theories on aging

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    Theories on

    AgingErick Sioco Inserto, RN

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    Theo

    ries

    Biologic

    concerned with answering basic

    questions regarding physiologicprocesses that occur in all living

    organisms over time

    (Hayflick,1996)

    Sociologic

    Focused on the roles and

    relationships within whichindividuals engage later in life

    (Hogstel, 1995)

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    Theo

    ries

    Psychologic

    Influenced by both biology and

    sociology; address how aperson responds to the tasks of

    his or her age

    Moral/Spiritual

    Examine how an individual seeks

    to explain and validate his or

    her own existence (Edelmanand Mandle, 2003)

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    BIOLOGIC THEORIESOF AGING

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    Focu

    s

    Focus of biologic theories

    1. Deleterious effects leading to

    decreasing function of theorganism

    2. Gradually occurring age

    related changes that are

    progressive over time

    3. Intrinsic changes that can

    affect all members of the

    species because ofchronologic age

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    Two Main Divisions

    Stochastic

    Explain aging as events that occurrandomly and accumulate over

    time

    Error Theory

    Free radical Theory Cross linkage Theory

    Wear and Tear Theory

    Non stochastic View aging as certain

    predetermined, timed-phenomena

    Programmed theory

    Immunity Theory

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    STOCHASTICTHEORIES

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    Error catastrophe theory

    Proposed by Orgel in 1963

    Based on the idea that errors

    can occur in the transcription

    of the synthesis that do not

    function at the optimum level.The organisms aging and

    death are based on these

    events ( Sonneborne,1979) No current supporting

    research

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    Free radical theory

    Free radicals are by products

    of metabolism. When by

    products accumulate, theydamage the cell membrane

    which decreases its efficiency.

    The body producesantioxidants that scavenge the

    free radicals

    Administration of antioxidantspostpones the appearance of

    cardiovascular dse and

    cancer

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    Cross linkages theory

    With age, some proteins in the

    body become cross linked. This

    does not allow fro normalmetabolic activity and waste

    products accumulate in the cells

    as the end result the tissues does

    not function at maximum efficiency

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    The wear and tear theory

    equates humans with

    machines. It hypothesizesthat aging is a result of use

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    NON STOCHASTIC

    THEORIES

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    Programmed Theory

    Normal cells divide in a limited

    number of times; therefore life

    expectancy was programmed

    (Hayflick, 1996)

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    Immunity Theory

    Changes occur in the immune

    system, specifically in the T-

    lymphocytes, as a result of aging.

    These changes leave the

    individual more vulnerable to

    disease (Phipps et.al, 2003)

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    EMERGINGTHEORIES

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    Neuroendcorine Control

    Examines the interrelated role of

    the neurologic and endocrine

    system over the lifespan of theindividual .

    Scientists are studying the roles

    of the hypothalamus and thehormones

    (dehydropiandrosterone) DHEA

    and melatonin in the agingprocesss

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    Metabolic Theory

    A.k.a caloric restriction

    Proposes that allorganisms have a finite

    metabolic lifetime and

    organisms with a highermetabolic rate have

    shorter lifespan

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    DNA related research

    Genes play a certain role in the

    aging process

    Discovery of telomeres located atthe end of the chromosomes,

    which may function as the cells

    biologic clocks

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    SOCIOLOGICTHEORIES OF AGING

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    Disengagement Theory

    As individuals age, they withdraw

    from society and society supports

    this withdrawal

    Cumming and Henry, 1961

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    Activity/developmental

    task theory

    Individuals need to

    remain active to age

    successfully. Activity is

    necessary to maintain

    life satisfaction andpositive self concept

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    Continuity Theory

    Individuals will respond to

    aging in the same way

    they have responded toprevious life events. The

    same habits, preferences,

    commitments, and otherare maintained in older

    adulthood

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    Age stratification theory

    Society consists of groups or

    cohorts that age collectively. The

    people and the roles in these

    cohorts change and influence

    each other, so does society at

    large. Therefore a high degree of

    interdependence exists betweenolder adults and society

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    Personal Environment fit

    Theory

    Each individual has personal

    competencies in dealing with the

    environment. These competencies

    may change with aging, thus

    affecting the older persons ability

    to interrelate with the environment

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    PSYCHOLOGIC

    THEORIES OFAGING

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    Maslows heirerchy of

    needs

    Human motivation is

    viewed as a hierarchy of

    needs that are critical tothe growth and

    development of all people.

    Individuals are viewed asactive participants in life,

    striving for self

    actualization

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    Selfactualization

    SelfEsteem

    Love andBelonging

    needs

    Safety and security

    Physical and psychological

    Physiologic

    Oxygen, Fluids,nutrition Body temp.Elimination,shelter,Sex

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    Jungs theory of

    individualism

    Development is viewed as

    occurring throughout

    adulthood, with self realizationas the goal of personality

    development . As an

    individual ages he or she iscapable of transforming into a

    spiritual being

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    Ericksons Eight Stages of

    Life

    All people experience eight

    psychosocial stages during the

    course of a lifetime. Each stage

    represents a crisis, where the goal

    is to integrate physical maturation

    and psychosocial demand. At

    each stage the person has theopportunity to resolve the crisis.

    Successful mastery prepares the

    individual for continued

    development

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    Seven tasks are identified as

    occurring during Erickson's final

    two stages

    The final three tasks identified for

    old age are:

    Ego differentiation vs. work role

    preoccupation Body transcendence vs body

    preoocupation

    Ego trancscendence vs ego

    preoccupation

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    Selective Optimization

    with Comnpoensation

    Physical capacity diminishes with

    age. An individual who ages

    successfully compensates for

    these deficits through selection,

    optimization, and compensation

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