theories of management_pom
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- 1. Team Pirates Prashant Aghara Shital Bhagiya Anjali Machhoya Hiteshree Patel Kamal Vasoya
2. Team EXCELerate Why We Chose It : Professional A play on words,combining Accelerate and Excel Shows our Full Speed Ahead attitude Effective and efficient X-pecting excellence Competitive Enthusiastic Leaders 3. Contents Behavioural School of Management - Elton Mayo(Hawthorne Experiments) Modern School of Management - Douglas McGregor - Peter Drucker - William Ouchi 4. Behavioral School of Management The behavioral science approach developed as a natural evolution from the Hawthorne Experiments The behavioral approach applies the knowledge of the behavioral sciences for managing people Elton Mayo (1880-1949) 5. Hawthorne Experiments: The Hawthorne Studies were conducted from 1927-1932 at the Western Electric Hawthorne Works in Chicago, where Harvard Business School Professor Elton Mayo examined productivity and work conditions. Mayo wanted to find out what effect fatigue and monotony had on job productivity and how to control them through such variables as rest breaks, work hours, temperatures and humidity. 6. Cont 1927-1932 Manipulated factors of production to measure effect on output: Pay Incentives Length of Work Day & Work Week Use of Rest Periods Company Sponsored Meals Results: Higher output and greater employee satisfaction Conclusions: Positive effects even with negative influences workers output will increase as a response to attention Strong social bonds were created within the test group. Workers are influenced by need for recognition, security and sense of belonging 7. Nuts and Bolts : Interviewing Provide insight to workers moral, their likes and dislikes and how they felt about their bosses Role of Supervisor Retained the responsibility of making sure that their workers reached production levels, should lead their workers Management Need to gain active support and participation from workers, while maintaining managerial control. Be patient with workers, listen to them, and avoid creating emotional upsets. Teamwork Cooperation, communication, sense of belonging 8. Modern School of Management Douglas McGregor (1906-1964) McGregor maintained that there are two fundamental approaches to managing people. Many managers tend towards theory x, and generally get poor results. Enlightened managers use theory y, which produces better performance and results, and allows people to grow and develop. 9. Theory-X The average person dislikes work and will avoid it he/she can. Therefore most people must be forced with the threat of punishment to work towards organizational objectives. The average person prefers to be directed; to avoid responsibility; is relatively unambitious, and wants security above all else. CooooooooL 10. Theory-Y Effort in work is as natural as work and play. People will apply self-control and self-direction in the pursuit of organisational objectives, without external control or the threat of punishment. Commitment to objectives is a function of rewards associated with their achievement. People usually accept and often seek responsibility. The capacity to use a high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving organisational problems is widely, not narrowly, distributed in the population. In industry the intellectual potential of the average person is only partly utilised. 11. No business in the world has ever made more money with Poorer management 12. System Approach : It is a collection on interrelated parts acting together to achieve some goal with exists in the environment. Also system is defined as a set of objects working together with relationships between their objects and attributes related to each other and to the environment. Therefore, system in simple terms in respect to management, it is a set of different independent parts working together in interrelated manner to accomplish a set of objectives 13. Contingency(Situational) Approach The contingency approach to management emerged from the real life experience of managers who found that no single approach worked consistently in every situation. The basic idea of this approach is that no management technique or theory is appropriate in all situations. The main determinants of a contingency are related to the external and internal environment of an organisation. 14. contingency variables: size of firm environment resources technology group dynamics individual differences Managers must identify these variables and understand how its best to manage the organization. 15. Peter Drucker(1909-2005) 16. Three Roles of Management Managing a Business Managing Managers Managing Workers and Work 17. Managing a Business Purpose of Business To Create Customers Functions of Business Marketing Innovation Profit is result, not a cause, of business activity 18. Managing Workers and Work Personnel Management Organizing for Peak Performance Engineering the Job Motivating for Peak Performance Communication; Vision Supervisor / Foreman Professional Employee 19. William G. Ouchi (Born 1943) In 1981, William Ouchi came up with a method that would combine American and Japanese managing practice together to form Theory Z. In order for him to accomplish this, he had to learn about the Japanese culture. He had to find out why the Japanese quality and productivity were much higher than the American 20. The Japanese Management Approach, Called TYPE J The American Management Approach,Called TYPE A Ouchis Recommended A Hybrid Of Two Approaches ,THEORY Z 21. Theory-Z Long-term employment Collective decision making Individual responsibility Slow evaluation & promotion Implicit, informal control with explicit, formalized measures Moderately specialized career paths Holistic concern, including family