theories- descriptive inquiry –scientific theories v. metaphysical theories prescriptive...

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  • Theories- Descriptive Inquiry Scientific Theories v. Metaphysical Theories Prescriptive Inquiry Normative Theories v. Metaethical Theories
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  • Cognitive Theories (moral judgments are true or false) based on reason and/or experience Virtue-Based Theories Duty-Based Theories Consequentialist Theories Non-Cognitive Theories Intuitionism Emotivism Constructivism (Cultural Relativism)
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  • Teleological Moral Theories Deontological Moral Theories Virtue-Based Moral Theories
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  • Goal Directed: A for the sake of B Consequentialism Cost/Benefit Ratios Hedonism Pleasure=GOOD, Pain =BAD Hierarchy: Higher (intellectual: wisdom, beauty, friendship etc. ) Lower (biological: sex, eating, drinking, etc.) Hedonistic Calculus Intensity, Duration, Probability, Fecundity, Whose Pleasures and Pains Count? Egoism: self Altruism: others: Problems: Objectivity of Pain and Pleasure Predictability of Pains and Pleasures (unanticipated consequences) Justice: social utility v. discrimination
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  • Divine Command Theory (Authority) Authorities: Leaders, Texts, Conscience. Universality v. Pluralism Rights-Based Theories (Justice) Libertarianism (Locke) Egalitarianism (Kant) Virtue Based Theories
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  • :, MORALITYDUTYMoral Reasoning Persons (Ends) Universal Rules (Categorical Imperatives), Universality Ends v. Means Kingdom of Ends RightGood Person INTERESTPLEASURENaturalistic Dialectic Property (means) Particular Rules (Hypothetical Imperatives) GoodGood Citizen
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  • Persons and Property Rights- Individual Rights Group Rights Right to Life Non-Human Rights Fetal Rights Rights and Moral Principles: Utility, Beneficence, Non-Maleficence, Liberty, Justice Positive Rights and Negative Rights Property Rights Rights and Duties- Rights and Sanctions- Natural sanction- enforced by nature (natural/unnatural) Moral sanction- enforced by community sentiment or convention (praise/blame) Legal sanction- enforced by government (legal/illegal) Contingent upon governmental knowledge and authority Relationship between legality and morality Conflict of Claims- Individual v. individual Group v. group (Israelis v. Palestinians, Men v. Women, Blacks v. Whites) Group v. individual Natural rights, Legal rights, Moral rights
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  • Architecture Praise (good acts) and Blame (bad acts) Teleological context: forward looking Change Behavior More pleasurable consequences (reinforce) Less painful consequences (deter) Deontological: backward looking Justice as Proportionality (retribution) Issues Free will (voluntariness) Determinism (causation or coercion) Biological determinism Social or cultural determinism Moral Competence Individualism v. collectivism Is the assessment of responsibility empirical?
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  • Virtue: The Excellence of a Thing. Purpose: Human Excellence Intellectual Virtue: Moral Virtue (Habit) The Golden Mean Vice of deficiency, Virtue, Vice of Excess. Moral Education Deliberation Vice Incontinence-(weakness of the will)
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  • SPHERE OF FEELINGS VICE OF DEFICIENCY VIRTUEVICE OF EXCESS FearCowardice Bravery Foolhardiness Pleasure/PainInsensibility Temperance (Moderation) Self-Indulgent Getting and Spending Cheapness or Tightwad Liberality Prodigality
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  • Non-Cognitivism Intuitionism Emotivism Constructivism Emotivism Moral Statements are emotive expressions like expressions of taste Killing is wrong because I disapprove of it Killing is wrong because my culture disapproves of it Good and Bad are not properties but expressions of individual or collective preference Moral disagreements are conflicts of attitude not conflicts of belief. Problems Universality Are there universal moral sentiments? Irreconcilability of moral disagreements Nature of Moral Judgment Reasons Toleration Confusion between Facts and Values Does experiencing a moral feeling necessarily imply that it is good?
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  • Emotions are common among mammals, especially primates (monkeys and apes) Foundational Moral Feelings Sympathy The Expanding Circle In-Group Out-Group Bias Consolation Retribution The Formal Principle of Justice