The Sun-Earth-Moon System Notes PowerPoint

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<ul><li><p>The Sun-Earth-Moon SystemNotes Sheet</p></li><li><p>Section One- EarthA.Properties of Earth- people used to think that Earth was flat and at the center of the universe1.Earth is now known to be a round, three-dimensional spherea. Axis- imaginary vertical line around which Earth spinsb. Rotation- the spinning of Earth around its axis that causes day and night2.Earth has a magnetic field with north and south poles3.Magnetic axis- imaginary line joining Earths magnetic polesa. Earths magnetic axis does not align with its rotational axisb. The location of the magnetic poles slowly changes over time</p></li><li><p>Section One- EarthB.Causes of seasons</p><p>1.Revolution- Earths yearly orbit around the Suna. Earths orbit is an ellipse, or elongated closed curve.b. Because the Sun is not centered in the ellipse, the distance between Earth and the Sun changes during the year2.Earths tilt causes seasonsa. The hemisphere tilted towards the Sun receives more daylight hours that the hemisphere tilted away from the Sunb. The longer the period of sunlight is one reason summer is warmer than winter</p></li><li><p>Section One- Earth3.Earths tilt causes the Suns radiation to strike the hemispheres at different anglesa. The hemisphere tilted toward the Sun receives more total solar radiation the hemisphere tilted away from the Sunb. In the hemisphere tilted toward the Sun, the Sun appears high in the sky and the radiation strikes Earth more directlyC.Solstice- the day when the Sun reached its greatest distance north or south of the equator</p><p>1.Summers solstice occurs June 21 or 22 in the northern hemisphere2.Winter solstice occurs December 21 or 22 in the northern hemisphere</p></li><li><p>Section One- EarthD. Equinox- the day when the Sun is directly over Earths equator</p><p>1.Daylight and nighttime hours are equal all over the world2.Vernal (Spring) equinox occurs on March 20 or 21 in the northern hemisphere3.Autumnal (Fall) equinox occurs on March 22 or 23 in the northern hemisphere</p></li><li><p>Section Two- The Moon- Earth's SatellitesA.Motions of the Moon</p><p>1.The Moon rotates on its axis2.The Moons rotation takes 27.3 days with the same side always facing the Earth3.The Moon seems to shine because it reflects sunlight</p></li><li><p>Section Two- The Moon- Earth's SatellitesB.Moon Phases- the different forms the Moon takes in its appearance from Earth</p><p>1.New Moon- when the Moon is between Earth and the Sun and cannot be seen2.Waxing Phases- more of the illuminated half of the Moon that can be seen each night after the new moona. First visible thin slice of the moon is a waxing crescentb. First quarter phase- half the lighted side of the Moon is visiblec. Waxing gibbus- more than one quarter is visibled. All of the Moons lighted side is visible during a full moon</p></li><li><p>Section Two- The Moon- Earth's Satellites3.Waning Phases- less of the illuminated half of the Moon is visible after the full moona. Waning gibbus- starts after a full moon when more than half of the lighted side is still visibleb. Only half of the Moons lighted side is visible during the third quarter phasec. The last visible slice before a new moon is called the waning crescent4.The Moon completes its cycle of phases in about 29.5 days instead of 27.3 days because it is keeping up with the Earths revolution around the Sun</p></li><li><p>Section Two- The Moon- Earth's SatellitesC.Eclipse- when Earth or the Moon casts a shadow on the other</p><p>1.Solar Eclipse- the Moon moved directly between Earth and the Sun, shadowing part of Eartha. Under the umbra, or darkest part of the shadow, a total solar eclipse occursb. A partial solar eclipse happens in the lighter shadow on Earths surface called the penumbrac. A total solar eclipse is visible only on a small area of Earth</p></li><li><p>Section Two- The Moon- Earth's Satellites2.Lunar Eclipse- when Earths shadow falls on the Moona. If the Moon is completely in Earths umbra, a total lunar eclipse occursb. Partial lunar eclipse- when only part of the Moon moved into Earths umbra, or the moon is totally in the penumbrac. A total lunar eclipse is visible on the night time side of Earth when the night is clear</p></li><li><p>Section Two- The Moon- Earth's SatellitesD.The Moons surface has many depressions, or craters, formed from meteorites, asteroids, and comets.</p><p>1.Cracks in the Moons crust caused lava to fill large craters, forming maria, or dark, flat areas2.Igneous maria rocks are 3 to 4 billion years old, indicating craters formed after the surface cooledE.Data from moon quakes suggest that under the Moons crust might lie a solid mantle, then a partly molten mantle and solid core.F.Impact Theory of the Moon Origin- the Moon formed billions of years ago from Earth material thrown off when a large object collided with Earth</p></li><li><p>Section Three- Exploring Earth's MoonA.Missions to the Moon</p><p>1. Early explorationa. The first Luna spacecraft, launched by the Soviet Union in 1958,enabled close study of the Moonb. The Ranger spacecraft and the Lunar Orbiters of the U.S. took detailed photographs of the Moon in the 1960sc. The seven Surveyor U.S. spacecrafts landed on the Moond. Astronauts of Apollo 11 landed on the Moon in 1969</p></li><li><p>Section Three- Exploring Earth's Moon2.The Clementine spacecraft was placed in lunar orbit in 1994 to survey the moons surfacea. Collected data on the mineral content of Moon rocksb. Mapped features on the Moons surfacec. Impact Basins, or craters, are depressions left by objects striking the Moond. Identified South Pole-Aitken Basin as possible location for a moon colony</p></li><li><p>Section Three- Exploring Earth's MoonB.Mapping the Moon</p><p>1.Data from Clementine yielded a map of the Moon showing its compositiona. Moons crust is thinnest under its impact basinsb. The crust on the side of the Moon facing the Earth is thinner than on the far side2.The Lunar Prospector was launched in 1998 to look for clues about the Moons origin and makeupa.Showed hydrogen might exist in ice in crates at the Moons polesb.Small, iron-rich core of the Moon supports the impact theory of the Moons origin</p></li></ul>