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    SALLY REGAN

    VampireBook

    The

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    LONDON, NEW YORK,

    MELBOURNE, MUNICH, AND DELHI

    Project editor Jenny Finch

    Senior art editorStefan Podhorodecki

    Designers Keith Davis, Johnny Pau, Yumiko Tahata

    Editorial assistant Jessamy Wood

    Managing editor Linda Esposito

    Managing art editor Diane Thistlethwaite

    Publishing manager Andrew Macintyre

    Category publisher Laura Buller

    Creative retouching Steve Willis

    Picture research Nic Dean

    DK picture library Lucy Claxton

    Production editor Maria Elia

    Senior production controller Angela Graef

    Jacket designer Yumiko TahataJacket editor Mariza OKeeffe

    Design development manager Sophia M Tampakopoulos Turner

    Consultant Professor Glennis Byron

    First published in the United States in 2009 by

    DK Publishing, 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014

    09 10 11 12 13 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1175774 07/09

    Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley Limited

    All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions.

    No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmittedin any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or

    otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner.Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited.

    DK books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk for

    sales promotions, premiums, fundraising, or educational use. For details, contact:DK Publishing Special Markets, 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014

    SpecialSales@dk.com

    A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress

    ISBN: 978-0-7566-5551-8

    Design and digital artworking by Stefan Podhorodecki

    Hi-res workflow proofed by MDP, UKPrinted and bound by Leo, China

    Discover more atwww.dk.com

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    WHAT IS A VAMPIRE?Vampire 10

    Creation: A Vampire is Born 12Appearance: Slobbering Ghouls

    to Sinister Beauties 14

    Thirst for Blood 16

    Powers: The Dark Gift 18

    Shape-Shifting 20

    The Life of the Dead 22

    Apotropes: To Deliver you from Evil 24

    How to Destroy a Vampire 28

    MYTHS AND LEGENDSBlood Demons: Spirits from

    the Ancient World 32

    Fairy Folk of Celtic Lore 34African Tales of Terror 36

    Ghouls: Fearsome Flesh Eaters 38

    Kali: Hindu Goddess of Destruction 40

    Blood-drinking Witches of Southeast Asia 42

    Jiangshi: Chinese Hopping Ghosts 44

    Flying Fire and Caribbean Crones 46

    Gods and Monsters of

    South and Central America 48

    Contents

    THE RISE OF THE VAMPIRE54Good vs. Evil: Revenants and

    the Christian Church

    56Vampires of Eastern Europe

    58Vampire Hysteria hits Europe

    60The Strange Case of Mercy Brown

    62Gothic Horror: The First Vampire

    Literature

    64Bram Stoker and the Most Influential

    Horror Story Ever Written

    68Vlad the Impaler: The Real Dracula

    70Elizabeth Bathory: The Blood Countess

    THE MODERN MYTH74A Century of Screen Horror

    76Dark Angels: Vampires Come of Age

    78Child Vampires

    80Vampire Hunters

    82Falling in Love with the Undead

    86Vampires are Forever

    88More to explore

    90Glossary

    92Index and credits

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    The name vampire arouses both fear and fascination. Traditionally adead person who leaves their grave at night to suck the blood of theliving, these creatures have taken many forms over the years. However,they all continue to share some basic traits. They thirst for blood and

    have unusual powers and strengths. There are perils they must avoid,and signs that give away their deadly secret.

    What is a

    Vampire?

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    ampires are forever. They are theundead:immortals who walk the Earth undetected,

    seeking blood to sustain their unnatural existence.Their origins are lost in the mists of time.

    From the earliest civilizations, they have

    been whispered about inmythand

    legend. They have

    appeared in many guises.

    Ancient cultures all over

    the world feared spirits

    and demons that thirsted

    forbloodand broughtdeath and despair. In many

    places, these beings were

    strongly associated with

    witchcraft and sorcery.Chroniclers in the Middle Ages

    wrote of revenantscorpsesrising from their graves to seek blood

    and spread misfortune. The folkloreof Eastern Europe called them

    strigoi, and belief in theserestless corpses was so strong that panic

    would overtake any community that

    suspected there was one in their midst.

    V

    Vam

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    11

    As word of these creatures spread, they were

    recast in the imagination of 19th-century writers

    and calledvampires. These mindlessmonsters became the cruelbut charismatic aristocrat

    of theGothicnovel. Anenigmatic stranger with

    slicked-back hair and a

    long black cape, he had

    superhuman powers and sharp

    fangs, and became a favoritemovie villain. But vampires

    continue to evolve. Possessing

    amazing powers and ethereal

    beauty, todays vampires

    walk a different path. They canfight theircravingfor human

    blood and blend in with human

    society. Highly accomplished, yet

    tormented and aloof, they hold a

    powerful appeal for those who guess

    their secret. Their legend may be as

    old as fearitself, but vampirescontinue to fascinate and thrill us to this day.

    This is their story

    pire

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    CreationThere are three main ways of becoming a vampireby birth, by death, or by bite. In folklore, the waythat a person entered the world, and the way that theylived, died, and were buried, made thedifference between eternal rest oreternal roaming. Today, it is thebite that counts.

    A VAMPIRE IS BORN

    SEALED WITH A KISSThe modern method of vampire creation isthe classic act of a vampire biting into hisvictim to feed. As he draws blood, the biteturns the victim into one of his own kind.Typically, the vampire bites into an area of the

    body where a main artery is near the surfaceusually the neck or wristthough in tales offolklore, it could also be on the thorax or abovethe heart. Two small puncture marks are the onlyevidence of the vampires visit, but victims willsoon notice telltale signs of their fate. Their breathstarts to smell, they look pale, recoil from religiousartifacts, and become more active at night. Mostvictims waste away, until they die and are rebornas a new vampire. Sometimes the vampires

    bite merely kills his victim, unless the victimalso tastes the vampires blood in return.

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    DAMNED BEFORE BIRTHA baby may seem too innocent to be labeled a vampireeven before it has drawn its first breath, but in the folkloreof many parts of the world, pregnancy was fraught withdanger. If the mother saw a black cat, ate too much salt, orwas looked at by a witch, her baby was at risk of becoming

    a vampire. There were also other factors to worry amother. If the baby was born the illegitimate childof an illegitimate child, the seventh son of aseventh son, or with teeth, too much hair, ora caul (membrane) over its head, it wasalmost certainly destined for vampirismafter death. A baby conceived or bornon certain holy days would also causeits parents great anxiety.

    UNCERTAIN DEATHA persons life, death, and manner of burial were crucialfactors in determining vampire status in many parts of theworld. Anyone committing suicide was doomed, since manyreligions viewed this as an unforgivable sin. Murderers,robbers, and other criminals were also seen as vulnerable to

    vampiric resurrection. Many cultures took the manner oflaying a person to rest very seriously. If burial took place tooquickly, or without the proper rituals, this was a cause forconcern. In Romania, burying a person face up, or not deepenough, could result in them becoming a vampire.

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    Appearance

    Vampires of old were putrid beastsugly, decaying corpsescovered in dirt from the grave. But, refined by the imaginations ofnovelists and filmmakers, vampires grew increasingly human,

    until in the 20th century they emerged as a kind of superhumanunnaturally beautiful and fatally appealing.

    SLOBBERING GHOULS TO SINISTER BEAUTIES

    A NOVEL IDEA

    The fiction of the 19th centurypainted a different picture: suddenlyvampires got class. With sunkencheeks, flowing hair, long darkfingernails, and white fangs, theywere aristocratic gentlemen with skinlike marble and a hungry look. Withhis diabolical smile and piercing gaze,the vampire was still a figure of terror,but now he was taking his place in

    human society and using charm to snarehis victims.

    DEAD UGLYIn the folklore of Eastern Europe, which is thoughtto be t