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  • THE USE OF JATROPHA CURCAS TO ACHIEVE A SELF SUFFICIENT WATER

    DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM: A CASE STUDY IN RURAL SENEGAL

    By

    Alexandra Archer

    A THESIS

    Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

    MASTER OF SCIENCE

    In Environmental Engineering

    MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

    2015

    2015 Alexandra Archer

  • This thesis has been approved in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of

    MASTER OF SCIENCE in Environmental Engineering.

    Civil and Environmental Engineering

    Thesis Advisor: Dr. Brian D Barkdoll

    Committee Member: Dr. Kari B Henquinet

    Committee Member: Dr. Robert M Handler

    Department Chair: Dr. David W. Hand

  • Table of Contents

    List of Figures ......................................................................................................................v

    List of Tables ..................................................................................................................... ix

    Preface................................................................................................................................ xi

    Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................... xii

    Abstract ............................................................................................................................ xiii

    Chapter 1 - Introduction .......................................................................................................1

    Global water disparity ................................................................................................. 2

    Chapter 2 - Background .......................................................................................................5

    Senegal ............................................................................................................................ 5

    Government ................................................................................................................. 6

    Population ................................................................................................................... 6

    Economy and Climate ................................................................................................. 7

    Water Development in Senegal ...................................................................................... 7

    Biofuels Initiative in Senegal .......................................................................................... 8

    Jatropha curcas in Senegal ........................................................................................ 11

    Case Study: Keur Samba, Senegal ................................................................................ 15

    The Peanut Basin ...................................................................................................... 15

    Feasibility of using Jatropha curcas ............................................................................ 26

    Chapter 3 - Methodology ...................................................................................................30

    Hydraulic Model: Introduction to EPANET ............................................................. 30

    Pump Fuel Properties ................................................................................................ 48

    Jatropha curcas Planting Establishment .................................................................... 49

    Incorporating Irrigation into EPANET model .......................................................... 54

    SYSTEM SUSTAINABILITY ANALYSIS PROCEDURE ....................................... 56

    Chapter 4 - Results .............................................................................................................59

    Greywater Reuse ........................................................................................................... 62

    Mechanical Expeller ..................................................................................................... 65

    iii

  • Combining Greywater with a mechanical expeller ................................................... 67

    Calculating Minimum Required Yield ...................................................................... 69

    Seed Yield over Time ............................................................................................... 70

    Chapter 5 - Summary of Results ........................................................................................80

    Chapter 6 - Discussion .......................................................................................................82

    Social adoption discussion ........................................................................................ 83

    Chapter 7 - Conclusion ......................................................................................................85

    References ..........................................................................................................................87

    EPANET Nodal Inputs ...............................................................................92

    EPANET Irrigation and Water Supply Detailed Results ............................93

    Collection of published Jatropha curcas dry seed yields ...........................98

    Community Census Data with reference to nodes in EPANET ...............100

    Copyright permissions ...............................................................................101

    iv

  • List of Figures

    Figure1.1Young girl carrying water in Keur Samba while school (pictured in

    background) is in session (photo by author) ............................................................... 3

    Figure 2.1 Location of Senegal in Africa with inset image of country (Adapted from

    Google Maps) .............................................................................................................. 5

    Figure 2.2 Jatropha curcas nursery located near study site for improved seed production.

    Field managed by the authors Peace Corps work counterpart. (photo by author) . 10

    Figure 2.3 An average from 1990-2009 of the annual rainfall data for study site

    (TheWorldBankGroup 2015) .................................................................................... 12

    Figure 2.4 Study region with red rectangle encompassing Peanut Basin and yellow pin

    indicating study site, Keur Samba (Image source: Google Earth) ........................... 15

    Figure 2.5 Harvesting peanuts in Keur Samba (photo by author) .................................... 16

    Figure 2.6 Daily market in Keur Samba typically includes onions, hot peppers, soap

    made from peanuts, garlic, and various spice packets. (photo by author) ............... 17

    Figure 2.7 Typical small shop located in Keur Samba with items for sale such as sugar,

    tea, oil, macaroni, and batteries (photo by author) .................................................. 18

    Figure 2.8 Abandoned hand pump installed by World Vision in Keur Samba (photo by

    author) ....................................................................................................................... 19

    Figure 2.9 Women pulling water at the well in Keur Samba (top) and well with primary

    school in background (bottom), located in Keur Samba (photo by author) ............. 20

    Figure 2.10 Image of water collection pans in line at the central community faucet in

    Keur Samba (photo by author) ................................................................................. 21

    Figure 2.11 Water collected from central community faucet in Keur Samba (photo by

    author) ....................................................................................................................... 22

    Figure 2.12 Jatropha curcas being used as a live fence and a windbreak, Keur Samba

    (photo by author) ...................................................................................................... 24

    v

  • Figure 2.13 Photos of peanut processing in Keur Samba. In the photo on the left, peanuts

    are being dried in the sun, and the photo on the right shows women shelling peanuts

    (photo by author) ...................................................................................................... 26

    Figure 2.14 Farmer Yaaya B indicating his ripening Jatropha curcas seeds (photo by

    author) ....................................................................................................................... 29

    Figure 3.1 Layout of water distribution system spanning from central water tower in Keur

    Lamine to Keur Samba and Keur Aly Lobe, superimposed on aerial photo (Image

    source: Google Earth) .............................................................................................. 31

    Figure 3.2 EPANET screen capture of the demand pattern for the current system. The left

    axis is an average of the multiplier values. ............................................................... 38

    Figure 3.3 EPANET screen capture of the hourly demand pattern for simulating

    continuous supply ...................................................................................................... 39

    Figure 3.4 EPANET screen capture of the demand pattern for Mosque use .................... 39

    Figure 3.5 EPANET screen capture of the hourly demand for community garden

    irrigat