Theories of aging s14

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  • 1. Early Theories of Aging ThanatophobiaExtend maximum life span Hippocrates gradual loss of body heat Erasmus Darwin reduced responses to stimuli, loss of excitability Others metabolic rate, irradiation, genetics geriatrics coined in 1914 First geriatric medical journal published in 1945 ACSM founded in 1954 NIA created in 1974

2. Theories of Aging Psychological Maslows Hierarchy of Needs (1943) Eriksons Psychological Stages (1956) Selective Optimization with Compensation (SOC, 1980) Sociological Activity Continuity Biological Damage Genetic Gradual Imbalance 3. Theories of Aging Psychological Primarily related to success Personal development Sociological Engagement Experience & environment 4. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs: Theory of Successful Aging 5. Theories of Aging EriksonsPsychosocial Stages Development through late adulthood Positive/Negative Outcomes LateAdulthood Pride & satisfaction vs. lack of accomplishment Dignity & acceptance vs. frustration Keys:close relationships; productivity with family and/or work; evaluation of the rear view 6. Theories of Aging SelectiveOptimization with Compensation (Baltes & Baltes, 1990) Select priorities/likes/most important Optimize skills and talents Compensate for decrements in abilityExamples Playing music Lifting weights Running 7. Theories of Aging SOC Functional competence is key Related conceptsSelf-efficacy (Bandura, 1977) Self-esteem Control Cognitive capacity 8. Theories of Aging: Sociological ActivityTheory (Havighurst, 1961) Engaged in mental and physical activities Community/family/profession Continuity(Atchley, 1971) Carry forward positive habits, relationships, regardless of advancing age Cansocial beings successfully age without solid social connections? Cognitive function? 9. Theories of Aging 10. Theories of Aging Damagefrom wear and tear Chemical reactions that occur naturally in the body begin to produce a # of irreversible defects in molecules. What is the source of microinsults? Physical Chemical Infectious MechanicalLoss of function & System failure Injury Repair 11. Theories of Aging 12. Theories of Aging Free-radicaltheory (damage) Chemical compounds that contain an unpaired electron in an outer orbital Able to link to tissue and cause damage 13. Theories of Aging Mitochondrialrespiration leaking intermediates Superoxide dismutase 14. Theories of Aging Freeradical targets Cell membranes DNA & RNA Enzymes Damageto tissues, ultimately systems 15. Theories of Aging Accumulationof defects in metabolicpathways Does aging originate in the mitochondria? Oxidation of mitochondrial DNA Widespread impact 16. Theories of Aging Strategyfor reducing free radicals: Consumption of Vitamins E and C anti-oxidants Mechanism? Use of supplements? 17. Theories of Aging Cross-linkage(damage) Corrupted DNA not repaired Cross-linking occurs in protein-based collagen fibers Over time, results in Stiffening of tissue Rigidity of blood vessels Tight ligaments & tendons Cataracts Atherosclerosis 18. Theories of Aging Genetictheories Genes related to pathologies Could dictate cellular aging DNA mutations of mitochondria build during lifetime 19. Theories of Aging Hayflick Limit Cellswill divide & reproduce only a limited number of times Cell Clock Number is genetically programmed Limitations 20. Theories of Aging TelomereHypothesis Shortens with each replication of the chromosome Replication at a fixed rate may indicate that the telomere is the clock that determines the lifespan of any given cell Dollys fate 21. Theories of Aging GradualImbalance Theory Nervous system Endocrine system Impaired relationship btwn the two Hormonesimpacted Adaptation impaired Is aging the result of decreased ability to survive stress?? 22. Theories of Aging There is no overwhelming support for just one biological theory of aging. Likely theories overlap and each explain some aspect(s) of aging 23. Slowing the Aging Process Improvenutrition total food consumed Maintain general activity levels Have social/community involvement Perform moderate amounts of physical exercise 24. Slowing the Aging Process Caloricrestriction Total amt of food is reduced How much? Major nutrients, minerals, & vitamins necessary for health are maintained 25. Slowing the Aging Process Biosphere2 experiments N = 8; ~2 years Lower Metabolic rate Body temperature SBP & DBP Blood glucose Insulin Thyroid hormonesOkinawanpopulation Experimental data in humans? 26. Slowing the Aging Process General activity levelActive in life Social contacts Taking care of self Living the good life 27. Role of PA/Exercise/Sport? Compressionof morbidity? Decrease premature mortality? SOC? Social opportunities? 28. Quality of Life The difference between active living & just being alive. Activelife expectancy 29. Quality of Life (more to come) Activitiesof Daily Living (ADLs) Walking Dressing Bathing/toileting Eating Getting up from a bed or chairInstrumentalActivities of Daily Living (IADLs) Managing finances Using the telephone Light housework Heavy housework Meal preparation ShoppingSpiritual health: Relationships, values, purpose 30. Summary Factorsthat optimize successful aging: Avoiding disease Engaging in life activities Maintaining high cognitive and physical function

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