the vietnam war years the united states becomes locked in a military stalemate in southeast asia....

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The Vietnam War Years The United States becomes locked in a military stalemate in Southeast Asia. U.S. forces withdraw after a decade of heavy war casualties abroad and assassinations and antiwar demonstrations at home.

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The Vietnam War Years The United States becomes locked in a military stalemate in Southeast Asia. U.S. forces withdraw after a decade of heavy war casualties abroad and assassinations and antiwar demonstrations at home. Slide 2 Section 1: Moving Toward Conflict To stop the spread of communism in Southeast Asia, the United States uses its military to support South Vietnam. Slide 3 Slide 4 French Rule in Vietnam Late 1800sWW II, France rules most of Indochina Ho Chi Minhleader of Vietnamese independence movement - helps create Indochinese Communist Party 1940, Japanese take control of Vietnam Vietminhorganization that aims to rid Vietnam of foreign rule Sept. 1945, Ho Chi Minh declares Vietnam an independent nation Slide 5 Ho Chi Minh Slide 6 France Battles the Vietminh French troops move into Vietnam; French fight, regain cities, South 1950, U.S. begins economic aid to France to stop communism The Vietminh Drive Out the French Domino theorycountries can fall to communism like row of dominoes 1954, Vietminh overrun French at Dien Bien Phu; France surrenders Geneva Accords divide Vietnam at 17th parallel; Communists get north Election to unify country called for in 1956 Slide 7 Slide 8 Slide 9 Slide 10 Diem Cancels Elections Ho has brutal, repressive regime but is popular for land distribution S. Vietnams anti-Communist president Ngo Dinh Diem refuses election U.S. promises military aid for stable, reform government in South Diem corrupt, stifles opposition, restricts Buddhism Vietcong (Communist opposition group in South) kills officials Ho sends arms to Vietcong along Ho Chi Minh Trail Slide 11 Slide 12 http://ed.ted.com/lessons/the-infamous-and-ingenious-ho- chi-minh-trail-cameron-paterson Slide 13 Slide 14 Kennedy and Vietnam Like Eisenhower, JFK backs Diem financially; sends military advisers Diems popularity plummets from corruption, lack of land reform Diem starts strategic hamlet program to fight Vietcong - villagers resent being moved from ancestral homes Diem presses attacks on Buddhism; monks burn themselves in protest U.S.-supported military coup topples government; Diem assassinated Slide 15 Slide 16 Slide 17 Slide 18 Slide 19 Slide 20 http://www.livingroomcandidate.org/commercials/1964 Slide 21 Slide 22 President Johnson Expands the Conflict The South Grows More Unstable Succession of military leaders rule S. Vietnam; country unstable LBJ thinks U.S. can lose international prestige if communists win The Tonkin Gulf Resolution Alleged attack in Gulf of Tonkin; LBJ asks for power to repel enemy 1964 Tonkin Gulf Resolution gives him broad military powers 1965 8 Americans killed, LBJ orders sustained bombing of North U.S. combat troops sent to S. Vietnam to battle Vietcong http://www.history.com/topics/vietnam- war/videos#vietnam Slide 23 Slide 24 Slide 25 Slide 26 Section 2: U.S. Involvement and Escalation The United States sends troops to fight in Vietnam, but the war quickly turns into a stalemate. Slide 27 Strong Support for Containment LBJ hesitates breaking promise to keep troops out; works with: - Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara Secretary of State Dean Rusk Congress, majority of public support sending troops The Troop Buildup Accelerates General William WestmorelandU.S. commander in South Vietnam Thinks southern Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) ineffective Requests increasing numbers; by 1967 500,000 U.S. troops Slide 28 http://www.history.com/videos/history-rocks-vietnam- soldier#governor-jim-gibbons-and-take-a-vet-to- school-program Slide 29 Slide 30 An Elusive Enemy Vietcong use hit-and-run, ambush tactics, move among civilians Tunnels help withstand airstrikes, launch attacks, connect villages Terrain laced with booby traps, land mines laid by U.S., Vietcong A Frustrating War of Attrition Westmoreland tries to destroy Vietcong morale through attrition Vietcong receive supplies from China, U.S.S.R.; remain defiant U.S. sees war as military struggle; Vietcong as battle for survival http://www.history.com/topics/vietnam-war/videos#vietnam-war- tactics Slide 31 Slide 32 Slide 33 Slide 34 Slide 35 Slide 36 Slide 37 Slide 38 The Battle for Hearts and Minds U.S. wants to stop Vietcong from winning support of rural population Weapons for exposing tunnels often wound civilians, destroy villages -napalm: gasoline-based bomb that sets fire to jungle - Agent Orange: leaf-killing, toxic chemical Search-and-destroy missions move civilian suspects, destroy property Villagers go to cities, refugee camps; 1967, over 3 million refugees Slide 39 Slide 40 Slide 41 Censored Slide 42 Slide 43 Slide 44 Sinking Morale Guerrilla warfare, jungle conditions, lack of progress lower morale Many soldiers turn to alcohol, drugs; some kill superior officers Government corruption, instability lead S. Vietnam to demonstrate Fulfilling a Duty Most U.S. soldiers believe in justice of halting communism Fight courageously, take patriotic pride in fulfilling their duty Slide 45 The Great Society Suffers War grows more costly with more troops; inflation rate rising LBJ gets tax increase to pay for war, check inflation - has to accept $6 billion funding cut for Great Society The Living-Room War Combat footage on nightly TV news shows stark picture of war Critics say credibility gap between administration reports and events Senator J. William Fulbrights hearings add to doubts about war Slide 46 Section 3: A Nation Divided An antiwar movement in the U.S. pits supporters of the governments war policy against those who oppose it. Slide 47 The Times They Are AChangin Bob Dylan, 1963 Come gather 'round people Wherever you roam And admit that the waters Around you have grown And accept it that soon You'll be drenched to the bone. If your time to you Is worth savin' Then you better start swimmin' Or you'll sink like a stone For the times they are a-changin'. http://www.youtube.com /watch?v=vCWdCKPt nYE Slide 48 Come writers and critics Who prophesize with your pen And keep your eyes wide The chance won't come again And don't speak too soon For the wheel's still in spin And there's no tellin' who That it's namin'. For the loser now Will be later to win For the times they are a-changin'. Come writers and critics Who prophesize with your pen And keep your eyes wide The chance won't come again And don't speak too soon For the wheel's still in spin And there's no tellin' who That it's namin'. For the loser now Will be later to win For the times they are a- changin'. Slide 49 Come senators, congressmen Please heed the call Don't stand in the doorway Don't block up the hall For he that gets hurt Will be he who has stalled There's a battle outside And it is ragin'. It'll soon shake your windows And rattle your walls For the times they are a-changin'. Slide 50 Come mothers and fathers Throughout the land And don't criticize What you can't understand Your sons and your daughters Are beyond your command Your old road is Rapidly agin'. Please get out of the new one If you can't lend your hand For the times they are a-changin'. Come mothers and fathers Throughout the land And don't criticize What you can't understand Your sons and your daughters Are beyond your command Your old road is Rapidly agin'. Please get out of the new one If you can't lend your hand For the times they are a-changin' Slide 51 The line it is drawn The curse it is cast The slow one now Will later be fast As the present now Will later be past The order is Rapidly fadin'. And the first one now Will later be last For the times they are a-changin'. The line it is drawn The curse it is cast The slow one now Will later be fast As the present now Will later be past The order is Rapidly fadin'. And the first one now Will later be last For the times they are a-changin'. Slide 52 A Manipulatable Draft Selective Service System, draft, calls men 1826 to military service Thousands look for ways to avoid the draft Manymostly white, affluentget college deferment 80% of U.S. soldiers come from lower economic levels Slide 53 African Americans in Vietnam African Americans serve in disproportionate numbers in ground combat Defense Dept. corrects problem by instituting draft lottery in 1969 Racial tensions high in many platoons; add to low troop morale Women Join the Ranks 10,000 women serve, mostly as military nurses Thousands volunteer: American Red Cross, United Services Organization Slide 54 The New Left New Leftyouth movement of 1960s, demand sweeping changes Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), Free Speech Movement (FSM): - criticize big business, government; want greater individual freedom Campus Activism New Left ideas spread across colleges Students protest campus issues, Vietnam war Slide 55 Slide 56 Slide 57 The Movement Grows In 1965, protest marches, rallies draw tens of thousands 1966, student deferments require good academic standing - SDS calls for civil disobedience; counsels students to go abroad Small numbers of returning veterans protest; protest songs popular From Protest to Resistance Antiwar demonstrations, protests increase, some become violent Some men burn draft cards; some refuse to serve; some flee to Canada Slide 58 http://www.history.com/videos/history- rocks-summer-of-love#history-rocks- summer-of-love Slide 59 War Divides the Nation Doves strongly oppose war, believe U.S. should withdraw Hawks favor sending greater forces to win the war 1967 majority of Americans support war, consider protesters disloyal Johnson Remains Determined LBJ continues slow escalation, is criticized by both hawks and doves Combat stalemate leads Defense Secretary McNamara to resign Slide 60 http://www.rhapsody.com/bob- dylan/biograph Slide 61 Feel Like I'm Fixin' To Die Rag Country Joe and the Fish http://www.archive.org/details/cjm1976-01- 01.koln.flac16 Slide 62 Yeah, come on all of you, big strong men, Uncle Sam needs your help again. He's got himself in a terrible jam Way down yonder in Vietnam So put down your books and pick up a gun, We're gonna have a whole lotta fun. And it's one, two, three, What are we fighting for ? Don't ask me, I don't give a damn, Next stop is Vietnam; And it's five, six, seven, Open up the pearly gates, Well there ain't no time to wonder why, Whoopee! we're all gonna die. Slide 63 Well, come on Wall Street, don't move slow, Why man, this is war au-go-go. There's plenty good money to be made By supplying the Army with the tools of the trade, Just hope and pray that if they drop the bomb, They drop it on the Viet Cong. And it's one, two, three, What are we fighting for ? Don't ask me, I don't give a damn, Next stop is Vietnam. And it's five, six, seven, Open up the pearly gates, Well there ain't no time to wonder why Whoopee! we're all gonna die. Slide 64 Well, come on generals, let's move fast; Your big chance has come at last. Gotta go out and get those reds The only good commie is the one who's dead And you know that peace can only be won When we've blown 'em all to kingdom come. And it's one, two, three, What are we fighting for ? Don't ask me, I don't give a damn, Next stop is Vietnam; And it's five, six, seven, Open up the pearly gates, Well there ain't no time to wonder why Whoopee! we're all gonna die. Slide 65 Well, come on mothers throughout the land, Pack your boys off to Vietnam. Come on fathers, don't hesitate, Send 'em off before it's too late. Be the first one on your block To have your boy come home in a box. And it's one, two, three What are we fighting for ? Don't ask me, I don't give a damn, Next stop is Vietnam. And it's five, six, seven, Open up the pearly gates, Well there ain't no time to wonder why, Whoopee! we're all gonna die. Slide 66 1968: A Tumultuous Year An enemy attack in Vietnam, two assassinations, and a chaotic political convention make 1968 an explosive year. Section 4 Slide 67 A Surprise Attack 1968 villagers go to cities to celebrate Tet (Vietnamese new year) Vietcong among crowd attack over 100 towns, 12 U.S. air bases Tet offensive lasts 1 month before U.S./S. Vietnam regain control Westmoreland declares attacks are military defeat for Vietcong Slide 68 http://www.history.com/topics/vietnam- war/videos#attempts-to-evade-military- draft The Tet Offensive http://www.history.com/topics/vietnam- war/videos#tet-offensive Slide 69 Tet Changes Public Opinion Before Tet, most Americans hawks; after Tet, hawks, doves both 40% Mainstream media openly criticizes war LBJ appoints Clark Clifford as new Secretary of Defense After studying situation, Clifford concludes war is unwinnable LBJs popularity drops; 60% disapprove his handling of the war Slide 70 Slide 71 Slide 72 Slide 73 Johnson Withdraws Senator Eugene McCarthy runs for Democratic nomination as dove Senator Robert Kennedy enters race after LBJs poor showing in NH LBJ announces will seek peace talks, will not run for reelection Violence and Protest Grip the Nation Riots rock over 100 cities after Martin Luther King, Jr. is killed Kennedy wins CA primary; is fatally shot for supporting Israel Major demonstrations on over 100 college campuses Slide 74 Slide 75 Turmoil in Chicago Vice-president Hubert Humphrey wins Democratic nomination Over 10,000 demonstrators go to Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley mobilizes police, National Guard Protesters try to march to convention; police beat them; rioting Delegates to convention bitterly debate antiwar plank Slide 76 Slide 77 Slide 78 Nixon Triumphs Nixon works for party for years, wins 1968 Republican nomination Campaign promises: restore law and order, end war in Vietnam Governor George Wallace is third-party candidate Champions segregation, states rights; attracts protest-weary whites Nixon wins presidency Slide 79 segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever! Slide 80 Slide 81 Slide 82 Section 5: The End of the War and Its Legacy President Nixon institutes his Vietnamization policy, and Americas longest war finally comes to an end. Slide 83 The Pullout Begins New president Richard Nixon finds negotiations not progressing National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger works on new plan VietnamizationU.S. troops withdraw, S. Vietnam troops take over Peace with Honor Nixon calls for peace with honor to maintain U.S. dignity Orders bombing of N. Vietnam, Vietcong hideouts in Laos, Cambodia Slide 84 Slide 85 Mainstream America Silent majoritymoderate, mainstream people who support war The My Lai Massacre News breaks that U.S. platoon massacred civilians in My Lai village Lt. William Calley, Jr., in command, is convicted, imprisoned The Invasion of Cambodia 1970, U.S. troops invade Cambodia to clear out enemy supply centers 1.5 million protesting college students close down 1,200 campuses Slide 86 Slide 87 Slide 88 Violence on Campus National Guard kills 4 in confrontation at Kent State University Guardsmen kill 2 during confrontation at Jackson State in MS http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YdVMGKOFIwY&ob=av 2n http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YdVMGKOFIwY&ob=av 2n 100,000 construction workers rally in NYC to support government The Pentagon Papers Nixon invades Cambodia; Congress repeals Tonkin Gulf Resolution Pentagon Papers show plans to enter war under LBJ Confirm belief of many that government not honest about intentions Slide 89 Tin soldiers and Nixon coming, We're finally on our own. This summer I hear the drumming, Four dead in Ohio. Slide 90 Gotta get down to it Soldiers are cutting us down Should have been done long ago. Slide 91 What if you knew her And found her dead on the ground How can you run when you know? Slide 92 Slide 93 Slide 94 Slide 95 Slide 96 Peace is at Hand 1971, 60% think U.S. should withdraw from Vietnam by end of year 1972 N. Vietnamese attack; U.S. bombs cities, mines Haiphong harbor Kissinger agrees to complete withdrawal of U.S.: Peace is at hand The Final Push S. Vietnam rejects Kissinger plan; talks break off; bombing resumes Congress calls for end to war; peace signed January 1973 The Fall of Saigon Cease-fire breaks down; South surrenders after North invades 1975 Slide 97 Slide 98 http://www.history.com/videos/saigon- falls#saigon-falls Slide 99 American Veterans Cope Back Home 58,000 Americans, over 2 million North, South Vietnamese die in war Returning veterans face indifference, hostility at home About 15% develop post-traumatic stress disorder Further Turmoil in Southeast Asia Communists put 400,000 S. Vietnamese in labor camps; 1.5 million flee Civil war breaks out in Cambodia; Khmer Rouge seize power Want to establish peasant society; kill at least 1 million people Slide 100 Slide 101 Slide 102 The Legacy of Vietnam Government abolishes military draft 1973 Congress passes War Powers Act: - president must inform Congress within 48 hours of deploying troops - 90 day maximum deployment without Congressional approval War contributes to cynicism about government, political leaders Slide 103 The Path to War http://www.history.com/topics/vietnam- war/videos#the-road-to-war