the terror of genocide genocide v. holocaust ?· 20th century racism and reform dreyfus affair...

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  • The Terror of Genocide genocide v. Holocaust Greek word genos (race) with the Latin word cide (killing)

    Mao Ze-Dong (China, 1958-61 and 1966-69, Tibet 1949-50)49-78,000,000

    Jozef Stalin (USSR, 1932-39)23,000,000 (the purges plus Ukraines famine)

    Adolf Hitler (Germany, 1939-1945)12,000,000 (concentration camps and civilians WWII)

    Leopold II of Belgium (Congo, 1886-1908) 8, 000,0000

    Hideki Tojo (Japan, 1941-44) 5,000,000 (civilians in WWII)

    Ismail Enver (Turkey, 1915-20)1,200,000 Armenians (1915) + 350,000 Greek Pontians and 480,000 Anatolian Greeks (1916-22) + 500,000 Assyrians (1915-20)

    Pol Pot (Cambodia, 1975-79)1,700,000

    Kim Il Sung (North Korea, 1948-94)1.6 million (purges and concentration camps)

    Menghistu (Ethiopia, 1975-78)1,500,000

    Yakubu Gowon (Biafra, 1967-1970)1,000,000

    Leonid Brezhnev (Afghanistan, 1979-1982)900,000

    Jean Kambanda (Rwanda, 1994)850,000

    Suharto (East Timor, West Papua, Communists, 1966-98)800,000

    Saddam Hussein (Iran 1980-1990 and Kurdistan 1987-88)600,000

    Tito (Yugoslavia, 1945-1987) 570,000

    Fumimaro Konoe (Japan, 1937-39) 500,000? (Chinese civilians)

    Jonas Savimbi (Angola, 1975-2002)400,000

    Mullah Omar - Taliban (Afghanistan, 1986-2001)400,000

    Idi Amin (Uganda, 1969-1979)300,000

  • Anti -SemitismThis is the term given to

    political, social and economic agitation against

    Jews. In simple terms it means Hatred of Jews.


  • Problems: Usury Laws

    1.) Conversion

    2.) Expulsion & Separation

    3.) Extermination

    For hundreds of years Christian Europe had regarded the Jews as the Christ -killers. At one time or another Jews had been driven out of almost every European country. The way they were treated in England in the thirteenth century is a typical example. In 1275 they were made to wear a yellow badge. In 1287 269 Jews were hanged in the Tower of London.

    Jews were



    A.) 100-500

    Under Rome a.) 100-500


    Christendom: 500-1500 Tactics for dealing with the Jews

  • 19th and 20th Century Anti-Semitism

    French Revolution promotes a change toward JewsIntegration versus Zionism Theodor Hertzl -2 Philosophies

    -Integration -Zionism

    World Zionist OrganizationJewish State in Palestine -Uganda/Balfour

    "If you will it, it is no dream"

    In 1542 Martin Luther

    In 1648-1649 invited to Poland

    19th Century : Liberalism

  • 20th CenturyRacism and Reform

    Dreyfus Affair Eugenics Pogroms: is a Russian word meaning

    to wreak havoc, to demolish violently. Often incited by authorities, though some happened spontaneously, often supported by the Tsarist Russian secret police. The pogroms of the 1880s caused a worldwide outcry and, along with harsh laws, propelled mass Jewish emigration. Two million Jews fled the Russian Empire between 1880 and 1914. (SEE MAP)


    This deep prejudice against Jews was still strong in the twentieth century, especially in Germany, Poland and Eastern Europe, where the Jewish population was very large.

    Germany: After the First World War: Stab in the back

    Protocols of the Elders of Zion

  • Anti Semitism in Russia Czar Cathrine II (The Great)

    established the Pale of Settlement in 1791 as a territory for Russian Jews to live. Created under pressure to rid Moscow of Jewish business competition and "evil" influence on the Russian masses, the Pale of Settlement included the territory of present-day Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine and Belorussia. More than 90% of Russian Jews were forced to live in the poor conditions of the Pale, which made up only 4% of imperial Russia. Still, the Jewish population in Russia grew from 1.6 million in 1820 to 5.6 million in 1910. Even within the Pale, Jews were discriminated against; they paid double taxes, were forbidden to lease land, run taverns or receive higher education.


  • Stage one: Hitlers Steps After coming to Power


    Education and PropagandaBook Burning:

    Children would be brought to the front of the class to see if they could be classified as Jews or not. If they were, then they would be humiliated

    A.) Racial Classification

    1.) Aryans = bermenschlich

    2.) Franks

    3.) Slavs

    4.) Other Races = (Untermensch) He is only a rough copy of a human being, with human-like facial traits but nonetheless morally and mentally lower than any animal.

    But where is the evidence?

  • Hitlers Philosophy Jews were Untermenschen, or "sub-humans."Aryan RaceThe perfect race. These were people with full German blood, blonde hair and blue eyes.

    Where is the proof?Protocols of the Elders of Zion

  • In 1935, the Nazi Party passed what was called the Nuremberg Laws

    Read Packet and discuss.

    These laws were designed to To stop Jews and Germans from marrying. To stop Jews and Germans from having sexual relationsTo make sure that German blood was not tainted by mixing with other races

    Pictures produced warning people about what could happen. People worth degraded.

    Stage Two:

  • Stage Two: Hitlers Steps After He is Established

    Nuremberg Laws 1935:

    1936 Events quiet down due to world stage on Germany but there is still an unintentional focus on race

    Present Germany as an open-minded and peaceful nation -- but he also wanted to prove that the "Aryan race" was superior to all other "races" in all aspects of life, including sports.

  • Stage Three: Hitlers Steps After He is Established

    1938-1939: Kristallnacht - 1938, November 1938

    Herschel Grynszpan -100killed, 30,000 arrested

    Kristallnacht: A major marker on the road to the holocaust against the Jews was the Kristallnacht ("Night of Broken Glass") on November 9-10, 1938, when Hitler's thugs targeted Jewish citizens and property for largescale violence and destruction. According to Yehuda Bauer, the Kristallnacht was accompanied by a gender-selective mass roundup: the Nazis "arrested and sent to concentration camps some 30,000 Jewish men at least."

    As of 1938 the decision was to get rid of the Jews. Until 1942, however, there was as of yet no decision on when or how.

    As a campaign of full-blown mass execution, the gendercide against Jewish males (1933-1941) marked an important, if temporary, "onset phase" of the holocaust in Germanyand the occupied eastern territories (including, after August 1941, the Balkans).

  • From 1939 onwards, Jews were rounded up. They were forced to move out of their homes. To start off with they were sent to areas in cities designed only for them. These were ghettos.

    Jewish people had:

    Their property confiscated

    They were forced to move to new areas

    Feb 1938: Could be fired just for being Jewish

    Aug 1938: Add Sara or Israel to name.

    Dec 1938 Jewish shops closed

  • Sterilization and Euthansia Action T4: Euthanasia Program, in Nazi Germany spanning October 1939

    until August 1941, during which physicians killed 70,273 people

    Mentally IllTerminalDisabled

    Hitler:Hard in peacefine during war

  • 1941-1942Changes in Jewish Policy June 22, Invasion of the Soviet Union: Eisengruppen:

    Report stating efficiency of Gas vans; "97,000 have been processed in the three vehicles in operation without any malfunctions in the

    vehicles." ext September All Jews forced to wear the Star of David October 23 Jewish emigration from Germany prohibited December 7 Night and Fog Decree The Fhrer is of the

    opinion that in such cases penal servitude or even a hard labor sentence for life will be regarded as a sign of weakness. An effective and lasting deterrent can be achieved only by the death penalty.

    15Sept 1941

  • Jewish women, some holding infants, are forced to wait in a line before their execution by Germans and Ukrainian collaborators.

  • Stage Four: The Final Solution1942: Wannsee Conference

    On January 20, 1942, Fourteen high-ranking Nazi party and German government leaders gathered for an important meeting. They met in a wealthy section of Berlin at a villa by a lake known as Wannsee. Reinhard Heydrich, who was SS chief Heinrich Himmler's head deputy, held the meeting for the purpose of discussing the "final solution to the Jewish question in Europe" with key non-SS government leaders, including the secretaries of the Foreign Ministry and Justice, whose cooperation was needed.

    The "final solution" was the Nazis' code name for the deliberate, carefully planned destruction, or genocide, of all European Jews.

  • Location of Jews in 1939 and Concentration Camps

    1942: Wannsee Conference

  • Part of a stockpile of Zyklon-B poison gas pellets found at Majdanek death camp.

    Before poison gas was used , Jews were gassed in mobile gas vans. Carbon monoxide gas from the engines exhaust was fed into the sealed rear compartment. Victims were dead by the time they reached the burial site.

  • Between 1939 and 1945 six million Jews were murdered, along with hundreds of thousands of others, such as Gypsies, Jehovahs Witnesses, homosexuals, disabled, and the mentally ill.

  • Death Camps: Auschwitz


  • Soviet POWs at forced labor in 1943 exhuming bodies in the ravine at Babi Yar, where the Nazis had murdered over 33,000 Jews in September of 1941.

    In 1943, when the number of murdered Jews exceeded 1 million. Nazis ordered the bodies of those bu