Thesis - MA Education - Tauqir Ahmed

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SITUATION ANALYSIS OF LIBRARIES OF ISLAMABAD MODEL COLLEGES TAUQIR AHMED ROLL NO: 12-SP-71761 BASHARAT HAFEEZ (Supervisor) DEPARTMENT OF MASS EDUCATION FACULTY OF ARTS, SOCIAL SCIENCES AND EDUCATION SARHAD UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PESHAWAR 2015 ii SITUATION ANALYSIS OF LIBRARIES OF ISLAMABAD MODEL COLLEGES TAUQIR AHMED ROLL NO: 12-SP-71761 BASHARAT HAFEEZ (Supervisor) Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Masters of Arts in Education Faculty of Arts, Social Sciences and Education, Department of Mass Education, Sarhad University of Science & Information Technology Peshawar 2015 iii IN THE NAME OF ALLAH THE MERCIFUL THE COMPASSIONATE iv DEDICATION This thesis is dedicated to my father and mother who always support emotionally and materially with prayer, love and patience. Without your support I do nothing. To my wife and to my children; Masooma Tauqir and Muhammad Affan who motivated me to complete this thesis. v AUTHORS NOTE 1. During the period of this registered study in which this thesis was constructed, the author has not been registered for any other academic award or qualification. 2. The material included in this dissertation/thesis has not been submitted wholly or in part for any academic award or qualification other than for which it is now submitted. 3. Except where otherwise acknowledged in the text, this thesis represents the original research of the author. Tauqir Ahmed vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Alhamdulillah, all praises belong to Allah who has given me health and the strength to finish this thesis. Many people have directly or indirectly helped me in the process of writing this thesis. I am really grateful of Prof. Dr. Muhammad Javed Iqbal for his encouragement and to my supervisor, Mr. Basharat Hafeez, for his guidance in finishing this thesis. I would also like to express my gratitude to my friends and respondents for the support and willingness to spend some times with me to fill in the questionnaires. vii ABSTRACT Title: Situation Analysis of Libraries of Islamabad Model Colleges Pages: 83 Researcher: Tauqir Ahmed Supervisor: Mr. Basharat Hafeez University: Sarhad University of Science & IT, Peshawar Year: 2015 Title: Situation Analysis of Libraries of Islamabad Model Colleges Subject Area: Education Degree: M.A Education This study was designed to conduct situation analysis of libraries of Islamabad Model Colleges. The objectives of the study were to investigate procedure of collection of material in IMCB libraries with respect to format of material, to investigate existing facilities in libraries; building, telephone, photocopy, seating capacity, air-conditioning and heating, to compare the collection and facilities with the need and to recommend measures for improving the situation.. Population of this study was Islamabad Model College Libraries. This was also taken as sample i.e. 100%. This study was delimited to the library resources, equipment and facilities of the Islamabad Model Colleges for Boys of urban area (Capital territory). viii This was a descriptive research and for this purpose a questionnaire for librarians was developed, validated and tried out. This questionnaire was administered personally to the sample. Total population was taken as sample. Data collected was tabulated and analyzed using percentage and mean score. Findings were drawn after the analysis of this data. It was found that IMCB libraries operate six days a week, have their own separate functional building with a staff of three members, organize library period, are partially automated and provide open access, circulation and reader advisory services. On the other hand libraries lack the facilities of heating, air-conditioning and central heating/cooling system. These libraries lack the library resources of reports, CD ROMs and audio/video and non-book materials. These libraries are not fully automated and the basic facilities of photo copying and telephone are not available to them. It recommended that the libraries may be upgraded and equipped with modern technologies, IT support and equipment may be provided for the purpose of automation, internet facility may be provided for all, computers and other accessories may be installed, audio/visual aids and CDs may be provided and made the part of library collection and students may be encouraged to visit the library other then attending the library period. ix TABLE OF CONTENTS Dedication vi Authors Note v Acknowledgement vi Abstract vii Table of Contents viii List of Tables xiii List of Figures xiv Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1. Introduction 1 1.1 Statement of the Problem 4 1.2 Objectives of the Study 4 1.3 Significance of the Study 5 1.4 Delimitations of the Study 5 1.5 Methodology of the Study 5 1.5.1 Population 6 1.5.2 Sample 6 1.5.3 Research tools / Instruments 6 1.5.4 Data Collection 6 1.5.5 Data Analysis Techniques 6 Chapter 2 Review of the Literature 7 2. Introduction 7 2.1. History of Libraries 7 2.2. Types of Libraries 9 2.2.1 Public Library 10 x 2.2.2 Special Library 11 2.2.3 Virtual Library 11 2.2.4 Academic Library 12 2.3. Importance of Academic Library 12 2.4. Functions of Academic Library 16 2.5. Library Standards 17 2.6 Functional Areas of Library 18 2.6.1 Managing the Collection 19 2.6.2 Information Retrieval 19 2.6.3 Reading 19 2.7. Advantages of Academic Library 20 2.7.1 Benefits to the Students 21 2.7.2 Benefits to the Teachers 22 2.8. Library Services and Materials 23 2.8.1 Circulation 24 2.8.2 Information Services 24 2.8.3 Document Delivery 25 2.8.4 Library Promotion 25 2.8.5 Technical Services 25 2.8.6 Selection and Acquisition of Material 26 2.9. Academic Libraries in Pakistan 28 2.10. Academic Libraries in Other Countries 32 2.10.1 India 32 2.10.2 United Kingdom 33 2.10.3. United States of America 33 2.10.4. Japan 34 2.10.5. China 35 xi 2.10.6. South Africa 36 Chapter 3 Methodology 38 3. Introduction 38 3.1 Methodology of the Study 38 3.1.1 Population 38 3.1.2 Sample 39 3.1.3 Research tools / Instruments 39 3.1.4 Data Collection 39 3.1.5 Data Analysis Techniques 40 Chapter 4 Data Analysis 41 4. Introduction 41 4.1 Data Analysis 41 4.1.1 Working Hours 42 4.1.2 Timing 43 4.1.3 Working Days / Week 44 4.1.4 No. of Registered Users 45 4.1.5 Daily Visitors 46 4.1.6 Staff Members 47 4.1.7 Is the existing staff sufficient to provide reader services effectively? 48 4.1.8 Library Building 49 4.1.9 Other Facilities 51 4.1.10 Library Resources 52 4.1.11 Circulation Service 54 4.1.12 How many documents are issued daily? 55 4.1.13 How many documents are returned daily? 56 xii 4.1.14 Does your library provide "reader advisory" service? 57 4.1.15 Automation Status 58 4.1.16 Other Services 59 4.1.17 Technical Process 60 4.1.18 Does your library organize any of the following activities? 61 4.1.19 Are the readers satisfied with services provided by the library? 62 4.1.20 Do you have approved selection & acquisition policy? 63 4.1.21 Problems Faced by the Library 64 Chapter 5 Summary, Findings and Conclusions 65 5. Summary 65 5.2 Findings 66 5.3 Conclusion 69 5.4 Recommendations 71 References 73 Appendix A 79 xiii LIST OF TABLES Table 3.1. List of Islamabad Model Colleges for Boys 39 Table 4.1. Working Hours 42 Table 4.2. Timing 43 Table 4.3. Working Days / week 44 Table 4.4. No. of Registered Users 45 Table 4.5. No. of Daily Visitors 46 Table 4.6. Staff Members 47 Table 4.7. Is the Staff Sufficient? 48 Table 4.8. Separate Functional Building 49 Table 4.8. Library Building Total Area (sq ft) 50 Table 4.9. Other Facilities 51 Table 4.10. Library Resources 52 Table 4.11. Circulation Service 54 Table 4.12. Documents issued daily 55 Table 4.13. Documents returned daily 56 Table 4.14. Reader Advisory Service 57 Table 4.15. Automation Status 58 Table 4.16. Other Services 59 Table 4.17. Technical Process 60 Table 4.18. Activities Organized by the Library 61 Table 4.19. Reader Satisfaction 62 Table 4.20. Selection & Acquisition Policy 63 Table 4.21. Problems Faced by the Library 64 xiv LIST OF FIGURES Figure 4.1 A chart showing Working Hours 42 Figure 4.2 A chart showing Timing 43 Figure 4.3 A chart showing Working Days/week 44 Figure 4.4 A chart showing No. of Registered Users 45 Figure 4.5 A chart showing Daily Visitors 46 Figure 4.6 A chart showing Staff 47 Figure 4.7 Is the existing staff sufficient to provide reader services effectively? 48 Figure 4.8a Separate Functional Building 49 Figure 4.8b Library Building Total area (sq ft) 50 Figure 4.9 A chart Showing Total seating capacity 51 Figure 4.10a Library Resources: Books 52 Figure 4.10b Library Resources: Newspapers 53 Figure 4.10c Library Resources: Serials/Periodicals 53 Figure 4.11 A chart showing Circulation 54 Figure 4.12 How many documents are issued daily? 55 Figure 4.13 How many documents are issued daily? 56 Figure 4.14 Does your library provide "Reader advisory" service? 57 Figure 4.15 Automation Status 58 Figure 4.16 Other Services 59 Figure 4.17 Technical Process 60 Figure 4.18 Activities organized by the library 61 Figure 4.19 Are the readers satisfied with services provided by the library? 62 Figure 4.20 Do you have approved selection & Acquisition policy? 63 Figure 4.21 Problems faced by Library 64 1 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1. INTRODUCTION Libraries are a significant source of knowledge and are considered as an important part of the academic efforts and without a library no significant academic efforts can be carried out. Literacy, in general terms, is considered to be the ability to read, write, speak and compute at a certain level. Libraries have been playing a vital role in supporting and promoting literacy and education and their importance in educational development cannot be ignored since the libraries strengthen joint research among educational, business and government communities in the society and contribute to the learning opportunities for all. Generally, a library is a room or building which is organized for use of public where books may be read or borrowed and maintained by a public body, institutions or corporations. The collections of a library are intended for use of the people who cannot afford to have a large collection at their own or who need professional assistance in their studies or research. The purpose of these collections is being a source for reading, viewing, listening, study or reference. Collections of a library can include books, periodicals, newspapers, journals, prints, documents, films, maps, CDs, DVDs, e-books, audio books, databases etc. There is no limit to the size of a library and it can consist of a few book shelves to millions of items. A library provides materials, facilities and the services of librarians who can help readers in finding and organizing information. Library provides a quiet place for reading and common areas to facilitate group studies. 2 Modern libraries are much more than a place to read books and journals. Nowadays libraries also provide public facilities for access to the electronic resources including the internet, digital library collections and remote access to different types of technology. Modern library is becoming a place to get unrestricted access to information in all sorts of formats and sources. The modern libraries provide physical or digital access to data which may contain a physical building or a virtual space or both and that is how in the modern age the libraries are expanding outside the physical walls of their buildings by providing information which can be accessed through electronic resources. These libraries also provide the services of librarians and assistance of skilled staff that navigate and analyze very large amounts of information by using a variety of digital tools (Library, 2015, May 14). The origin of the word library is considered to be the Latin word libraria which means place storing books which shows that in the past a library was a place where books were kept or stored. This term was frequently used for a collection of books. Describing the origin of library, Rehman (2012) wrote that library is a Latin word, coming from libre which means book. Book means the written shape of knowledge which contains a communication or a chain between ancient and modern age. Library is one of the elements used for achieving the standardization of education (p.2). However, advanced definition of a library as described by Islam (2004) is that a library is a learned institution full of riches of knowledge maintained, organized and managed by trained personnel to educate the children, men and women continuously and assist in their self-improvement through an effective and prompt dissemination of information embodied in the resources (p.4). 3 Another definition of advanced library according to the online Oxford dictionary is A building or room containing collections of books, periodicals and sometimes films and recorded music for use or borrowing by the public or the members of an institution (Library, 2015, May 14). There are different types of libraries which contribute to the educational development in various ways. Generally there are four types of libraries as mentioned below: a. Public Library b. Special library c. Virtual Library d. Academic library According to the general description Public libraries are meant to serve cities and towns of all types while Special libraries are in specialized environments, such as office, hospitals, corporations, museums, private business and the government whereas a Virtual library is a computerized space that provides access to the virtual books and their related archives. Academic libraries serve the students of educational institutes i.e. schools, colleges and universities. In this thesis researcher examined the resources and the facilities of the college libraries which fall in the category of Academic Library. Sincere efforts were made to discuss the institutional role of libraries in advancing the education development in Pakistan. 4 Researcher also examined whether or not the libraries are equipped with current technology; e-books, digital databases, computers, internet facility, CDs and DVDs, as modernization of the libraries has been an important part of countrys educational policies. Ministry of Education (2009) has emphasized on establishing libraries equipped with modern facilities including internet connectivity for online library services in all schools; elementary, secondary and higher secondary schools in order to promote a reading culture among youth and to increase library usage and improve the quality of library services in the country. 1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM This study was designed to conduct situation analysis of libraries of Islamabad Model Colleges. The purpose of this study was to examine the resources, equipment and facilities currently available in these libraries and suggest the ways to improve the situation. 1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The purpose of the study was to examine the role of library in education at Islamabad Model Colleges in Islamabad; establishing a relationship between the library, education and national development. The objectives of this thesis were: 1. To investigate procedure of collection of material in IMCB libraries with respect to format of material. 2. To investigate existing facilities in libraries; building, telephone, photocopy, seating capacity, air-conditioning and heating. 3. To compare the collection and facilities with the need. 5 4. To recommend measures for improving the situation. 1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY With the help of this study situation analysis of the libraries was made which will help in: i. Identifying the problems of the current situation, facilities and resources available in the libraries of Islamabad Model Colleges. ii. Providing the solution / methods to improve the situation and to suggest the ways to make these libraries effective to play their role in the advancement of educational development. 1.4 DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY This study was delimited to: i. Islamabad Model Colleges for Boys ii. Higher Secondary School Level iii. Islamabad Capital Territory Urban area iv. Library resources, equipment and facilities 1.5 METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY Following methodology was adopted to carry-out the study: 6 1.5.1 POPULATION The population of the study comprised of all the libraries of Islamabad Model Colleges for Boys belonging to urban area i.e. 10. 1.5.2 SAMPLE Total population was taken as sample i.e. 100%. 1.5.3 RESEARCH TOOLS / INSTRUMENTS One questionnaire for the Librarians was developed and experts opinion was taken for validation purpose. After which tryout was made and then the questionnaire was fair typed. 1.5.4 DATA COLLECTION Data was collected by administering the questionnaire personally visiting the libraries. 1.5.5 DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES i. Data was analyzed using percentage and mean score. ii. Findings of this study were drawn on the basis of data analyzed. iii. The conclusion was drawn and the recommendations were made on the basis of conclusions. 7 Chapter 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The Chapter 2 reviews the literature relevant to this study and presents an account of published and unpublished literature covering different aspects of library provision including the type of resources and services. The aim of this literature review is to examine the results found with the studies undertaken by different local and foreign colleges, universities or educational institutes. These studies provide guidelines for Pakistani libraries in assessment, evaluation, and problems indication. The literature review may also prove helpful to draw conclusions and recommendations for improvement of library resources and services in academic libraries of Pakistan and should help the policy makers in making decisions on further developments using the relevant research in the field. 2.1. HISTORY OF LIBRARIES The first libraries consisted of archives of the clay tablets found in Sumer in cuneiform dating back to 2600 BC. However, private or personal libraries consisting of written books emerged in classical Greece in the 5th century BC. The libraries of Constantinople and Alexandria remained the great libraries of Mediterranean region in the 6th century. Describing the history of libraries Lavlo (2003) wrote that: In ancient age, in numerous civilizations, libraries were established. In Semitic civilization, libraries were established in third millennium B.C. In Assyria civilization libraries were established in 100 B.C. and in Egyptian civilization approximately in 297 B.C. Greek philosopher Plato had a personal library. The library of the Alexandria of Egypt, 8 by the time of the ruler Ptolemy, collected and preserved about a million copies of books (p.231). From the beginning of the 9th century, public libraries started to emerge in most of the cities of the Islamic world which were called "Dar al-Ilm meaning halls of Science". However, the history of academic libraries in the world starts with the establishment of the earliest universities in the Muslim world i.e. Jamia Al-Qaraouiyine in Tunisia which was established in 859 AD and Jamia Al-Azhar in Egypt established in 970. Bologna university in Italy was the first university established in Europe in 11th century (year 1088), after which a series of other universities were established e.g. University of Paris in 1170 in France, Oxford University in 12th century in England, the University of Padua in 1222 in Italy, Harvard University in 1636 in America, Bern University 1794 in Switzerland and Georgetown University in 1789 also in America (Sultana R. G., 1999, p.7) Establishment of the first library in the subcontinent traces back to the oldest civilizations in the region i.e. Taxila, Harappa and Indus valley. These places remained the centers of these civilizations for a long period of time; Buddhists with Gandhara culture in Taxila, the Aryans in Harappa and the Hindus in the Indus valley. These civilizations play a significant role in the continuing history of Pakistan in terms of literary and library activities among the people of this area which can be traced back to the 6th century A.D. It is believed that the people in Gilgit and Kashmir were using the paper for writing books which resulted in establishment of libraries in the region namely in the cities of Multan, Thatta, Uch and many other places (Marwat, M. K., 1996, p. 1). 9 History of academic libraries in the subcontinent starts with the establishment of universities in the region. In 1857, universities of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay were established and started working. The academic libraries in Pakistan started with the establishment of the University of the Punjab, Lahore in 1882. At the time of independence, many libraries existed in Pakistan but the collection and building of these libraries were in very poor condition. Giving an account on the earlier history of Pakistans libraries Bakhsh (1949) wrote: Pakistan, born on 14th August 1947 as an independent nation after the partition of British India, was denied its rightful share out of the common library resources built up over the years during the British rule. All the major libraries of British India happened to be located in those areas which, after partition, became part of the present day India (p.1). However, libraries existed in this region at the time of independence in the cities of Karachi, Lahore, Quetta, Khairpur and Peshawar with the oldest library; Liaqat Hall Library Karachi established in 1851. Most of them were the academic libraries including Punjab University Library, Lahore which was established in 1908. There were also a small number of personal libraries present at that time (Haider, S.J., 1997, p. 55) 2.2. TYPES OF LIBRARIES Now that we have learnt about the history of the library, it is important to know the types of library because libraries are classified according to their types. Following are different types of libraries: 10 a. Public Libraries, b. Special library c. Virtual Library d. Academic library The definitions and details of the libraries mentioned above are as followed: 2.2.1 PUBLIC LIBRARY Public libraries provide library services to the community of a city or a town. The purpose of Public libraries is to serve communities of all sizes and types and provide opportunities for information, culture, education and leisure through books, computers, videos, and other materials. These libraries serve the general public and often have different departments that focus on areas of service, such as youth, teens and adults helping lifelong learning and also promote literacy and understanding between different cultural groups. The services offered by a public library include: Different types of media on loan i.e. books, magazines, CDs and DVDs. Access, tools and equipment to the electronic resources, internet and e-books. Programs supporting literacy and lifelong learning. Skilled staff to assist people to access the required information and resources. Exclusive collections of materials and books on the local region. Welcoming visits from community and schools. (Different types of libraries, 2015, May 15). 11 2.2.2 SPECIAL LIBRARY The Special libraries are maintained or sponsored by private organizations, corporations, professional associations, or government agencies and non-profit organizations to collect specific materials and provide information of special relevance to the work of the organization. Special libraries are specialized environments which can be found in offices, hospitals, museums, private business, corporations and the government. The role of every special library is to support the data needs of its clients or customers with the goal that they can achieve the mission and objectives of the association. These libraries provide a variety of data to address the issues of a specific populace, providing staff and analysts with the data they need to complete their assignments. (Different types of libraries, 2015, May 15). 2.2.3 VIRTUAL LIBRARY A virtual library is a computerized space that keeps and arranges virtual books and their related archives. It additionally can refer to a space where the books can be perused. These spaces can include computers, cell phones and the Internet. Some virtual libraries can be accessed for free, and others oblige memberships. The advantage of utilizing a virtual library is that it has the capacity to store a lot of books in a small place. Physical books can take up a considerable amount of space. By utilizing a virtual library, readers can get to their personal libraries in one area, on either a computer or a cell phone. (Different types of libraries, 2015, May 15). 12 2.2.4 ACADEMIC LIBRARY The libraries which serve the students, staff and faculty of an academic institution i.e. school, college and university are called Academic Libraries. Library is any organized collection of printed books and periodicals or any other graphic or audio-visual materials, with a staff to provide and facilitate the use of such materials as are required to meet the informational, research, educational or recreational needs of users (UNESCO, 2000, p.1). A school library is an organized collection of study and instruction material aimed at students, teachers and other staff alike. It also includes access to local, regional, national and international information databases. The facilities, material, equipment and staff of the school library along with its operations are organized to support the learning within the educational objectives of the school. Having a designated team for the development of the school library, a regular annual budget which provides funding for the material and development of the facilities and a librarian are the characteristics of a good school library. 2.3. IMPORTANCE OF ACADEMIC LIBRARY An academic library plays a vital role in the teaching/learning environment. A school library as a subsystem of school organization has not been just a department providing services for studies and research any more. Rather, it has turned into a vital unit of schools information infrastructure and a dynamic part in the learning process. Together with the school departments and teaching staff, the academic library helps in achievement of the study goals. The library turns into one of the potential learning situations that function at the school and characterized by the loads of the information 13 sources. An academic library is an essential part of school's learning infrastructure which needs to interact with all the learning processes of the study programs. Students and teachers need library resources and the expertise of a librarian to succeed. An academic library supports school programs in addition to the teaching and learning process and helps teachers to teach students. Academic library provides students and teachers with the required materials according to their needs and provides an environment which empowers students reading. School library also helps students to learn by the self study. In a study completed by Bukhari et al. (2010) the researcher in his introduction states the importance of an academic library in following words: Students cannot acquire knowledge only through textbooks or classroom lectures. They are referred to other books also. The library is of great help in the fulfillment of their wishes, ambitions and inclinations, as it provides ample opportunities for acquiring knowledge. On the other hand, it is much more convenient for the students to collect required material from the library. It not only saves their time but also cost of books and their energy (p.2). The role of the library as intermediary source of information will certainly never change and it is necessary to develop the traditional library practices and to acquire the best of modern technology. Lohar and Kumber (2002) view the importance of an academic library as follows: In an ideal educational system, an academic library is the centre of academic life. A library is the strength of any educational institution 14 and without proper libraries there can be no real progress in education. A library is the fountainhead from which flows the water of knowledge (p.1). Education comprises of two essential elements, namely teachers and books. An ideal library provides valuable support to education. At the same time a sound educational system is dependent on good libraries. Any form of educational work without libraries becomes meaningless. Highlighting the significance of library in the education Jamil and Tariq (2013) wrote that: Library is one of those resources which are essential to support and strengthen the educational quality. Over the centuries, libraries are the source of keeping and distributing the information through books, journals, maps and other resources that are used by students in their learning process (p.20). These studies reveal that libraries are underutilized in the educational institutes despite the willingness of teachers and students to use them and the main reason for this underutilization is the lack of resources. Student often visit library to read books, prepare their assignments and to consume spare time. To improve efficiency the library staff needs professional training with a simplified purchase process of resources and enhanced and proper utilization of the funds is the need of the hour. There is also a need of virtual linkage with the databases of national and international libraries. 15 The structure and functions of library have significantly changed over the years, forms and types of library resources and ways of accessibility have radically expanded with time. The students in higher education and academia need to have necessary skills to use libraries. Latest and course related books, online resources and spacious and furnished library would be more helpful to bring students in the library (Jamil and Tariq, 2013, p.34). Moreover, ICT (Information and Computer Technology) tools including computers, internet facility, printer, scanner and photocopier machines may help students to maximize the library utilizations. Adio and Olasina (2005) study mentioned that it was evident that: The different types of libraries play a significant role in educating the citizenry of a nation. The utility of a library in educational development can at once be felt and generalized particularly when we look into the educational revival programs. The inability of parents to purchase valuable books for their children can be checked with establishment of libraries school libraries for primary and secondary education to wage a war or campaign this great lack for which education has remained handicapped and limited (p.12). If a nation intends to advance in education, then establishment of more schools, training of teachers, curriculum improvement and establishment and upgradatioan of libraries is essential. 16 2.4. FUNCTIONS OF ACADEMIC LIBRARY Thanuskodi (2013) narrates the functions of an academic library as: The basic function of the academic library is to assist and support the study and teaching that goes on in the academic institution. In this effort, the academic library aims to capture and hold the interest of the academic communitys reading, to produce intelligent users of all types of documents, and to cultivate in users an appreciation of libraries as academic institutions. The academic library provides essential reading materials and documents for research (p.xx). The school library is essential to the educational process. According to the UNESCO School Library Manifesto (2000) following services are essential for the development of literacy and learning in a library: To support and enhance educational goals as mentioned in the schools mission and curriculum To work with students, teachers, parents and the administrators to achieve the goals and mission of the school and to enrich the concept of responsible citizenship in a democracy that requires intellectual freedom and access to information. To develop and support the habit and enjoyment of reading and learning in the students encouraging the use of libraries throughout their lives To offer students opportunities to experience in learning; how to create and use the information for knowledge, imagination, understanding and enjoyment 17 To support all students to learn and practice skills for evaluating and using information in each and every form, format, medium and modes of communication within their community To provide access to all kind of resources at the local, regional, national and global levels providing opportunities to the learners to face different ideas, experiences and opinions; To organizing the activities to encourage the cultural and social awareness and sensitivity in the students To promote in the whole school community and beyond, the reading and the resources and services of the school library. Library is a social institution and it has certain functions to assist, to promote and to change the society. According to Kumar (1993, p.4), a library should provide for: a. Life long self education b. Information / documents on all subjects including local, national and international affairs to serve economic, political and social welfare c. Proper use of leisure d. Advancement of culture e. Preservation of library heritage for posterity 2.5. LIBRARY STANDARDS The libraries have their set of standards developed on the basis of studies keeping in view the issues and trends faced by the libraries. These standards are approved by the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) which is an international library association followed by the academic libraries all over the world. According to the ACRL these standards are designed to guide academic libraries in advancing 18 and sustaining their role as partners in educating students, achieving their institutions missions, and positioning libraries as leaders in assessment and continuous improvement. These standards are meant to fulfill the expectations set by the basic principles of the library and apply to all types of academic libraries keeping in mind their unique user population and institutional environment. The standards assume that libraries should: adhere to the principles; identify and select performance indicators that are fitting with their institutions mission and contribute to institutional effectiveness; add performance indicators that apply to the specific library type (for example, open access initiatives for research libraries, or workforce development support for community colleges); develop user-centered, measurable outcomes that articulate specifically what the user is able to do as an outcome of the performance indicator; conduct assessments that may be quantitative and/or qualitative; collect evidence from assessments that demonstrate degree of success; and use assessment data for continuous improvement of library operations. (Standards for Libraries in Higher Education, 2011, p. 6.) 2.6. FUNCTIONAL AREAS OF LIBRARY A library provides informal guidance to self-education for all the people in a community. It enriches and develops the subject on which students are undertaking formal education. It fulfills the needs of information of all and provides students, youngsters, men and ladies chance to gain knowledge by themselves. 19 Considering the academic library, there are three functional areas of a school library namely; managing the collection, information retrieval and reading (Frantsi & Selminen, 2002, p.12). 2.6.1 MANAGING THE COLLECTION It includes librarians desk and counter for reception of books and to deal with the readers. Cupboard for keeping books, storeroom for keeping other materials and chores Library program consisting of cataloguing and borrowing Working area for staff to maintain and handle books for the purpose of cataloguing and repairing or covering books 2.6.2 INFORMATION RETRIEVAL Important reference resources (Newspapers, books, reports, journals, magazines, CD-ROMs) Computers equipped with internet connection Access to related material and online article databases Tables and counters for working Group work areas for group discussions and group activities A quiet area for reading, making assignments and doing homework 2.6.3 READING Latest and interesting literature placed in bookshelves keeping in view the interests of all kind of readers Areas where students of different age can easily find books matching their taste 20 Books placed in thematic shelves according to the library classification system based on themes e.g. science, art, general knowledge, adventure, geography, nature, history books etc. A rack for magazines comprising of all kind of magazines available in the library which may include the categories of computers, nature, science, animals, games, sports, youth, art, music, culture etc. Comfortable seats for readers to sit, browse and read so that they can enjoy reading in a comfortable environment A quiet place for students for the purpose of story time sessions and book reviews to promote reading for enjoyment and telling stories A newspaper room with tables in higher secondary schools for reading together 2.7. ADVANTAGES OF ACADEMIC LIBRARY Libraries exist since the dawn of civilization and they bear our heritage and all the knowledge the human kind has acquired. They have been contributing towards providing better education, building healthy social environment and offering growth in the fields of agriculture, business and industrial sectors. Their role in all spheres of life has become evident since our society has transformed into information society and the world has become a global village. Libraries are the collection points containing information of our cultural heritage. They have been providing valuable information on important national issues and can be considered as a national resource just like water and energy. A nation can be considered rich and strong by the national intellectual resources contained in its libraries. Keeping this in view investment in establishing a network of modern technology based libraries is of a significant value for the wise nations. 21 Library is a source of learning for all; providing information and ideas that are essential to function successfully in this age of information and the modern knowledge-based society. The school library plays a significant role in equipping the students with life-long learning skills and developing their imagination and enabling them to live as responsible citizens (UNESCO School Library Manifesto, 2000, p.1).The mission of the school library in UNESCO School Library Manifesto is stated as follows: The goal of school library is to offer learning services, books and resources that are essential for the whole school community enabling them to become critical thinkers and excellent users of information in all formats and media (p.1). Advantages of a good school library as described by UNESCO School Library Manifesto (2000) include that it is meant to support the professional growth of teachers, their co-operation and knowledge of their pupils while it can also add to work satisfaction and enjoyment. A good school library is a meeting point for all the members of school community (p.1). 2.7.1 BENEFITS TO THE STUDENTS A good school library providing quality services has its benefits for all; students, teachers, faculty and staff. To see how the students can take benefit from a library a few of the benefits for the students are mentioned below: They get familiar with organized information. They become aware of different information sources and learn to use these services suiting their purposes. They come across quality prose which is suitable for their age. 22 They get familiar with the possibilities offered by different types of media. They can get access to databases and information networks outside of their school. They get the opportunity to concentrate on their own assignment in peace. 2.7.2 BENEFITS TO THE TEACHERS Teachers can make the most out of the library by using it properly for their own studies and preparations of the lessons. Following are a few of the benefits a teacher can get from a good school library: Library is a source of self-directed learning for teachers. Teachers start learning alongside students. Library provides a natural forum of co-operation for the teacher. Library makes the possibilities for new working methods available to the teacher. New perspective open up for the teacher regarding the object of study. Library is a source of new information for the teacher and also updates the teachers previous knowledge. It develops information management skills of the teacher. It increases professionalism of a teacher as a user of information services. The teacher learns to give his students more meaningful information retrieval tasks. The teacher can get acquainted with the students from a new perspective. A good school library also helps the teacher to relax, refresh and recharge. 23 2.8. LIBRARY SERVICES AND MATERIALS This section considers the impact of provided services on student learning. Service provision means the different types of services provided by the various models of school library. According to Metzger (1991) library services are essential in enabling the individual to develop full potentials and widen the horizons of awareness, interests and skills. Writing about the significance of the materials of a library, Alie (1989) wrote that all good methods of education postulate the existence of a well-stocked efficiently organized library (p.108). The school library fulfills these functions by developing policies and services, selecting and acquiring resources, providing physical and intellectual access to appropriate sources of information, providing instructional facilities, and employing trained staff (UNESCO, 2000, p.1). To ensure effective and accountable operations the manifesto suggests the following: The services policy of a school library must be prepared keeping in mind the goals, priorities and services according to the schools curriculum. It is important to organize and maintain the school library according to professional standards. Services must be accessible to all members of the school community and function keeping in mind the needs of school community. Library services are the activities in which library staff has direct contact with users. Users judge the quality of library services by their experiences and if a user has a bad 24 experience he or she may never use the library again. Some of the major library services include (Introduction to libraries: Basic library functions, 2008, Nov 23): Circulation Information Services Document Delivery Library Promotion Technical Services 2.8.1 CIRCULATION There are four major tasks which are performed under circulation services namely registration of new borrowers, charging out or renewing items, discharging items and returning items to their proper location. Registration of new borrowers requires from library staff to determine if the user is permitted to borrow library materials. When an item is charged out it should be recorded in the borrowers name and if the due date is extended the item is renewed. An item is discharged when it returns which requires the cancellation of the borrowers record and it is placed to its proper location which is also called shelving. 2.8.2 INFORMATION SERVICES Information services are also called Reference Services. The major activities include the tasks namely answering directional questions, information retrieval, ready or quick reference, in-depth research, information referral and readers' advisory service. Users need to be referred to other resources i.e. another library, association or social agency, if the required information is not available in the library. This is called information referral. Reader's advisory is primarily a public library service which 25 means to recommend other books similar to those written by the desired author. There are special reference tools to assist library staff in answering this type of request. 2.8.3 DOCUMENT DELIVERY Previously this service was known as "interlibrary loan". Document delivery is a rapidly growing service in all types of libraries. Library staff determines the availability of the item from another library and requests for it on interlibrary loan if this item is not available in the library. Sharing resources to seek out alternate methods to acquire information has become essential in this age of shrinking budgets and increasing information resources. 2.8.4 LIBRARY PROMOTION Because of the budgets cuts it has become very important to promote library services and maintain positive relationships with library members, funding agencies and parent organizations. The library must be viewed as an essential service in the community, schools, universities, colleges, and in business or it may face closure. For the sake of promotions the library should constantly struggle to give the best service possible because satisfied customers can be the library's best allies when budget cuts arise. Marketing of the library services is another way to ensure that the public is aware of the services offered by the libraries. 2.8.5 TECHNICAL SERVICES From the steps of ordering library materials to their availability to the users include most of the technical services activities i.e. collection development, acquisitions, cataloguing and processing. Collection development is also known as selection and it involves the process of determining adequate material to acquire within allocated 26 budget. Once materials are selected, they are then acquired or purchased. It is important to keep accurate and up-to-date records in acquisitions. Cataloguing is the process of creating bibliographic records for items in the library's collection. After an item is catalogued, it is prepared for use i.e. call number and barcode labels are affixed and items are stamped with the library's name. 2.8.6 SELECTION AND ACQUISITION OF MATERIAL The selection and acquisition of material for the school library must be made according to the school library purchasing plan and budget. The school library purchasing plan should divided the budget and distribute it for acquiring different types of material. An appropriate amount of purchasing i.e. curricular or nonfiction books of different fields, prose, magazines, newspapers and other material; audio/visual aids should be mentioned in the budget. Regarding significance of school library services, Douglas and Wilkinson (2010) write that: School library services could be a highly efficient way of ensuring that clusters of schools maximize their value for money by having access to the resources, information and expertise they need to develop childrens reading and literacy, and offering access to knowledge (p.04). A library is as good as it is displayed and exposed to users. It should not be a hidden treasure or only a passive collection of reading material. The physical facilities and environment consisting of location, building, layout, furniture, equipment, etc., significantly contribute in enhancing the quality of services. Physical environment affects users behaviorally as well as psychologically which is usually ignored (Sridhar, 2001, p.1) 27 Describing the quality of library services Shakil (2006) wrote that library is the major source of disseminating knowledge and readers are its backbone. Library is maintained for the readers that is why their need for information must be fulfilled. Library services should be updated accordingly and readers feedback should be obtained on frequent basis (p.2). Every library has to perform three major basic activities i.e. acquiring knowledge, processing and distributing. The readers are not very much concerned with the functions of acquiring and processing but they are concerned with other library services. If readers are satisfied with services provided then libraries are achieving their goals. According to Ezeala and Yusuff (2011) evaluating things, events and people around is natural for human beings and libraries are no exception. Librarians should keep examining the resources and services of their libraries to ensure the achievement of set goals of the library (p.04). Expressing her dismay on the bad situation of the libraries today, Alie (1989) wrote that the utilization of a library depends upon its proper organization which includes the distribution of books, their arrangement and the situation of the library. Today a library is underutilized in most of the institutions. It is not easy for the students to get books from the library which are purchased without keeping in view the interests or abilities of the students (p.108). Maintaining the books in a library is very important. The books in a library should be properly arranged and classified because they are as important as the library itself. Storing a large number of books is not as important as having only suitable books in a proper order. In this way, a special attention should be paid to the utility of the books. 28 It should be made sure that the books are according to the capacity and ability of the students which will make it easy for them to read and understand these books by themselves. A student feels encouraged to read more books when he is able to understand a book himself (Shahid, 2000, p.10). According to Library Space Planning Guide (2002) materials that have not been checked out during the last 5 years should be evaluated for withdrawal prior to determining the collection size. In addition, books that are in poor condition and outdated materials that have been superseded by better materials on the same subject should be withdrawn. Reference materials that do not circulate should be evaluated more frequently. A library should withdraw 5-10% a year (p.7). Even if most of all research materials become available in electronic format, it is still possible that libraries will need to maintain a good collection of print materials as well as provide access to the material through digital resources (Henry, 2010, p.14). 2.9. ACADEMIC LIBRARIES IN PAKISTAN Academic libraries are crucial for the functioning of academic institutions and for achieving their missions. They play a vital role in the academic community by providing appropriate information to the teachers and students. The major challenges that the academic libraries are facing in developing countries include increasing costs of reading resources and limited budgets that reduce the amount of learning materials to be acquired, increasing student numbers, and the limited infrastructure and skills required to access and utilize information in the digital environment. In order to effectively meet the growing needs of the academic community and to achieve success in the management process, the academic libraries need to actively address these challenges in the design and delivery of information resources. 29 In Pakistan, at the time of independence most of the schools and colleges used to have libraries and students were supposed to spend some time in the libraries through specified hours in the weekly time table. At present different institutes, schools, colleges, universities, establishments, research organizations and community centers have their own libraries. The goals and domains are set according to the status and nature of the field. Schools and colleges in public and private sectors have their own libraries sufficient to their needs. Most of the government schools and colleges especially the federal educational institutes have their own well stocked libraries dedicated for the students and teachers to support the curriculum and to encourage the students. According to Rehman (2010) there is no comprehensive data available on measuring service quality in the libraries of public or private sector universities of Pakistan to guide the library professionals, policy makers and universities about service quality. Moreover a significant difference was noticed between libraries of public and private sector universities. The perceived service quality of private sector libraries is better than public sector university libraries (p.10). On academic libraries a few studies have been done in the developing countries but almost none from Pakistan which results in no comprehensive information on the academic libraries in Pakistan. University library performance is usually assessed from the statistics of the annual reports of the university presented by the administration. These statistics provide information regarding number of collections, staff members, library users, visitors and number of borrowed books (Rehman and Sabir, 2012, p.2). 30 Allen (1993) in his study Resources, acquisitions and the viability in libraries in developing countries presents a picture of a library in developing countries and is of opinion that it is necessary to introduce reforms in libraries to attract students. Keeping in mind the financial aspects of a library it is important that no service can be provided on regular basis without finance. Today, governments of the states have taken the responsibility to establish libraries. However, increasing financial demands to keep the libraries functional at best is becoming very difficult for the governments since the last two or three decades. An overall period of recession in the world economies is the main reason behind this financial stress and the governments around the world are compelled to impose financial cuts on the libraries (Mahmood, Hameed & Haider, 2006, p.33). From the small number of studies available on the funding problems of Pakistani academic libraries the statistics reveal that the main causes of the reduced funding are namely the poor economy, low priority to education, inflation and price increase in library material. This reduced funding affects the quality of library services and collection of materials which are gradually becoming poor and inadequate. In response to these funding problems libraries start seeking for public money, alternative funding sources and founding cooperation among libraries. The guidelines of UNESCO (2000) on the funding approve that the school library is an essential part of any long-term policy which aims for literacy, education, information provision and economic, social and cultural development. Special legislation must be done and policies must be prepared to support the libraries. School Libraries must be provided with the sufficient funds to offer free of charge services of materials, facilities, trained staff and technologies to the users. 31 According to the Ministry of Education (2009) library facilities are very rudimentary and teaching aid material is generally in short supply. Library facilities, computer resources, sports and recreation facilities are poor. Following recommendations were made to improve the current situation: An overall policy shall be developed to increase library usage and improve the quality of library services in the country. In order to promote a reading culture among youth, libraries equipped with modern facilities, including internet connectivity for online library services shall be established in elementary, secondary and higher secondary schools in different phases. To ensure improved library services the current career and professional development structure for librarians shall be reviewed to create a structure that manages to attract and retain quality human resource in the profession. Immediately, the option of librarians working in education institutions to be declared as library teachers and library lecturers respectively shall be explored. Mobile library services for rural areas shall be introduced. National Library Foundation shall be established on continuing basis to provide resources for libraries. Provision for continuing education of library professionals shall be made. Existing standardization of libraries and library professionals shall be reviewed keeping in view latest developments in the field of medical, engineering, information technology and other fields of professional and higher education to support academic work and research (p.47-69) 32 2.10. ACADEMIC LIBRARIES IN OTHER COUNTRIES Libraries around the world are heading into the future, creating for their patrons a more dynamic, multi-level environment for learning and recreation. These libraries have entered the digital age. They offer access to books in every possible form and format. 2.10.1 INDIA India has a very large higher education system. The growth rate of educational institutions in India was very slow before its independence in 1947. University Grants Commission (UGC), established by an act of parliament in 1956, coordinates and monitors the higher education system in India and provides grants to the universities and colleges. It frames rules and regulations for overall teaching and research at higher education. As a result, it also looks after the academic libraries setting various standards for library education, library staff, library services, etc. A number of committees have been set up by the UGC for the support of higher education in general and the library services in academic libraries in particular (Preeti 2005, P.1). When India attained Independence most of the colleges did not have a library, but at present, every college in the country has a library. Majority of the college libraries do not have proper facilities to meet the needs of their users. Their collections are not up to date and library budgets are very inadequate (Deshpande, 1978, p.194). The situation in academic libraries of India is the same as that of academic libraries the world over; however, Indian libraries must provide maximum information with limited resources. (Preeti, 2005, p.1). There are number of colleges in semi-urban and rural areas lacking even minimum infrastructure. No wonder, the gap between the 33 libraries of these academic institutions in terms of collection and services is appalling (Patkar, 2010. p.1). 2.10.2 UNITED KINGDOM It is strange that there is no government statistics available describing school library provision in the United Kingdom. As long as the school library services are concerned there is no statutory responsibility of the schools in United Kingdom to provide school libraries or services in the states of England Scotland and Wales while providing school library services is statuary in Northern Ireland. Schools should have the funds to support the library services and a close relation should be established between schools library services and the education departments. The level of library services to schools and children in the United Kingdom varies between local authorities (Creaser, 2000, p.7). Library services in general are governed by a variety of different corporate frameworks. In 2000, 13 local authorities, more than twice as many as in 1990, had no schools library service arrangements (Creaser, 2001, p.12). According to the UK National Survey (2010) 12.9% of the schools did not have a school library service available. Book collection of the school libraries did not generally grow according to the number of students. Almost 33% of the libraries had insufficient space (David S., Sue S. and Simor R., 2010, p.9-10) 2.10.3. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA America has a well-documented data available on the impact of the school library on academic achievement. The Lance Statistical Survey (1993) is considered as a model 34 for other researches to adapt and refine. This report provides detailed analysis of school library data obtained from surveys and available school and community data. The key findings show that schools with better funded libraries were likely to have students with higher average reading test scores. The size of the library staff and size and variety of the collection are significant characteristics of library provision which contribute to higher reading test scores and students tend to achieve higher test scores when the librarian spends more time in an instructional role (Lance, Welborn, & Hamilton-Pennell, 1993, p.2). Since the early 1950s almost 30,000 new school libraries have been established, and thousands of federally funded development and collection expansion projects have enhanced existing libraries in public elementary and secondary schools. There were approximately 84,000 public elementary and secondary schools in 1999-2000 and 86% of schools had a librarian. At the same time, school libraries have evolved from having a primary focus on books to providing the rich array of resources found in the information centers of today. For all public school students there were 17 school library books per pupil in 1999-2000 (Joan & Barbara, 2005, p.17-18) 2.10.4. JAPAN In Japan each city has its own public library which is an accepted institution in the Japanese community. Almost all academic libraries and public libraries have their own online catalog available on the internet. Similarly almost all schools in Japan have their own libraries. This increased number of school libraries was only possible because of the governments School Library Law of year Lance 1993, which emphasized on the establishment of libraries for all schools. With the help of the reform movements around 1990s in favor of the development of develop school libraries people have been educated to promote voluntary reading among children. 35 The purpose of these reforms was to develop information literacy in schools. Other government measures include allocated budgeting for improvements of school library books, materials and facilities. According to the Japan Library Association (2007), there were 758 four-year universities in Japan. Of these, 86 belonged to national university corporations, 77 were public, and 595 were private. About 2.8 million students were studying at these institutions. In addition, there were 435 two-year colleges with 180,000 students enrolled. The total number of university library staff was 13,039, of which 6,399 were full-time workers. Although there is no official certification for academic librarians in Japan, 6,929 staff-members had librarian certifications. University libraries all together held 291 million books, 4 million periodicals, and 1.9 electronic journals. The total budget for library materials was about 75 billion yen, which accounted for 1.2% of total institution costs (Brief Information on Libraries in Japan, 2015, May 14) 2.10.5. CHINA Chinese educational libraries, especially university libraries, have made spectacular achievements. The development scale in term of the number of libraries, facilities, collections and personnel is expanding; advanced technologies are widely used to improve the libraries from manual operation to automation; advanced tools and methods are being used to manage libraries successfully; and user-based services and resources are continuously enhanced. Since the reform and opening to the outside world, China has made great achievements in the developments of all types of libraries. The significant achievements include, but are not limited to: the wide applications of information 36 technology, computer technology, digital technology and network technology in libraries, the constant construction of new library buildings, the constant improvements of library service resources for patrons, the constant enhancement of integrated library systems, the comprehensive development of library and information science education and research, the advanced tools and methods used to strengthen library and information management, and the rapid developments of digital libraries, systems and services (Zhixian, 2013, p.7) 2.10.6. SOUTH AFRICA According to a study by Equal Education, a South African based NGO, only 8% of public schools in South Africa have functional libraries. These are almost entirely situated in former model C schools which have the resources to stock and staff these facilities. Approximately 20,000 schools are without libraries, thereby denying their learners access to regular reading opportunities. (Libraries Campaign: 1 school, 1 library, 1 librarian, 2008). According to the findings of Hart and Zinn (2007) 19% of the schools have a central library; 31% have a storeroom or box library and 20% have no library at all. 7% did not reply to the question. It is noteworthy that half the schools without any kind of library have no spare room that might be converted into a library. (p.93) Many of the libraries of private schools in South Africa are well equipped, have adequate annual budgets and are staffed by full-time professional librarians. It seems that only a minority of public schools allocate funds to library resources in their annual budgeting which is confirmed by the more positive position of school libraries in South Africas independent or private schools, 50 per cent of which have libraries. 37 Machet and Olen (1997) researching the literacy environment of primary students in South Africa suggested it was likely that students started school with few literacy skills due to the generally unfavorable literacy backgrounds and that the presence of a school library was important to help establish a reading culture (p.77). 38 Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY In this thesis researcher examined the resources and the facilities of the Islamabad Model College libraries which fall in the category of Academic Library. The efforts were made to discuss the institutional role of academic libraries in advancing the education development in Pakistan. A detailed study was done to have an overview of the resources and the materials (books, reference material, newspapers, journals etc.) which are available in these libraries. It was also examined whether or not the libraries are equipped with current technology as e-books, digital databases, computers, internet facility, CDs, DVDs and computer library catalogue, as modernization of the libraries have been an important part of countrys educational policies. Ministry of Education (2009) has emphasized on establishing libraries equipped with modern facilities, including internet connectivity for online library services in elementary, secondary and higher secondary schools in order to promote a reading culture among youth and to increase library usage and improve the quality of library services in the country. 3.1 METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY Following methodology was adopted to carry-out the study: 3.1.1 POPULATION The population of the study comprised of all the libraries of Islamabad Model Colleges for boys belonging to urban area i.e. 10. Following is the list of the colleges according to the website of Federal Directorate of Education 39 Table 3.1. List of Islamabad Model Colleges for Boys. Institution Name Location Academic Level For Gender IMCB, F-10/3 City - Urban Graduation Male IMCB, F-11/1 City - Urban Higher Secondary Male IMCB, F-11/3 City - Urban Higher Secondary Male IMCB, F-7/3 City - Urban Higher Secondary Male IMCB, F-8/4 City - Urban Higher Secondary Male IMCB, G-10/4 City - Urban Graduation Male IMCB, G-11/1 City - Urban Higher Secondary Male IMCB, G-6/3 City - Urban Graduation Male IMCB, I-10/1 City - Urban Higher Secondary Male IMCB, I-8/3 City - Urban Higher Secondary Male 3.1.2 SAMPLE Total population was taken as sample i.e. 100%. 3.1.3 RESEARCH TOOLS / INSTRUMENTS One questionnaire for the Librarians was developed and experts opinion was taken for validation purpose. After which tryout was made and then the questionnaire was fair typed. 3.1.4 DATA COLLECTION Data was collected by administering the questionnaires personally visiting the librarians of the 10 Islamabad Model Colleges for Boys belonging to urban area i.e. 100% sample. A total of 10 responses were received from the targeted 10 potential respondents, which constitutes a 100% response. 40 3.1.5 DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES i. Data was analyzed using percentage and mean method. ii. Findings of this study were drawn on the basis of data analyzed. iii. The conclusion was drawn from findings and the recommendations were made on the basis of conclusions. 41 Chapter 4 DATA ANALYSIS 4. INTRODUCTION This chapter presents the findings and analysis derived from the data collected by administering the questionnaires. 4.1 DATA ANALYSIS Data has been analyzed using percentage and mean score. The results are shown on the following pages starting from serial number 7 of the questionnaire. First six statements targeted general information i.e. Name of Institute, Name of the Librarian, Location, Phone, Email and Web address. Data of remaining statements is tabulated which is followed by discussion and figures. 42 4.1.1 WORKING HOURS Table 4.1. Working Hours. S. No. Statement 4-6 hours per day % 7-10 hours per day % 01 Your college working hours are 3 30% 7 70% Table 4.1 shows that 7 model college libraries observe the double shifts, which increase the working hours to 10 hours per day i.e. 70% while only 30% model college libraries observe morning shift. 30%70%Figure 4.1 A Chart showing Working Hours4-6 hours per day7-10 hours per day43 4.1.2 TIMING Table 4.2. Timing. S. No. Statement Morning % Morning + Evening % 01 Your college timings are 10 100% 7 70% Table 4.2 shows that all 10 model college libraries observe the morning shifts i.e. 100% while 7 model college libraries also observe the morning + evening shift i.e. 70%. 107024681012Morning EveningFigure 4.2 A chart showing Timing44 4.1.3 WORKING DAYS / WEEK Table 4.3. Working Days/Week. S. No. Statement Five % Six % 01 Your library working days/week 0 0% 10 100% Table 4.3 shows that all 10 model college libraries followed a 6 days/week schedule i.e. 100%. 0%100%Figure 4.3 A chart showing Working Days/weekFive Six45 4.1.4 NO. OF REGISTERED USERS Table 4.4. No. of Registered Users. S. No. Statement Teachers % Students % Others % 01 What is the number of registered users in your library? 776 26% 2155 71% 83 3% Table 4.4 shows that students top the number of registered users with a figure of 2155 i.e. 71% while 776 teachers were registered as users i.e. 26%. Other staff members contribute to 3% of the total. 71%26%3%Figure 4.4 A chart showing No. of Registered UsersStudentsTeachersOthers46 4.1.5 DAILY VISITORS Table 4.5. Daily Visitors. S. No. Statement Teachers % Students % Others % 01 How many daily visitors in average visit your library? 325 12% 2190 85% 69 3% Table 4.5 shows that students top the number of daily visitor with a figure of 2190 i.e. 85% while 325 teachers daily visit the library i.e. 12%. Other constitute of 3% of the total. 12%85%3%Figure 4.5 A chart showing Daily VisitorsTeachersStudentsOthers47 4.1.6 STAFF MEMBERS Table 4.6. Staff Members. S. No. Statement Profess- ional % Para Profess- ional % Help- ing Staff % Other % 01 How many staff members are there in the library? 10 100% 10 100% 0 0% 10 100% Table 4.6 shows that library staff consisted of only three staff members in all 10 college libraries i.e. 100% while no helping staff was available in any college library. 1 10100.20.40.60.811.2Professional Para professional Helping Staff Other (e.g. attendant)Figure 4.6 A chart showing Staff48 4.1.7 IS THE EXISTING STAFF SUFFICIENT TO PROVIDE READER SERVICES EFFECTIVELY? Table 4.7. Is the Staff Sufficient? S. No. Statement Yes % No % 01 Is the existing staff sufficient to provide reader services effectively? 10 100% 0 0% Table 4.7 shows that all 10 model college librarians i.e. 100% agreed that the existing staff was sufficient to provide reader services effectively in the libraries. 100%0%Figure 4.7 Is the existing staff sufficient to provide reader services effectively?YesNo 49 4.1.8 LIBRARY BUILDING Table 4.8a. Separate Functional Building. S. No. Statement Yes % No % 01 Do you have a separate functional building for library? 10 100% 0 0% Table 4.8a shows that all 10 model college librarians i.e. 100% agreed that they had a separate functional building for library. 100%0%Figure 4.8a Separate functional buildingYesNo 50 Table 4.8b. Library Building Total Area (Sq ft). S. No. Statement 2000 sqft % 2500 sqft % 3000 sqft % 3500 sqft % 01 What is the total area (sq ft) of the building? 01 10% 03 30% 04 40% 02 20% Table 4.8b shows that all the 10 college libraries had separate functional building, 4 college libraries had had 3500 sqft building i.e. 40% while 3 college libraries had 2500 sqft building i.e. 30% and 2 college libraries had 3500 i.e. 20% and only 1 library had 2000 sqft building i.e. 10% of the total. 10%30%40%20%Figure 4.8b Library Building Total area (sq ft)200025003000350051 4.1.9 OTHER FACILITIES Table 4.9. Other Facilities. S. No. Statement Total Seating Capacity HeatingAir Conditioning Centrally Heating/Cooling 45-55 % 56-65 % 66-75 % 01 Other facilities 4 40% 5 50% 1 10% 10 0 0 Table 4.9 shows that all the 10 college libraries e.g. 100% sample had heaters but none of them had air-conditioners or centrally heating /cooling systems. Total seating capacity in the libraries varied where 50% of the college libraries had a seating capacity of 56-65 while 40% of the libraries had a capacity of 45-55 seats whereas just 1 library had a seating capacity of 66-75 seats i.e. 10%. 40%50%10%Figure 4.9 A chart showing Total Seating Capacity45-5556-6566-7552 4.1.10 LIBRARY RESOURCES Table 4.10. Library Resources. S. No Statement Books Reports Newspapers Serials/ Periodicals CD ROMs Audio/ Videos 13000-14000 15000-16000 17000-18000 5-6 7-8 9 & above 6-7 8-9 10-12 1 Library resources 4 2 4 0 3 3 4 5 3 2 0 0 Table 4.10 shows the library resources in college libraries. Out of six categories of library resources enlisted in the questionnaire all the 10 college libraries e.g. 100% sample had no Reports, CD ROMS and Audio/Videos. The detail of books, newspapers and serials/periodicals is shown in the figures 4.10a, 4.10b and 4.10c respectively. Figure 4.10a shows that 4 college libraries i.e. 40% had 13000-14000 books available in the library resources while 4 college libraries i.e. 40% had 15000-16000 books whereas only 2 libraries i.e. 20% had 17000-18000 books. 40%20%40%Figure 4.10a Library Resources: Books13000-1400015000-1600017000-1800053 Figure 4.10b shows that 40% libraries had 9 and above newspapers available in the library resources while libraries having 5-6 and 7-8 newspaers were 30% each. Figure 4.10c shows that 50% libraries had 6-7 serials/periodicals available in the library resources while 30% libraries had 8-9 serials/periodicals whereas 20% libraries had 10-12 serials/periodicals available. 30%30%40%Figure 4.10b Library Resources: Newspapers5-67-89 & above50%30%20%Figure 4.10c Library Resources: Serials/Periodicals6-78-910-1254 4.1.11 CIRCULATION SERVICE Table 4.11. Circulation Service. S. No. Statement Yes % No % 01 Does your library provide circulation service? 10 100% 0 0% Table 4.11 shows that all 10 model college libraries were providing circulation service to their readers i.e. 100%. 100%0%Figure 4.11 A chart showing CirculationYes No55 4.1.12 HOW MANY DOCUMENTS ARE ISSUED DAILY? Table 4.12. Documents Issued Daily. S. No. Statement Book Non Book material 30-35 % 36-40 % 41-55 % 01 How many documents are issued daily? 6 60% 3 30% 1 10% 0 Table 4.12 shows that 30-35 documents were daily issued in the college libraries i.e. 60% while 30% college libraries issued 36-40 documents daily whereas only 10% i.e. 1 library issued 41-55 documents daily. However, all the 10 college libraries i.e. 100% issued none of the Non-book material as they dont have any. 60%30%10%Figure 4.12 Documents Issued Daily30-3536-4041-5556 4.1.13 HOW MANY DOCUMENTS ARE RETURNED DAILY? Table 4.13. Documents Returned Daily. S. No. Statement Book Non Book material 15-25 % 26-30 % 31-50 % 01 How many documents are returned daily? 2 20% 5 50% 3 30% 0 Table 4.12 shows that 26-30 documents were returned daily in the college libraries i.e. 50% while 30% college libraries had 31-50 documents returned on daily basis whereas 20% i.e. 2 libraries had 31-50 Documents returned daily. 20%50%30%Figure 4.13 Documents Returned Daily15-2526-3031-5057 4.1.14 DOES YOUR LIBRARY PROVIDE "READER ADVISORY" SERVICE? Table 4.14. Reader Advisory Service S. No. Statement Yes % No % 01 Does your library provide "Reader Advisory" service? 10 100% 0 0% Table 4.14 shows that all 10 model college libraries i.e. 100% provide Reader Advisory service. 100%0%Figure 4.14 Does your library provide "Reader advisory" service? Yes No58 4.1.15 AUTOMATION STATUS Table 4.15. Automation Status S. No. Statement Fully Automated % Partially Automated % 01 What is the automation status of your library? 0 0% 10 100% Table 4.15 shows the status of automation where all 10 model college libraries i.e. 100% were partially automated. 0%100%Figure 4.15 Automation Status Fully AutomatedPartially Automated59 4.1.16 OTHER SERVICES Table 4.16. Other Services S. No. Statement Open Access % Tele- phone % Photo-copy Services % Internet Facility % 01 Other services provided by your library. 10 100% 0 0% 1 10% 0 0% Table 4.16 shows the status of other services provided by the library where all 10 model college libraries i.e. 100% were providing open access while just 1 library i.e. 10% had photocopy service available whereas none of the college libraries had telephone or internet facility available. 10010024681012Open access Telephone Photocopy ServicesInternet facilityFigure 4.16 Other ServicesOther services60 4.1.17 TECHNICAL PROCESS Table 4.17. Technical Process S. No. Statement DDC % AACR-2 % Automation Software % 01 Technical process observed in your library. 10 100% 10 100% 0 0% Table 4.17 shows the technical process observed in the library where all 10 model college libraries i.e. 100% were observing DDC (The Dewey Decimal Classification System) as their classification scheme and AACR-2 (Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd Edition) as their cataloguing code where as none of the college libraries were using any automation software because there was no automation service available. 100%0%Figure 4.17 Technical ProcessCataloguing Code & schemebeing usedAutomation Software being used61 4.1.18 DOES YOUR LIBRARY ORGANIZE ANY OF THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES? Table 4.18. Activities Organized by the Library S. No. Statement Exhibition % Library Period % Lectures% Seminars % Orientation Courses % 01 Does your library organize any of the following activities? 7 70% 10 100% 2 20% 4 40% 0 0% Table 4.18 shows the status of activities organized by the library where all 10 model college libraries i.e. 100% organized the library period while 7 libraries i.e. 70% organized the exhibitions whereas 4 libraries i.e. 40% organized seminars and 20% libraries organized lectures. None of the college libraries organized orientation courses. 710240024681012Exhibition Library Period Lectures Seminars Orientation coursesFigure 4.18 Aactivities Organized by the Library 62 4.1.19 ARE THE READERS SATISFIED WITH SERVICES PROVIDED BY THE LIBRARY? Table 4.19. Reader Satisfaction S. No. Statement Yes % No % 01 Are the readers satisfied with services provided by the library? 10 100% 0 0% Table 4.19 shows that all 10 model college libraries i.e. 100% agreed that their readers were satisfied with the services provided by the library. 100%0%Figure 4.19 Are the readers satisfied with services provided by the library?YesNo63 4.1.20 DO YOU HAVE APPROVED SELECTION & ACQUISITION POLICY? Table 4.20. Selection & Acquisition Policy S. No. Statement Yes % No % 01 Do you have approved selection & acquisition policy? 0 0% 10 100% Table 4.20 shows that none of the 10 model college libraries (i.e. 100%) had any selection & acquisition policy. 100%0%Figure 4.20 Do you have approved selection & Acquisition policy?YesNo64 4.1.21 PROBLEMS FACED BY THE LIBRARY Table 4.21. Problems Faced by the Library S. No. Statement Lack of Space % Lack of Staff % Lack of Funds % Lack of IT Support % Overdue Books % Other % 01 Is your library facing any of the following problems? 7 70%10 100%10 100%10 100%10 100%9 90%Table 4.21 shows the problems faced by the libraries where all 10 model college libraries i.e. 100% faced the problems of lack of staff, funds and IT support and overdue books while 7 libraries i.e. 70% faced the problem of lack of space. 9 libraries i.e. 90% faced other problems which include lack of automation, furniture etc. 710 10 10 109Space problemLack of Staff Lack of fundsLack of IT SupportOverdue BooksAny other problem024681012Figure 4.21 Problems faced by Library65 Chapter 5 SUMMARY, FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS This chapter presents the conclusions derived from the findings and suggests recommendations on the basis of this conclusion. This study has been designed to conduct situation analysis of libraries of Islamabad Model Colleges. The purpose of the study was to examine the role of library in education at Higher Secondary School level in Islamabad in establishing a relationship between the library, education and national development. The primary goal of this thesis has been to investigate collection of material in libraries with respect to format of material and to investigate existing facilities in libraries e.g. photocopy, seating capacity etc. The study was designed to compare the collection and facilities with the need and to recommend measures to improve the situation. With the help of this study we were able to conduct situation analysis of the libraries which will help to identify the problems of the current situation, resources and facilities available in the libraries of Islamabad Model Colleges, providing the solution / methods to improve the situation and to suggest the ways to make these libraries effective to play their role in advancement of educational development. 5.1 SUMMARY The libraries of the colleges, which used to provide for the academic needs of teachers, students and researchers, have turned into a reading hall. A dedicated hall provided for libraries seemed not fulfilling the purpose while most of the librarians complained about lack of space. 66 The students topped the number of daily visitors only because they had to attend the library period which was being organized by all IMCB libraries. As for the co-curricular activities none of the college libraries organized orientation courses and other such activities i.e. exhibitions, seminars and lectures were being organized on a small scale while none of these libraries had any approved selection and acquisition policy. Findings revealed that the condition of the IMCB libraries was not very good. Lack of space, staff, funds, library services and extracurricular activities included in the list of the problems faced by the library but lack of IT support and equipment topped the list. Where in the modern times libraries are becoming e-libraries, digital libraries and virtual libraries, the IMCB libraries were not equipped with the modern technology like computers, internet facility, CDs, and audio/videos. These libraries did not have any computers even for the purpose of automation of the library records. It is pertinent to mention that in modern educational institutions of the world, the use of audio visuals is an integral part of libraries. As far the library services are concerned, there is hardly a single library among all the IMCBs where there is facility of photocopy or telephone in the library. 5.2 FINDINGS 1. All the libraries observed morning shifts and operated six days a week while majority (70%) of them were observing morning + evening (double) shifts which increased their working hours to 7-10 hours per day whereas only 30% libraries were operating 4-6 working hours per day (Tables 4.1, 4.2 & 4.3). 67 2. All the libraries consisted of three staff members i.e. professional, para-professional and other (attendant) while no helping staff was reported. All the librarians agreed that staff was sufficient to provide reader services effectively yet all the librarians reported a lack of staff. (Tables 4.6, 4.7 & 4.21). 3. All the librarians agreed that they had a separate functional building for library. Majority (40%) of the libraries had a building with the total area of 3000 sqft, 30% with the total area of 2500 sqft, 20% with the total area of 3500 sqft and 10% with the total area of 2000 sqft. Majority (70%) of the librarians reported the lack of space (Tables 4.8a, 4.8b & 4.21). 4. All the libraries were providing circulation service and reader advisory service and all the librarians were of the view that the readers were satisfied by the services provided by the library (Tables 4.11, 4.14 & 4.19). 5. All the librarians reported that their libraries were partially automated and no fully automated library was reported. These libraries did not have internet facility and none of the librarians used any automation software while all the librarians reported a lack of IT support (Tables 4.15, 4.16, 4.17 & 4.21). 6. All the libraries were providing open access to the readers while only 10% libraries were providing photocopy services whereas there were no telephone or internet facilities available in any library (Table 4.16) 68 7. Regarding technical process, all the librarians were using DDC (The Dewey Decimal Classification System) as their classification scheme and AACR-2 (Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd Edition) as the cataloguing code while no automation software was being used in any library (Tables 4.15 & 4.17). 8. All the libraries organized the Library Period while no orientation courses were organized for the readers. Majority (70%) of the libraries organized exhibitions whereas 40% organized seminars and lectures (Table 4.18). 9. Majority (85%) of the daily visitors of the college libraries were students, 12% were teachers and 3% were other staff members (Table 4.5). 10. Majority (71%) of the registered users of the libraries were students, 26% were teachers and other staff members were 3% of the total registered users (Table 4.4). 11. Majority (60%) of the libraries issued 30-35 books daily, 30% issued 36-40 books daily and 10% libraries issued 41-55 books daily. 26-30 books returned daily in most (50%) of the libraries, 31-50 books in 30%15-26 books in 20% libraries. No non-book material was available in the libraries for issuance/returning (Tables 4.12 & 4.13) 12. Majority (50%) of the libraries had a seating capacity of 56-65 seats, 40% had a seating capacity of 45-55 seats and 10% libraries had a seating capacity of 66-75 seats. Most of the librarians complained about 69 a lack of furniture. None of the libraries had the facilities of heating, air-conditioning or centrally heating/cooling (Tables 4.9 & 4.21). 13. Considering library resources, majority (40%) of the libraries had 13000-14000 books, 40% had 17000-18000 books, 20% had 15000-16000 books. 40% libraries had 9 and above newspapers in the library resources, 30% had 5-6 newspapers, 30% libraries had 7-8 newspapers. Majority (50%) of the libraries had 6-7 serials/periodicals in their library resources, 30% had 8-9 serials/periodicals and 20% had 10-12 serials/periodicals. Out of the six categories enlisted in the library resources none of the libraries had Reports, CD ROMs or Audio/videos available while all the librarians reported a lack of fund for the library resources (Tables 4.10 & 4.21). 14. No selection and acquisition policy was reported by any of the librarians (Table 4.20). 5.3 CONCLUSIONS Findings revealed that the situation of the IMCB libraries was not satisfactory and it needed sincere and practical efforts for improvement. These libraries are facing the problems of lack of space, staff, funds, resources, furniture, library services and absence of extracurricular activities but the lack of IT support and equipment was the problem which needs to be addressed at the earliest. All of these IMCB libraries had a separate functional building while majority of the librarians complained about the lack of space. Majority of the libraries had adequate seating capacity but most of the librarians complained about lack of furniture. Though 70 all the librarians agreed that staff was sufficient to provide reader services effectively yet all the librarians reported a lack of staff because they were not provided with any helping staff in the library. Facilities of heating, air-conditioning or centrally heating/cooling were not provided to these libraries. Considering library resources majority of the libraries had adequate number of Books, Newspapers, Serials/periodicals available for the readers while these libraries lacked Reports and non-book material i.e. CD ROMs or Audio/videos. The librarians reported that there was no approved Selection and Acquisition policy and lack of fund for the library resources added to the problem. These libraries were reported as partially automated while they had no computers or automation software available with them. Same was the case regarding internet facility. The librarians were maintaining the daily records manually using DDC (The Dewey Decimal Classification System) as their classification scheme and AACR-2 (Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd Edition) as the cataloguing code. While majority of the registered users and daily visitors were the students, the only time they got into the library and had access to the books was during the Library Period which was being organized by all the libraries. Majority of the libraries were organizing Exhibitions, Seminars and Lectures but none of them organized Orientation Courses for the readers. All the libraries were providing open access to the readers but the services of photocopy, telephone and internet facility were not available in any of these libraries. These libraries reported of effectively providing circulation and reader advisory services to the satisfaction of their readers. 71 5.4 RECOMMENDATIONS For the improvement of libraries and to create the reading habits among the students and teachers, revolutionary steps may be taken. Following are some recommendations on the basis of conclusion: 1. Students may be encouraged to visit the library other then attending the library period. Time table of the school activities does not allow the students to visit the library so often. Arrangements may be made to provide relaxation in the schedule for the students intending to use library other then the library period. 2. The libraries may be upgraded and equipped with modern technologies. IT support and equipment may be provided for the purpose of automation. Automation software for the purpose of maintaining library records may be provided. 3. Internet facility may be provided for all. Computers and other accessories may be installed. 4. Audio/Visual aids, CDs and Audio/Videos may be provided and made the part of library collection. 5. Photocopy, telephone and internet services for the users may be provided to all the libraries. 6. The facilities of heating/cooling may be provided to all the libraries. 7. A selection and acquisition policy may be approved. A change of attitude towards the library resources is required and for this purpose 72 appropriate availability of the funds is necessary to supply the libraries with the latest textbooks and reference materials on monthly basis utilizing library funds available with the college. 8. Orientation courses for library staff and other users may be started and books seminars, books exhibitions and lectures may be arranged more frequently in all IMCB libraries. 9. In case of lack of space, an additional room may be provided to the concerned library to overcome this problem. 10. New furniture may be provided according to the needs of the concerned library. 11. Helping staff may be provided to all the libraries. 73 REFERENCES Adio, G. & Olasina, G. (2005). The Role of Library in Educational Development, Library Philosophy and Practice, Vol: 29 (2). Allen, G. G. (1993). Resources, Acquisitions and the Viability in Libraries in Developing Countries. Libri. Vol:43(3), 232-244. Alie, S. N. (1989). 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The Euro-Mediterranean Region and its Universities: Trends, Challenges and Prospects. Mediterranean Journal of Educational Studies. Faculty of Education, University of Malta. p. 7. Thanuskodi, S. (2013). Challenges of Academic Library Management in Developing Countries. Preface. Alagappa University, India. UNESCO/ IFLA School Library Manifesto (2000). Retrieved from: http://www.unesco.org/webworld/libraries/manifestos/school_manifesto.html Zhixian, Y. (2013). History of Library Development in China. IFLA WLIC 2013, Singapore, p.7. http://www.unesco.org/webworld/libraries/manifestos/school_manifesto.html79 APPENDIX - A Situation Analysis of Libraries of Islamabad Model Colleges Dear Librarians, I invite you to participate in a research study entitled Situation Analysis of Libraries of Islamabad Model Colleges. I am currently enrolled in the MA (Education) program at Sarhad University of Information Technology and am in the process of Masters research thesis. The title of the research is to conduct situation analysis of libraries of Islamabad Model Colleges. The enclosed questionnaire has been designed to collect information on resources, equipment and facilities currently available in the IMCB libraries. Your participation in this research project is completely voluntary. You may decline altogether, or leave blank any statement you dont wish to answer. There are no known risks to participation beyond those encountered in everyday life. Your responses will remain confidential and anonymous. Data from this research will be kept under lock and key and reported only as a collective combined total. No one other than the researcher will know your individual answers to this questionnaire. If you agree to participate in this research, please answer the statements on the questionnaire as best you can. It should take approximately 10 minutes to complete. Please return the questionnaire as soon as possible in the enclosed business reply envelope. Thank you for your assistance in this important endeavor. Sincerely yours, Tauqir Ahmed Examinations Officer Shifa College of Medicine Pitras Bukhari Road, H-8/4 Islamabad Cell: 923452425303 80 In the name of Allah the Merciful the Beneficent QUESTIONNAIRE FOR LIBRARIAN (To be filled in preferably by professional librarians only) GENERAL INFORMATION 1. Name of college: ________________________________________________ 2. Name of librarian: _______________________________________________ 3. Location of college: ______________________________________________ 4. Phone No. of college: ____________________________________________ 5. Official email of college:__________________________________________ 6. Web address (if any) : ____________________________________________ 7. Your college working hours are: a. 4-6 hrs/day b. 7-10 hrs/day 8. Your college timings are: a. Morning b. Evening 9. Your library working days/week a. Five b. Six 10. What is the number of registered users in your library? a. Students: _______ b. Teachers: _______ c. Others:______ 11. How many daily visitors in average visit your library? a. Teachers: _________ b. Students: _______ c. Others: ________ STAFF 12. How many staff members are there in the library? a. Professional _______________ b. Para professional _________ c. Helping Staff ______________ d. Other (e.g. attendant) _______ 13. Is the existing staff sufficient to provide reader services effectively? Yes No 81 FACILITIES 14. Library Building a. What is the total area (sq ft) of the building? ________________________ b. Do you have a separate functional building for library? Yes No 15. Other facilities available in your library: a. What is the total seating capacity? ________________________________ b. Do you have heating arrangements? ______________________________ c. Do you have air conditioning facility? _____________________________ d. Is the centrally heating /cooling system installed in the library? _________ MATERIALS 16. How many of the following resources are available in your library? a. Books ________________ b. Reports _______________________ c. Newspaper ________________ d. Serials/Periodicals ______________ e. CD ROMs ________________ f. Audio/Videos __________________ SERVICES 17. Does your library provide circulation service? Yes No 18. How many documents are issued daily? a. Book : ___________________b. Non book material: ________________ 19. How may documents are returned daily: a. Book : _______________ b. Non book material: ____________________ 20. Does your library provide "Reader advisory" service? Yes No 21. What is the automation status of your library? a. Fully Automated b. Partially Automated 82 22. Other services provided by your library: a. Open access b. Telephone c. Photocopy Services d. Internet facility If yes, number of terminals: ______ 23. Technical process observed in your library? a. Classification Scheme being used: ________________________________ b. Cataloguing Code being used: ___________________________________ c. Automation Software being used: ________________________________ 24. Does your library organize any of the following activities (tick the relevant one(s): a. Exhibition Yes No b. Library Period Yes No c. Lectures Yes No d. Seminars Yes No e. Orientation courses Yes No 25. Are the readers satisfied with services provided by the library? Yes No 26. Do you have approved selection & Acquisition policy? Yes No 27. Is your library facing any of the following problems? a. Space problem ___________________________________________ b. Lack of Staff ___________________________________________ c. Lack of funds ___________________________________________ d. Lack of IT Support ___________________________________________ 83 e. Overdue Books ___________________________________________ f. Any other problem ___________________________________________ 28. Librarians Comments/Suggestions: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Note: The researcher would be much obliged if brochure / library rules, booklet/ handbook or other relevant literature of your library is attached with the questionnaire and use additional sheet if required. Please return the questionnaire to: Tauqir Ahmed (MA Education) Examinations Officer Examinations Department, Shifa College of Medicine Pitras Bukhari Road, H-8/4 Islamabad. TitleTABLE OF CONTENTSSUBMISSION - Full Thesis - unplagiarised