda40Strategic (Tier 2)


    Number of Words

    I gave Ben a red yo-yo.

    We did push-ups, pull-ups, and sit-ups.



  • Sample Fluency Program Guidelines : Small GroupStep 1: The teacher begins by browsing the title, picture and caption with students.Step 2: The teacher uses a graphic organizer to help students to make predictions about what might occur in the passage.Step 3: The teacher then reads the passage as students follow along silently.Step 4: Students then choral read the passage.Step 5: Students practice the passage by reading with a partner.Step 6: The teacher then times the student for one minute. Step 7: The teacher and student chart the number of word correctly per minute.Step 8: As students wait to be time, they respond to the comprehension questions that accompany a particular passage. Review the comprehension questions with students.

    You may use a variety of programs, but this a research-based way of teaching fluency

  • Resources for TextsQuick ReadsGreat LeapsRead NaturallyLeveled narrative texts (e.g. Rigby)Leveled expository texts (e.g. Delta science)

  • VocabularyListening



    Writing}}Vocabulary used for oral communicationVocabulary used for written communication

  • Text Talk Beck, McKeown, & Kucan (2002) Bringing Words to LifeStep One: Read (and discuss) the story with your students.

    Step Two: Introduce the targeted words one at a time.

    Step Three: Ask students to repeat the word.

    Step Four: Introduce your student-friendly definition.

    Step Five: Share examples of the word in contexts that are different from the context in the story.

    Step Six: Engage students in thinking about and using the meaning of the word.

    Step Seven: Ask students to repeat the word again to reinforce its phonological representation.

    Step Eight: Create activities where students are required to interact with the targeted words.

  • Tired WordsTired words are used far too often in childrens speaking and writing. Make a list of tired words.Review the list of tired words, and discuss good replacement words for each tired word. Look up words in the thesaurus to add to list.Make a word wall of replacement words.Discuss importance of making choices about which replacement word to use.

  • VocabularyJohn gave Mary a present.John gave Mary a kiss.Mary gave an excellent performance.The doctor gave John a shot.John gave it his best shot.Mary gave John a shove.John gave a valid argument.Mary gave in.

  • Tired Words

    bestowedgrantedawardeddevotedadministeredofferedimpartedpresentedcollapsedGave =

  • *Word Wall for Tired Wordslittlemicroscopic tinyteensy diminutiveminisculemodestpetitepunybighugeenormoushumongous grandgreat vastgiantprominentgiganticswollenrotundimmensegargantuantremendousnicekindsaintlygenerousgraciousgoodspectacularawesomefabulousexcellentexceptionaloutstandingworthygroovyniftygrand

    saidstatedyelledutteredconveyedrecitedreportednotedallegedpositedclaimedexclaimedproclaimedannouncedassertedThis is an organic process.

  • ComprehensionThe process of constructing meaning from text

  • Comprehension AssessmentsEkwall/Shanker Reading InventoryComprehension questionsQualitative Reading InventoryRetellNarrative: Setting/background, goal, events, resolutionExpository: Main idea, detailsComprehension questionsExplicit vs. Implicit

  • Bubble Bubble Spittlebug

  • Main Idea and Supporting DetailsMain Idea:Details:Details:Details:Details:

  • Doctoral Program In Behavior DisordersNicole FentyAssistant Professor, Special EducationCollege of Education and Human Development University of LouisvilleLouisville, KY 40292nsfent01@louisville.edu(502) 852-2183For more information on past and future ABRI webinars, go to:https://louisville.edu/education/srp/projects/abri/trainings

    ******See, Chair, Flirt***Putting It All Together**********


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