The Subsistence Harvest of Harbor Seal and Sea Lion by ... Subsistence Harvest of Harbor Seal and Sea Lion ... harbor seals, the 1994 take of sea ... Moses Dirks of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service helped review sections on

Download The Subsistence Harvest of Harbor Seal and Sea Lion by ...  Subsistence Harvest of Harbor Seal and Sea Lion ... harbor seals, the 1994 take of sea ... Moses Dirks of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service helped review sections on

Post on 20-Apr-2018

221 views

Category:

Documents

6 download

TRANSCRIPT

The Subsistence Harvest ofHarbor Seal and Sea Lionby Alaska Natives in 1994Technical Paper No. 236Principal Investigator Project CoordinatorRobert J. Wolfe Craig MishlerData Analysis Charles J. Utermohle, Sarah Carpenter, Cheryl L.Scott Southeast Region Research Robert F. Schroeder, MarthaF. Betts, Yvonne K. Howard, Matthew A. Kookesh, Amy W. Paige,Thomas F. Thornton Southcentral Region Research James A.Fall, Jeffrey Bamhart, Susan McNeil, Rita Miraglia, Brad Palach,Jody Seitz, Ronald T. Stanek, vi&i Vanek Southwest RegionResearch Molly Chythlook, Philippa A. Coiley, Lisa B. Hutchinson-ScarbroughDraft Final Report for Year ThreeSubsistence Study and Monitor System (No. 50ABNF200055)Prepared for the National Marine Fisheries ServiceAlaska Department of Fish and GameDivision of SubsistenceJuneau, AlaskaJuly 1995Cover. Seal grease dish in the shape of a harbor seal, Sitka (Tlingit). Dishes like these held seal oil foruse at meals in southeast Alaska. The bowl, made of alder, stained black, with abalone eyes and operculainsets, was carved by Rudolph Walton. Early to mid-20th century. Photo courtesy Sheldon JacksonMuseum, Sitka: an Alaska State Museum.The Alaska Department of Fish and Game conducts all programs and activities free from discriminationon the basis of sex, color, race, religion, national origin, age, marital status, pregnancy, parenthood, ordisability. For information on alternative formats available for this and other department publications,please contact the department ADA Coordinator at (voice) 9074654120, (TDD) 1-800478-3648 or (FAX)9075866595. Any person who believes s/he has been discriminated against should write to: ADFBG,P.O. Box 25526, Juneau, Alaska 99802-5526; or O.E.O., U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington,D.C. 20240.ABSTRACTThis report describes the subsistence takes of harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) andSteller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) by Alaska Natives in 1994, including quantity,seasons, geographic distribution, and age and sex of the harvest. information issummarized at the state, region, and community levels, and is compared with takes in1992 and 1993. The research was conducted by the Division of Subsistence, AlaskaDepartment of Fish and Game under contract with the National Oceanic andAtmospheric Administration and the National Marine Fisheries Service. Informationderives from systematic interviews with hunters and users of marine mammals in 2,032households in 59 coastal communities within the geographic ranges of the two species.Local researchers conducted most of the household interviews as part of a local andregional research network. The project received generous support from leaders of anumber of Native governments, regional, and statewide associations.During 1994, the estimated subsistence take of harbor seal by Alaska Nativeswas 2,621 seals, with a 95 percent confidence range of between 2,110 to 3,457 seals.Of the take, 11.8 percent (308 seals) were stuck and lost and 88.2 percent (2,313seals) were harvested. Harbor seals were taken in 54 of 59 surveyed communities.The 1994 take of harbor seals (2,621 seals) was the lowest take estimate to date of thethree survey years - 2,736 seals (1993) and 2,888 seals (1992).During 1994, the estimated subsistence take of sea lions by Alaska Natives was416 sea lions, with a 95 percent confidence range of between 330 to 554 sea lions. Ofthe take, 19.2 percent (80 sea lions) were struck and lost and 80.8 percent (336 sealions) were harvested. Sea lions were taken in 20 of 59 surveyed communities. Likeharbor seals, the 1994 take of sea lions (416 animals) was the lowest recorded of thethree survey years - 487 sea lions (1993) and 549 sea lions (1992).The age and sex structure of harvested animals in 1994 resembled thosereported in previous years. For harbor seals, hunters reported taking males overfemales by about two to one, and adults (82 percent) over juveniles (16 percent) orpups (3 percent). For sea lions, hunters reported taking males over females by aboutfour to one, and juveniles (68 percent) over adults (31 percent) or pups (1 percent).Struck and lost rates were the lowest reported to date for both species. In addition todetailed quantitative harvest breakdowns by community, the report describescontemporary Aleut hunting patterns for sea lions in the Aleutian and Pribilof islands.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThis project would not have been possible without tremendous local support in every communitywhere we conducted the survey. We wish to thank each tribal council, city council, and all of theregional Native organizations who facilitated our work. Cart M. Hild and Carl Jack of RurAL CAPassisted us in this effort and merit special mention, along with members of the IndigenousPeoples Council for Marine Mammals who reviewed the survey instruments and preliminarysurvey findings. Moses Dirks of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service helped review sections onAleut sea lion hunting. We want to thank David Connany of NMFS and Mike Williams of St.George for lodging on the Pribilof Islands. Peter Corey, curator of the Sheldon Jackson Museumin Sitka, provided the photograph of the seal grease bowl for the cover illustration. Heartfeltthanks are owed to the many elders and local marine mammal experts who allowed us tointerview them at length about their lifelong use and observations of sea lions and harbor seals.In addition, we are deeply indebted to the many hundreds of hunters who volunteered to reporttheir subsistence harvests to our staff and to locally hired research assistants.The sixty-six local researchers who conducted household interviews deserve to be recognizedindividually for their high level of interest and work. We look forward to working with many againin the near future as the project moves into its fourth year:Mitchell Simeonoff, AkhiokDarryl Pelkey, AkutanBen Darling, AkutanFrank Chythlook, AleknagikAlice Greene, Anchorage, NanwalekHarriet Silva, AngoonRay Golodoff, AtkaMoses Dirks, Atka (USF&WS)Diane Selanoff, Chenega BayPolly Aleck, Chignik BayRhonda Gregorio, Chignik LagoonMitchell Lind, Chignik LakeHenry Wasilly, Clarks PointFred Hamilton, CraigSally Krause, DillinghamRoy White, EgegikGilda Shellikoff, False PassJessie Grant, HainesPhyllis Snively, HoonahMona Roberts, HoonahFrank Alby, HydaburgKaren Kalmakoff, lvanof BayCarrie Cruise, JuneauStuart DCafango, JuneauLoretta Gregory, KakeLoren Jackson, KakeAlicia Lynn Reft, KarlukGerald Hope, KetchikanSimeon Kuzakin, King CoveFloyd Wilson, Ktng SalmonMarvin George, KlawockDonald Hatch Sr., KlukwanSheila Theriault, Larsen BayAlex Tallekpalek, LevelockHomer Baitman, ManokotakFloyd Wilson, NaknekAgrafina Kerr, NikolskiGeorge Inga Sr., Old HarborHerman Squartsoff, OuzinkieJames E. Phillips, PelicanSteve Phillips, PerryvilleCarol Shangin, PerryvilleNancy Benson, PetersburgMike Lopez, PetersburgNikki Shanigan, Pilot PointMary Malchoff, Port GrahamRobert Christensen, Port HeidenGerda Christensen, Port HeidenPete Squartsoff, Port LionsGrace Merculief, Saint GeorgeAgafangel Lekanof, Saint GeorgeAnthony Melovidov, Saint PaulVladimir Melovidov, Saint PaulPat Pletnikoff, Saint PaulChristine Mack, Sand PointNorman Natkong, SaxmanLillian Elvsaas, Seldovia and HomerVincent Komok! SewardVicki Bartles, SitkaFred T. Angasan. South NaknekNena Fuller! South NaknekAntone Togiak, TogiakLany Dirks Jr., UnalaskaBrenda Tellman, UnalaskaSandra Churchill, WrangellRaymond Sensmeier, YakutatTABLE OF CONTENTSSECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . .._........................................-................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PAGINATIONINTRODUCTION............................................................................................................. 1METHODOLOGY ........................................................................................................... 2Contacts with Native Governments,Other Associations, and Marine Mammal Hunters.. .................................................. 6Local and Regional Researcher Network .................................................................... 9Household Sampling and Statistical Analysis ............................................................ 13THE SUBSISTENCE TAKE OF HARBOR SEAL IN 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15Estimated Size of the Harbor Seal Take, 1994 .......................................................... 15Geographic Distribution of Harbor Seal Takes ...........................................................20Seasonal Distribution of Harbor Seal Takes .............................................................. 22Age and Sex Distribution of Harbor Seal Harvests .................................................... 22THE SUBSISTENCE TAKE OF SEA LION IN 1994 .................................................... 27Estimated Size of the Sea Lion Take, 1994............................................................... 27Geographic Distribution of Sea Lion Takes ...............................................................Seasonal Distribution of Sea Lion Takes.. .................................................................. z;Age and Sex Distribution of Sea Lion Harvests .......................................................... 29HUNTING PARTICIPATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29SEA LION HUNTING METHODS IN THE ALEUTIAN AND PRIBILOF ISLANDS......... 37Sea Lion Hunting at St. Paul ...................................................................................... 37Sea Lion Hunting at St. George .................................................................................. 43Sea Lion Hunting at Atka ............................................................................................Sea Lion Hunting at Unalaska, Akutan, and Nikolski.. ................................................ t:DISCUSSION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69APPENDICESAppendix A. Survey Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A-l - A-4Appendix B. Subsistence Takes of Harbor Sealand Sea Lion by Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B-l - B-18Appendix C. Subsistence Takes of Harbor Sealand Sea Lion by Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-l - C-118. . .111LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURESTABLE OR FIGURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..~........................................PAGINATIONTable 1. Organizations Contacted During the Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Table 2. Sampling Methodology by Community, Harbor Seal and Sea LionSurveys, 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Table 3. Sampling Methodology for Communities with Two Strata Designs,Harbor Seal and Sea Lion Surveys, 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Table 4. Estimated Subsistence Takes of Harbor Seal and Sea Lionby Alaska Natives, 1992 - 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16Table 5. Regional Distribution of Subsistence Takes of Harbor Sealby Alaska Natives, 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17Table 6. Subsistence Harbor Seal Harvest, Take, and Useby Alaska Natives, 1994, With Confidence Intervals and Statistical Ranges,by Community. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18Table 7. Age and Sex Distribution of Harbor Seal Harvestsby Alaska Natives, 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24Table 8. Age and Sex Distribution of Harbor Seal Harvestsby Alaska Natives by Region, 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25Table 9. Regional Distribution of Subsistence Takes of Sea Lionby Alaska Natives, 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28Table 10. Subsistence Sea Lion Harvest, Take, and Useby Alaska Natives, 1994, With Confidence Intervals and Statistical Ranges,by Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30Table 11. Age and Sex Distribution of Sea Lion Harvestsby Alaska Natives, 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32Table 12. Age and Sex Distribution of Sea Lion Harvestsby Alaska Natives by Region, 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33Table 13. Participation Rates of Alaska Native Householdsin Hunting Harbor Seal or Sea Lion, 1992, 1993, and 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35Table 14. Comparison of Households Interviewed in1992, 1993, and 1994 (Unweighted Numbers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38Table 15. Harbor Seal and Steller Sea Lion Anatomy,Alutiiq and Western Aleut Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47Table 16. Subsistence Takes of Harbor Seal and Sea Lionby Alaska Natives by Region, 1992,1993, and 1994 .,........................,....................... 56ivLIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES (CONTINUED)TABLE OR FIGURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PAGINATIONTable 17. Subsistence Harbor Seal Takes by Alaska Nativesby Community, 1992,1993, and 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62Table 18. Subsistence Sea Lion Takes by Alaska Nativesby Community, 1992, 1993, and 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64Fig. 1. Map of Survey Area and Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Fig. 2. General Distribution of Sea Lion in Alaska . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Fig. 3. General Distribution of Harbor Seal and Spotted Seal in Alaska . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Fig. 4. Map of Subsistence Takes of Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina)by Alaska Natives by Community in 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21Fig. 5. Seasonally Adjusted Takes of Harbor Seal and Sea Lion byAlaska Natives, 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23Fig. 6. Map of Subsistence Takes of Sea Lion (Eumetopiasjubatus)by Alaska Natives by community in 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26Fig. 7. Specialization in Harbor Seal Takes: Percentage ofHunters by Percentage of Take, 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36Fig. 8. Specialization in Sea Lion Takes: Percentage ofHunters by Percentage of Take, 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36Fig. 9. Estimated Subsistence Takes of Harbor Seal byAlaska Natives, 1992 - 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50Fig. 10. Estimated Subsistence Takes of Sea Lion byAlaska Natives, 1992 - 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50Fig. 11. Estimated Seasonally Adjusted Takes of Harbor SealBy Alaska Natives, 1992, 1993, and 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52Fig. 12. Estimated Seasonally Adjusted Takes of Sea LionBy Alaska Natives, 1992, 1993, and 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52Fig. 13. Sex Ratios (Males:Females) of Harbor Seal and Sea LionHarvests Reported by Alaska Native Hunters, 1992 - 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54Fig. 14. Age Structure (Pups, Juveniles, Adults) of Harbor Seal and Sea LionHarvests Reported by Alaska Native Hunters, 1992 - 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54Fig. 15. Harbor Seal Takes for Selected Regions, 1992 - 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57VLIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES (CONTINUED)TABLE OR FIGURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PAGINATIONFig. 16. Sea Lion Takes for Selected Regions, 1992 - 1994 ........................................ 57Fig. 17. Change in Harbor Seal Harvests, North Pacific Rim Communities.. ............... 58Fig. 18. Change in Sea Lion Harvests, North Pacific Rim Communities...................... 59Fig. 19. Change in Harbor Seal Harvests, Kodiak Island Communities ........................60Fig. 20. Change in Sea Lion Harvests, Kodiak Island Communities.............................61viINTRODUCTIONThis report describes the subsistence takes of harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) andSteller sea lion (Eumefopias jubatus) by Alaska Natives in 1994. It is the third report ofa four-year study of the subsistence uses of harbor seal and sea lion in Alaska.Findings for the first two study years were reported in Wolfe and Mishler (1993, 1994).The research was conducted by the Division of Subsistence of the Alaska Departmentof Fish and Game under contract with the National Oceanic and AtmosphericAdministration and the National Marine Fisheries Service. The study was conducted incooperation with the Indigenous Peoples Council for Marine Mammals and the RuralAlaska Community Action Program, organizations representing Alaska Native marinemammal hunters.The report provides information on the subsistence takes of harbor seal and sealion during 1994, including size, seasons, geographic distributions, and age and sex ofharvested animals. Information on subsistence uses derives from systematic interviewswith marine mammal hunters in 59 communities (Fig. 1, Table 2). Information wascollected principally by local researchers trained in each community, working within anetwork of local and regional researchers organized by the Division of Subsistence.The geographic area covered by this report was defined as the Alaska coastalwaters south of Cape Newenham, including the Pribilof Islands, which corresponds withthe general distributions of harbor seal and sea lion in Alaska (Figs. 2 and 3, fromBums, Frost, and Lowry 1985). The use of harbor seal and sea lion by Alaska Nativesfor food and raw materials has a long tradition in this part of Alaska, since beforehistoric contact through to the present. The Alaska Native groups using harbor sealinclude the Aleut of the Aleutian Islands, the Alutiiq and Eyak of the Pacific Gulf coast,the Denaina of Cook Inlet, the Tlingit, Haida, and Tsimshian of the southeastarchipelago, and the Yupik of southwest Alaska. The Aleut of the Aleutian and Pribilofislands and the Alutiiq of certain communities of Kodiak Island and the Gulf of Alaskacurrently are the primary users of sea lion. Sea lion are used more occasionally byTlingit, Haida, Tsimshian, and Yupik groups. Subsistence products derived fromharbor seal and sea lion by Alaska Natives include oil, meat, and skins, as described inWolfe and Mishler (1993).The report is organized in several sections. The Methodology section describesthe methods used to collect information. Two sections (The Subsistence Take ofHarbor Seal in 1994 and The Subsistence Take of Sea Lion in 1994) presentinformation on the statewide takes of harbor seal and sea lion, summarized bycommunity and region. Contemporary sea lion hunting patterns by the Aleut aredescribed in the section, Sea Lion Huntina Methods in the Aleutian and Pribilof Islands.In the Discussion section are interpretations of the 1994 survey year, includingcomparisons with other years. Aooendix A contains a copy of the survey instrumentused in household interviews with marine mammal hunters. Aooendix B containsregional summaries of the subsistence takes of harbor seal and seal lion. Aooendix Ccontains materials on the subsistence takes of harbor seal and sea lion by community.METHODOLOGYlnfonnation on the subsistence takes of harbor seal and sea lion in 1994 wascollected through interviews with persons in 2,032 Alaska Native households in 59coastal communities (Table 2). Respondents were asked to recall information abouttheir households use of these marine mammals during the previous year. The surveyinstrument administered in household interviews was similar to one used in 1992 and1993, first developed in consultation with the Rural Alaska Community Action Program(RurAL CAP) and the Indigenous Peoples Council for Marine Mammals (IPCOMM) (see26%TH PACIFICOCEAN IEumetopias jubatusAbundaniu low numbers / seasonaloccurrenceFig. 2. General distribution of sea lion in Alaska. (Source: Burns, Frost, and Lowry1985)Disrribulion olPhoca lawha--Normal rangau Occesional occurranceFig. 3. [Top1 General distribution of harbor seal (Phoca vitulh) in Alaska. IBottomGeneral distribution of spotted seal (Phoca largha) in Alaska. (Source: Burns, Frost,and Lowry 1985)5Appendix A). Hunters and household heads were asked to recall the number of sealions and harbor seals taken by household members during each month over the pastyear. The survey contained questions that pertained to harvest numbers, struck andlost animals, age of animals, and sex of animals. The survey also asked whether thehousehold used, harvested, received, or gave away sea lion or harbor seal during thelast year. Interviews were conducted by local researchers hired and trained as part ofthe project, augmented by regional Division of Subsistence researchers in selectcommunities. Surveys were conducted in two rounds. The first survey wasadministered in May 1994 to cover the period from January through April 1994. Thesecond survey was administered in January 1995 to cover the period from May throughDecember 1994. The following section describes aspects of the study design.Contacts with Native Governments, Other Associations. and Marine Mammal HuntersDuring the first year of the study, a number of Native governments, Nativeleaders, and associations with interests in harbor seal and sea lion management werecontacted to obtain support for the project. At onset, several statewide or regionalorganizations were contacted during project development - the Alaska Federation ofNatives; the Aleutians East Borough; Aleutian-Pribilof Islands Association; Bristol BayNative Association; Central Council of Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska; CookInlet Region, Inc.; IPCOMM (meeting through RurAL CAP); Kodiak Area NativeAssociation; and the North Pacific Rim (Chugachmiut). A variety of helpful suggestionswere received from the statewide and regional organizations concerning procedures,contact persons in communities, and scheduling of the project.The survey instrument and key respondent question list were reviewed bymembers of RurAL CAP and IPCOMM. Results from the first and second surveyrounds were presented to IPCOMM. The Council passed a motion supporting the6project, including a proposal for the collection of tissue samples for scientific analysisfrom subsistence takes by Native hunters, should funding become available.A standard procedure of Division of Subsistence research in communities withAlaska Native governments is to solicit approval of subsistence projects by local Nativegovernments, or by leaders of local government entities (see Fall 1990). A project willnot be conducted in a community if the project is not supported by local Nativegovernments or their leaders. During the first project year, contacts were made withrepresentatives of all the entities listed in Table 1. The project received support in thecommunities listed in Table 2. During the third project year, results from the previousstudy year were mailed to community leaders in all communities. Community leaderswere consulted by phone about the continuation of the study in year three, and aboutthe recruitment and hiring of local researchers. Feedback on the project the first twoyears was generally good, so the project was continued in 59 communities. Many localgovernments were extremely helpful during the course of the project, especially byidentifying Native households, potential local researchers, and marine mammal expertsin the community to contact. The support of local governments is gratefullyacknowledged in the footnotes of the tables and figures in Appendix C.Ultimately, the decision to participate in the project resided with each marinemammal hunter. Permission to administer the household harvest survey was asked ofeach individual respondent. This was done face-to-face at the persons home or duringan initial phone contact. At this time, the purpose of the project was described. Marinemammal hunters and other respondents were informed that participation in interviewswas completely voluntary. Respondents were told that their identities would be keptconfidential in reports presenting the information. If a person declined to participate inthe study, the person was thanked for his or her time and a survey was not conducted.Persons who were interviewed as part of the harvest survey were not paid. Most marinemammal hunters generously offered their assistance to the study.7TABLE 1.ORGANIZATIONS CONTACTED DURING THE PROJECTP Communitv I c+ov8mmont/Organiution IAkutanAkhiok Tribal CouncilCity of AkhiokAkutan Traditional Village CouncilCity of AkutanAkutan CorporationAleknagik Aleknagik Tribal CouncilAnchorage Cook Inlet Tribal CouncilAlaska Fademtion of NativesAngoon city of AngoonAtka Atka IRA Councilcity of AtkaChenega Bay Chaneqa Bay IRA CouncilChignik Bay Chignik Bay Tmditional Village CouncilChrgnik Chignik Lagoon Traditional VillageChignik Lake Tmditional Village COUnCilClarks Point Traditional CouncilTraditianal Villam of EvskHainesHnnnrhChilkat Indian Associationi Haanah Traditional Council0 Hvdaburo 1 Haida Corporation IIliamnalvanof BayJuneauCity of HydaburgIliamna Village Councillvanof Bay Traditional Village CouncilTlingit and Harda Central CouncilI s8G80k8Auke Tribe Council IAlaska Native Brotherhood/Sisterhood111LevelockCity of Lemon Bay1 Levelock Traditional CouncilCommunity GovemmonW0rganiz8tionContactedManokotak Manokotak Tmditional CouncrlMetlakatla Council Annatte Islands ReserveMet~kaUa Indian CommunityNaknak Naknek Tmdltional CouncilNanwalak Nanwalek Tmditional CouncrlEnglish Bay CorporationNolson Nolson Lagoon Village CouncilLagoonNawhalan Nawhalen Tmdltional CouncilNikokski Nikolski IRA CouncilChaluka CoroomtionOld Harbor Old Harbor Tribal CouncilCity of Old HarborOuzrnkie Ouzinkie Native CorporationOuzlnkio Tribal CouncilCity of OuzlnklePaliwn Tlingit and Haida Indians of PeltcanCommunity CouncilCity of PoliwnPenyvillo Parryvilla Tmditional Village CouncilPetersburg Patamburg Indian AssociationPilot Point Pilot Point Tmdltional CouncilPort Gmham Port Gmham Villago CouncilPort Graham CorporationPort Heidan Port Haidan Tmditional CouncilPort Lions Port Lions Tribal CouncilCity of Port LionsSaint Gaorga Saint George Tmditional IRA CouncilSaint George Tanaq CorpomtionClty of Saint GeorgeSaint Paul Tribal Government of Saint PaulClty of Saint PaulSand Point Unga Tribal CouncilQagan Tayagugin Tribe of Sand PointCity of Sand PointSaxman Saxman IRA CouncilCity of SaxmanSeldovia Sddowa Natii AssociationSeward Qutekcak Netii TribeSitka Alaska Natl BrotherhoodSltka Tribal CouncilSouth Naknek South Naknek Traditional CouncilTatiilak Tatitlak IRA CouncilTogiak Togiak Traditional CouncilTyonek Natii Villaga of TyonekUnalaska Cuawalangin Tribal CouncilValdu Valdaz Natlva AssociationWrangell Wmngall Coopamtiie AssociationYakutat Yakutat Alaska NativeBromefhoodUuarka Natll SistarhoodYakutat Natii AssociationYak-Tat Kwaan8Local and Reaional Researcher NetworkA research network using local researchers and regional Division of Subsistenceresearchers was used to collect information on subsistence takes of sea lion andharbor seal during 1994. This type of research organization was developed by theDivision of Subsistence during the first study year, and fully implemented the secondstudy year. In each of the 59 communities selected for surveys, one or two localresidents were selected, depending upon the size of the community, to perform theroles of a local researcher. The network of local researchers, under the supervision ofand in collaboration with Division researchers in each region, conducted the householdsurvey component of the project.Newly hired local researchers received in-person training from regionalresearchers, whereas local researchers who successfully conducted surveys onprevious rounds usually worked with regional researchers through telephone, fax, andthe mail. Local researchers received instruction concerning the studys scientific andresource management contexts, project methodology, survey techniques, and findingsfrom previous research periods. A process for updating each communitys Nativehousehold lists and for selecting household samples was developed collaboratively bythe regional and local researchers. Problems and issues identified during previoussurvey rounds were discussed and resolved during sessions.Research tasks were appropriately divided between regional researchers andlocal researchers. Regional researchers performed tasks such as obtaining formalsupport for the project from Native organizations, recruiting and selecting local hires,developing household sampling regimes, training and supervising local researchers,proofing survey data, consulting local researchers to resolve data questions inpreparation for data entry and analysis, writing reports on each communitys surveyexperience, and entering fieldnotes into a centralized database. Local researchersperformed tasks such as updating community lists of households and hunters,9TABLE 2SAMPLING METHODOLOGY BY COMMUNITY,HARBOR SEAL AND SEA LION SURVEYS, 1994Region andCommunity1. SOUTHEASTAngoonCraigHainesHoonahHydaburgJuneauKakeKetchikanKlawockKlukwanPelicanPetersburgSaxmanSitkaWrangellYakutatRegion Total1990NativePooulation5252882795343423,4625141,614392112653342841,79750729411,3432. NORTH PACIFIC RIMChenega Bay 65Cordova 272Nanwalek 144Port Graham 150Seldovia 48Seward 410Tatitlek 103Valdez 239Region Total 1,431Type ofDesianIdentifiedHouseholdUniverseTwo StrataChain ReferralChain ReferralTwo StrataChain ReferralChain ReferralTwo StrataChain ReferralChain ReferralChain ReferralChain ReferralChain ReferralChain ReferralTwo StrataChain ReferralCensusCensusTwo StrataCensusCensusTwo StrataTwo StrataCensusChain Referral3. UPPER KENAI-COOK INLETAnchorage 14.569 Chain ReferralHomer 189 Chain ReferralRegion Total 14,7584. KODIAK ISLANDAkhiok 72 CensusKarluk 65 CensusKodiak City 811 Chain ReferralLarsen Bay 124 CensusOld Harbor 252 Two StrataOuzinkie 178 CensusPort Lions 150 Two StrataRegion Total 1,652130 75 57.7%23 21 91.3%24 22 91.7%203 84 41.4%14 14 100.0%119 106 89.1%181 92 50.8%20 14 70.0%33 26 78.8%10 a 80.0%20 18 90.0%24 19 79.2%19 15 78.9%608 91 15.0%7 7 100.0%124 92 74.2%1,559 704 45.2%21 16 76.2%237 38 16.0%36 31 86.1%62 60 96.8%42 29 69.0%156 32 20.5%28 19 67.9%6 6 100.0%588 231 39.3%58 41 70.7%6 5 83.3%64 46 71.9%21 13 61.9%14 13 92.9%13 12 92.3%47 42 89.4%91 48 52.7%61 42 68.9%55 42 76.4%302 212 70.2%PercentageSurveyed HouseholdsHouseholds Surveved For Chain Referral communitiis. the Identified Household Universa is smaller than the total number of Native households.10TABLE 2 CONTINUEDSAMPLING METHODOLOGY BY COMMUNITY,HARBOR SEAL AND SEA LION SURVEYS, 19941990Region and Native Type ofCommunity Population Desian5. SOUTH ALASKA PENINSULAChignik Bay 85Chignik Lagoon 30Chignik Lake 122False Pass 52lvanof Bay 33King Cove 177Perryville 102Sand Point 433R e g i o n T o t a l 1 , 0 3 46. ALEUTIAN ISLANDSAkutan 80Atka 91Nikolski 29Unalaska 259Region Total 4597. PRIBILOF ISLANDSSt. George 131St. Paul 504Region Total 6358. SOUTH BRISTOL BAYEgegik 88King Salmon 108Levelock 87Naknek 236Pilot Point 45Port Heiden 86South Naknek 108Region Total 7569. NORTH BRISTOL BAYAleknagik 154Clarks Point 53Dillingham 1,125Manokotak 368Togiak 535R e g i o n T o t a l 2 , 2 3 5TOTAL(Excl. Anchorage)34,303(19,734)CensusCensusCensusCensusCensusTwo StrataCensusTwo StrataCensusCensusCensusTwo StrataCensusTwo StrataCensusCensusCensusTwo StrataCensusCensusCensusCensusCensusTwo StrataTwo StrataTwo StrataIdentifiedHouseholdUniverseSurveyedHouseholdsPercentageHouseholdsSurveved27 24 88.9%20 20 100.0%39 30 76.9%21 20 95.2%8 6 75.0%118 43 36.4%31 22 71 .O%143 42 29.4%407 207 50.9%30 26 86.7%26 24 92.3%12 12 100.0%104 68 65.4%172 130 75.6%47 33 70.2%159 73 45.9%206 106 51 SW37 29 78.4%26 23 88.5%35 20 57.1%92 46 50.0%27 26 96.3%34 27 79.4%32 29 90.6%283 200 70.7%38 23 60.5%15 15 100.0%456 59 12.9%76 41 53.9%116 58 50.0%701 196 28.0%4,282(4,224)2,032(1,991)47.5%(47.1%)Source: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Household Surveys, 1995.11CommunityAngoonCordovaDillinghamHoonahKakeKing CoveManokotakNaknekOld HarborPort LionsSand PointSeldoviaSewardSitkaSt. PaulTogiakUnalaskaTotalTABLE 3SAMPLING METHODOLOGY FOR COMMUNITIESWITH TWO STRATA DESIGNS,HARBOR SEAL AND SEA LION SURVEYS, 1994Number Sampled Percent Number Sampled PercentHigh Stratum High Stratum High Low Stratum Low Stratum LowHouseholds Households Stratum Households Households Stratum46 4413 1029 2959 5176 6214 1311 1119 1629 228 714 1212 99 968 6157 39g E523 44795.7%76.9%100.0%88.4%81.6%92.9%100.0%84.2%75.9%87.5%85.7%75.0%100.0%89.7%68.4%83.3%957%85.5%842244271441051646573624712930147540102;244431 36.9%28 12.5%30 7.0%33 22.9%30 28.6%30 28.8%30 46.2%30 41.1%26 41.9%35 74.5%30 23.3%20 66.7%23 15.6%30 5.6%34 33.3%28 35.0%s 56.8%514 21.0%Source: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Household Surveyrs, 1995.12implementing household sampling regimes, administering household surveys twiceduring the yearly cycle, data proofing of surveys and survey tracking forms, and mailingsurveys and tracking sheets for data entry and analysis.Household Samolina and Statistical AnalvsisIn the 59 surveyed communities, systematic interviews were conducted withpotential marine mammal hunters living in 2,032 households (Table 2). The number ofsurveyed communities dropped from 60 places in 1993 to 59 places in 1994 because ofthe loss of Kenai as a sampling unit. The small number of Kenai seal hunters surveyedin previous years moved to other communities during the 1994 survey period, so nohunters were surveyed from Kenai in 1994. Households were selected using threemain designs, depending upon the community - census sampling, two-strata randomsampling, and chain referral sampling. The type of design used for each community isshown in Table 2. Sampling designs and expansion methods were similar to thoseused the first study year, as described in Wolfe and Mishler (I 993: 17-I 9).For communities with census or chain referral sampling, 81.4 percent ofidentified households (1,071 of 1,315 households) were successfully contacted andinterviewed. For communities with two-strata designs, 85.5 percent of high stratumhousehold were successfully contacted and interviewed (447 of 523 households), whilea 21 percent random sample of low stratum households were interviewed (514 of 2,444households) (Tables 2 and 3). These are high sampling fractions for studies usingsurvey methodologies which rely upon voluntary participation by surveyed households.Overall, the level of cooperation by households in the harvest survey was high in allcommunities. The non-response rate was primarily due to logistical problems incontacting households, rather than refusals to participate.As stated above, there were two survey rounds, covering the hunting periods ofJanuary 1994 through April 1994, and May 1994 through December 1994. In data13analysis, information collected during the second round was linked with the data setcollected during the first round on a household basis, to complete the entire 1994calendar year. Incomplete household data sets due to the household being missedduring one of the survey rounds were treated as unsurveyed households and weregiven the mean of their respective sample groups.In the appendices, the statistical analysis presents harvest data in threedifferent tables for each community. In the first table, the unexpanded reported take ispresented for each community. The table of unexpanded numbers represents actualanimals reported killed by surveyed hunters, so there are no fractions of animals. Thesecond table presents the combined estimated expanded take for each stratum in thecommunity. In this table, takes of surveyed hunters are expanded to unsurveyedhunters within the stratum, using different methods depending upon the householdsampling design as described above. In this expansion, the proportions of theseasonal takes of the surveyed households are preserved, so takes with unknownmonths exist in the table. The expansion treats each community as a separatesampling universe. Fractions of animals commonly result from the expansion, whichare rounded to the nearest tenth. The third table presents a seasonally adjustedexpanded take. In this table, the takes with unknown months are assigned to monthsbased on the proportion of the known take. The numbers in this third table form thebasis for the numbers in the reports narrative.The calculation of the confidence range around the estimate is done for eachcommunity separately, as described in Wolfe and Mishler (1993:20-21). Theconfidence intervals were calculated according to the methods for stratified samplesfollowing Cochran (I 977:5.13, 5.15). In this process, the unexpanded, reported takewas used as the lower range for a community if it was higher than the statistically-calculated lower take estimate. This was done because the unexpanded takerepresents known (not hypothetical) kills.14THE SUBSISTENCE TAKE OF HARBOR SEAL IN 1994Estimated Size of the Harbor Seal Take. 1994The estimated size of the total take of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) by AlaskaNatives in 1994 is presented in Tables 4 and 5. In 1994, there were an estimated2,621 harbor seals taken by Alaska Natives for subsistence uses (with a 95 percentconfidence range of between 2,110 to 3,457 animals) (Table 4). Of the 1994subsistence take, 11.8 percent (308 harbor seals) were struck and lost, and 88.2percent (2,313 harbor seals) were harvested.The total state estimate for harbor seals is necessarily somewhat indeterminatebecause of species identification problems in the Bristol Bay area. As discussed inWolfe and Mishler (1993:61-69) in Bristol Bay there are areas with a seasonalgeographic overlap of harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) and spotted seal (Phoca largha) (seeFig. 3). Local indigenous Yupik taxonomies categorize adults of the two Linnaeanspecies as a single type (issuriq) in this area, and categorize pups into two differenttypes. Of the total North Bristol Bay take, we classified 20 seals as Phoca vitulina and270 as Phoca laqha, based on ecological features of the kill (degree of associationwith seasonal ice) (Appendix B, Table 9). Of the animals classified as Phoca largha,15.9 percent (43 animals) were reported struck and lost, and 84.0 percent (227animals) were harvested (Appendix B, Table 9). In Table 4, we also assumed theentire South Bristol Bay take of 181 animals was P h o c a vifulina. Changing theseassumptions will change the total statewide take estimate up or down. As statedabove, we believe the best estimate of the subsistence take in 1994 is 2,621 harborseals, based on the assumptions above.15TABLE 4ESTIMATED SUBSISTENCE TAKES OFHARBOR SEAL (PHOCA VITULINA) ANDSEA LION (EUMETOPIAS JUBATUS)BY ALASKA NATIVES, 1992 - 1994Harbor SealYear199219931994Sea Lion 199219931994Estimated Total Lower and UpperStruck Total Confidence RangeHarvest and Lost2,535 35387.8% 12.2%2,365 371 2,736 2,334 - 3,47188.4% 13.8% 100.0%2,313 308 2,621 2,110 - 3,45788.2% 11.8% 100.0%370 179 549 452 - 71267.4% 32.8% 100.0%348 139 487 390 - 62971.4% 28.6% 100.0%336 80 416 330 - 55480.8% 19.2% 100.0%Take2,888100.0%for Total Take2,320 - 3,741Source: Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Division of Subsistence, Household Surveys, 1995.16TABLE 5REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF SUBSISTENCE TAKES OFHARBOR SEAL (PHOCA VITULINA) BY ALASKA NATIVES. 1994Estimated TotalstruckPercentageof Take Per Capita Struck andRegionSoutheastNorth Pacific RimUpper Kenai-Cook InletKodiak IslandSouth Alaska PeninsulaAleutian IslandsPribilof IslandsSouth Bristol BayNorth Bristol BayALASKAPercentage of TakeHarvest1348.54 1 1 . 216.2168.298.6124.97.3121.6and Lost Take by Region151.4 1499.9 57.2%56.8 468.0 17.9%0.0 16.2 0.6%3.6 171.7 6.6%11.1 109.8 4.2%22.6 147.5 5.6%0.0 7.3 0.3%59.3 180.9 6.9%Harvest Lost Rate0.11 10.1%0.24 12.1%0.08 0.0%0.17 2.1%0.07 10.1%0.26 15.3%0.01 0.0%0.14 32.8%16.2 3.3 19.5 0.7% 0.01 16.9%2312.8 308.0 2620.8 100.0% 11.8%88.2% 11.8% 100.0%Source: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Household Surveys, 199!3.17TABLE 6SUBSISTENCE HARBOR SEAL HARVEST, TAKE, AND USE BY ALASKA NATIVES, 1994WITH CONFIDENCE INTERVALS AND STATISTICAL RANGES, BY COMMUNITYParu?nt of Percent ofHarbor Native Native Harbor TOM Total Takeseal Houeahob Houe4holds Harbor seal Harbor Conf&nce LUAW UpperHarvested Harvesting Using seal struok seal Interval Range RangeCommunity Per Capits Harbor Seal Harbor Seal Harvested andLost Take (+I- %) Estimate EstimateSOUTHEAST ALASKAAllgOOn .13Craig .15Haines .14Hoonah .45Hydaburg .03Juneau .02Kake .19Ketchikan .02Klawock .18Klukwan .03Pelican .07Petersburg .05Saxman .06Sitka .06Wrangell .20Yakutat 1.42NORTH PACIFIC RIMChenega Bay .51Cordova .21Nanwalek .20Port Graham .09Seldovia .07Seward .OlTatiilek 1.48Valdez 1.11UPPER KENAI-COOK INLETAnchorageHomerKODIAK ISLANDAkhiok .19Karluk .16Kodiak City .15Larsen Bay .lOOld Harbor .27Ouzinkie .15Port Lions .05SOUTH ALASKA PENINSULAChignik Bay .05Chignik Lagoon .ooChignik Lake .14False Pass .19lvanof Bay .35King Cove .OSPerryville .20Sand Point .0212.9% 86.5%20.8%15.6%72.2%--81.7%-26.7%8.8%-80.0%90.9%30.2%-95.6%66.9 21.1 88.0 14.8% 81.0 101.042.7 6.6 49.3 15.2% 45.0 56.839.3 2.2 41.5 18.6% 38.0 49.1240.7 15.0 255.8 19.1% 210.0 304.710.0 0.0 10.0 0.0% 10.0 10.078.6 13.5 92.1 24.4% 82.0 114.599.3 7.4 106.6 33.4% 87.0 142.231.4 0.0 31.4 88.5% 22.0 59.271.1 0.0 71.1 39.4% 56.0 99.13.8 1.3 5.0 66.3% 4.0 8.34.4 1.1 5.6 30.2% 5.0 7.215.2 1.3 16.4 76.2% 13.0 28.916.5 0.0 16.5 57.2% 13.0 25.9110.5 20.1 130.6 27.6% 102.0 166.6101.0 27.0 128.0 0.0% 128.0 128.0417.1 35.0 452.1 26.1% 354.0 570.343.8% 75.0%6.1% 37.0%22.6% 71.0%13.3% 81.7%9.5% 47.6%1.3% 16.8%31.6Oh 94.7%42.0 3.9 45.9 31.5% 35.0 60.4135.8 9.1 144.9 54.0% 96.0 223.229.0 4.6 33.7 31.3% 29.0 44.215.5 5.2 20.7 15.2% 20.0 23.88.0 0.0 8.0 64.8% 6.0 13.25.0 0.0 5.0 0.0% 5.0 5.0145.9 30.9 176.8 56.8% 120.0 277.430.0 3.0 33.0 0.0% 33.0 33.04.212.038.5% 92.3OYo 14.57.7% 30.8% 7.525.0% 83.3Oh 7.621.4% 50.0% 13.431.0% 100.0% 83.721.4% 40.5% 33.46.2% 18.1% 8.08.3% 8.3% 3.40.0% 5.0% 0.010.0% 76.7% 20.825.OK 65.0% 12.6100.0% 100.0% 12.09.3% 19.1% 20.922.7% 86.4% 21.14.6% 13.9% 7.8180.00.00.00.00.02.21.30.00.00.01.01.32.11.31.10.04.34.2 59.7% 3.0 6.812.0 70.4% 10.0 20.514.5 50.0% 9.0 21.87.5 52.4% 7.0 11.57.6 38.8% 7.0 10.515.7 20.3% 14.0 18.985.0 28.6% 60.7 109.333.4 46.8% 23.0 49.08.0 37.0% 7.0 11.03.4 47.8% 3.0 5.01.0 0.0% 1.0 1.022.1 63.6% 17.0 36.214.7 22.6% 14.0 18.013.3 19.6% 10.7 15.922.0 53.0% 16.0 33.721.1 61.5% 15.0 34.112.1 123.0% 5.0 27.0TABLE 6. CONTINUEDSUBSISTENCE HARBOR SEAL HARVEST, TAKE, AND USE BY ALASKA NATIVES, 1994WITH CONFIDENCE INTERVALS AND STATISTICAL RANGES, BY COMMUNITYCommunityPercentof Percent ofHarbor NStiW Native Harbor Total TotalTakeSkal HomehaMs HouKhdds Harbor S e a l H a r b o r Confidcncc Lovw UpparHarVested Hameating Using SUII Struck See1 InteWal Range RangePer Capita Harbor Seal Harbor Seal Harvested andLost Take (+I- %) Estimate EstimateALEUTIAN ISLANDSAkutan .17Atka .88Nikolski .33Unalaska .lOPRIBILOF ISLANDSSt. George .ooSt. Paul .02SOUTH BRISTOL BAYEgegik .12King Salmon .20Levelock .ooNaknek .07Pilot Point .04Port Heiden .60South Naknek .04NORTH BRISTOL BAYAleknagik .ooClarks Point .ooDillingham .OlManokotak .ooTogiak .oo11.5%62.5%50.0%10.1%76.9%100.0%100.0%52.6%13.8 3.5 17.3 46.8% 15.0 25.473.7 8.7 82.3 12.9% 76.0 93.06.0 0.0 6.0 0.0% 6.0 6.031.4 10.5 41.8 15.2% 40.0 48.20.0%2.8%0.0%2.8%0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0%7.3 0.0 7.3 64.5%17.2% 34.5% 12.8 0.0 i2.821.7% 56.5% 17.0 4.5 21.50.0% 0.0% 0.0 0.0 0.06.5% 51.2% 21.4 8.3 29.73.8% 7.7% 3.1 0.0 3.137.0% 88.9% 63.0 45.3 108.36.9% 27.6% 4.4 1.1 5.517.4%13.3%8.4%13.8%37.9%78.3%13.3%41.8%98.7%60.7%0.0 3.3 3.3 123.1%0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0%16.2 0.0 16.2 165.7%0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0%ALASKA TOTAL 2312.8 308.0 2620.8SPOTTED SEALS, NORTH BRISTOL BAYAleknagik .16 17.4%Clarks Point .05 13.3%Dillingham .02 8.4%Manokotak .04 13.8%Togiak .28 37.9%TOTAL WITH OTHER SEALS78.3%13.3%41.8%98.7%60.7%0.0 0.05.0 12.039.9% 10.0 17.934.2% 19.0 28.80.0% 0.0 0.040.2% 24.0 41.737.7% 3.0 4.329.1% 86.0 139.838.9% 5.0 7.72.0 7.40.0 0.03.0 43.10.0 0.00.0 0.031.9% 2110.4 3457.421.5 0.0 21.5 64.0% 13.0 35.22.0 0.0 2.0 0.0% 2.0 2.035.2 3.0 38.2 70.4% 25.0 65.113.7 0.0 13.7 54.2% 9.0 21.1154.2 39.9 194.1 27.5% 140.7 247.52539.4 351.0 2890.3 32.5% 2300.1 3828.4' In North Bristol Bay,percentageof households harvestingandusingIsauriq,aswasdoneinlastyeahrepoft.Source: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Household Surveys, 1995.19Geoaraphic Distribution of Harbor Seal TakesTable 5 shows the regional distribution of harbor seal takes by Alaska Natives in1994. The largest takes in terms of absolute numbers were taken by the Tlingit andHaida of the Southeast. region. About 57.2 percent of the statewide take of harborseals (1,500 animals), were taken by hunters in Southeast Alaska (Table 5). Theregion ranked second was the North Pacific Rim (468 seals, or 17.9 percent of thestatewide take). The remainder of the statewide harbor seal take (653 animals, or 24.9percent) was distributed among the other 7 regions.The geographic distribution of harbor seal takes by community is shown inTable 6 and Fig. 4. Of the top ten communities (in terms of absolute number of harborseals taken in 1994) seven were in the Southeast region, two in the North Pacific Rimregion, and one in the South Bristol Bay region. The ten top ranking communities wereYakutat (452 seals), Hoonah (256 seals), Tatitlek (177 seals), Cordova (145 seals),Sitka (131 seals), Wrangell (128 seals), Port Heiden (108 seals), Kake (107 seals),Juneau (92 seals), and Angoon (88 seals). There were five surveyed communities withno reported harbor seals taken in 1994 - Clarks Point, Levelock, Manokotak, SaintGeorge, and Togiak - all near the extreme northern range of the species.Per capita harvests are the number of harbor seals harvested per Alaska Nativeliving in a community. It is an estimate of the amount harvested per person in an area,controlling for differences in population size. The top ten communities in terms ofharvests per capita in 1994 were Tatitlek (1.48 harbor seals harvested per person),Yakutat (1.42) Valdez (1.1 I), Atka (0.88) Port Heiden (0.60) Chenega Bay (0.51),Hoonah (0.45), lvanof Bay (0.35) Nikolski (0.33) and Old Harbor (0.27). There wasgreater parity across regions in per capita harvests compared with total community take(Table 6). Among the top ten communities for per capita harvests, three were in theNorth Pacific Rim region, two were in the Southeast region, two were in the Aleutian200009Islands region, and one each was in the Kodiak Island, South Bristol Bay, and SouthAlaska Peninsula regions.The seasonal distribution of the statewide harbor seal take in 1994 is depictedin Fig. 5. Harbor seals were reported killed during every month of 1994. Hunting wasparticularly productive early in the year, from January through April, with a large spike intake during April, followed by a drop in productivity during late spring and early summer(about May through July), with harvests rising again the latter half of the year fromAugust to December, peaking in November (see also Fig. 9). The statewide totalmasks differences in seasonal patterns between regions and communities, which aredepicted in Appendices B and C. Factors associated with seasonal patterns arediscussed in Wolfe and Mishler (1993:32-33).Aae and Sex Distribution of Harbor Seal HarvestsThe estimated age and sex distributions of the 1994 harbor seal harvests areshown in Tables 7 and 8 by geographic region. Hunters reported harvesting maleharbor seals over female harbor seals by a ratio of about 2.0 to 1. Hunters alsoreported harvesting substantially more adult harbor seals than juveniles or pups (4.5 to1). Overall, adult females comprised about 28 percent of the total known harvest ofharbor seals in 1994. Hunters did not report the sex for 39 percent of the harvest orthe age for about 10 percent of the harvest. The age and sex are also unknown foranimals which were struck and lost.22Fig 5.Seasonally Adjusted Takes ofHarbor Seal and Sea LionBy Alaska Natives, 1994. . .x* - - Harbor Seal - s e a L i o n450.0 - x400.0 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;,:...I .;.....................................................................................................................................j y&o _........................................ ;a: . . . . . . . . . ..Y .._.________...._.._...........................................................................................................;, CJOO _ ,!I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .._.. ._.____________..__...............................................................................................................250.02B200.0.Ii,500 -.................................................................... 2, . . . . . . . . . .x.:..: . . . . . . . . . . . . . .:5 ,o()o _............................................................................. :.A.; . . . . _.$(.?.I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Jan Feb Mar W May Jun Jul Au9 Sap Ott Nov DeeJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Ott Nov DeeHarbor Seal 215.2 270.8 274.1 439.6 153.5 70.2 96.7 159.1 211.3 236.8 273.3 226.1Percentage 8.2% 10.3% 10.5% 16.8% 5.9% 2.7% 3.7% 6.1% 6.1% 8.8% 10.4% 8.6%Cum. Percent 8.2% 18.5% 29.0% 45.8% 51.6% 54.3% 58.0% 64.1% 72.1% 60.9% 91.4% 100%Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Ott Nov DeeSea Lion 23.1 31.9 59.8 36.6 40.9 11.2 13.4 13.9 40.7 70.6 53.9 20.1Percentage 5.5% 7.7% 14.4% 8.8% 9.8% 2.7% 3.2% 3.3% 9.8% 17.0% 12.9% 4.8%Cum. Percent 5.5% 13.2% 27.6% 36.4% 46.2% 46.9% 52.1% 55.5% 65.2% 82.2% 95.2% 100%Source: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Household Surveys, 199523AdultTABLE 7AGE AND SEX DISTRIBUTION OF HARBOR SEAL HARVESTSBY ALASKA NATIVES, 1994UnknownMale Female783.5 395.2Sex533.1Total1711.8Row PercentColumn Percent45.8% 23.1% 31.1% 100.0%82.7% 85.1% 59.2% 74.0%JuvenileRow PercentColumn Percent145.8 58.1 122.2 326.144.7% 17.8% 37.5% 100.0%15.4% 12.6% 13.6% 14.1%pupRow PercentColumn Percent9.5 5.1 38.5 53.117.8% 9.7% 72.8% 100.0%1.0% 1.1% 4.3% 2.3OhUnknown AgeRow PercentColumn Percent8.8 5.9 207.1 221.84.0% 2.7% 93.4% 100.0%0.9% 1.3% 23.0% 9.6%TotalRow PercentColumn Percent947.6 464.3 900.9 2312.841.0% 20.1% 39.0% 100.0%100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%Source: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Household Surveys, 199524TABLE 8AGE AND SEX DISTRIBUTION OF HARBOR SEAL HARVESTSBY ALASKA NATIVES BY REGION, 1994UpperNOllh Kenai- Scuth South NorthPacifl ccok Kcdiik Alaska Alautian Prtbilcf Briotd BristolAGE AND SEX southeast Rim Inlet Island Peninsuh Islands Istands BaY Bay AlaskaAdult Mate 564.5 78.2 1.4 53.9 28.7 22.9 0.0 20.7 15.2 783.5Adutt Female 297.5 32.1 0.0 21.7 13.0 23.7 0.0 7.2 0.0 395.2Adult Unknown Sex 330.9 72.7 13.6 21.3 24.1 18.1 0.0 51.4 1.0 533.1Juvenile Mate 54.8 29.4 0.0 24.4 8.3 20.5 7.3 1.1 0.0 145.8Juvenile Female 21.2 7.6 0.0 18.1 2.6 8.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 58.1Juvenite Unknown Sex 26.8 33.3 0.0 20.0 9.9 22.5 0.0 9.7 0.0 122.2Pup Mate 1 .o 3.8 0.0 0.0 1.4 3.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.5Pup Fen-rate 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.6 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.1Pup Unknown Sex 4.9 18.9 0.0 1.1 0.0 3.3 0.0 10.3 0.0 38.5Male Unkncwn Age 0.0 4.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 3.4 0.0 6.6Femate Unkncwn Age 0.0 5.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.9Unknown Age and Sex 45.7 125.0 1.2 7.5 9.9 0.0 0.0 17.9 0.0 207.1TOTAL 1348.5 411.2 16.2 168.2 98.8 124.9 7.3 121.6 16.2 2312.6Adutt 1192.9 182.9 15.0 97.0 63.8 64.6 0.0 79.2 16.2 1711.8Juvenife 102.7 70.3 0.0 62.5 20.7 51.7 7.3 10.8 0.0 326.1Pup 7.2 22.7 0.0 1.1 4.2 7.5 0.0 10.3 0.0 53.1Unknown Age 45.7 135.3 1.2 7.5 9.9 1.0 0.0 21.3 0.0 221.8TOTAL 1348.5 411.2 16.2 168.2 96.6 124.9 7.3 121.6 16.2 2312.8Male 620.3 115.8 1.4 78.3 36.4 47.6 7.3 25.2 15.2 947.6Female 319.8 45.6 0.0 39.8 18.5 33.4 0.0 7.2 0.0 464.3Unknown Sex 408.3 249.8 14.8 50.0 43.8 43.6 0.0 89.3 1.0 QW.9TOTAL 1348.5 411.2 16.2 166.2 98.6 124.9 7.3 121.6 16.2 2312.6Source: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Household Surveys, 199525!-I-f-, ,ITHE SUBSISTENCE TAKE OF SEA LION IN 1994Estimated Size of the Sea Lion Take, 1994The estimated size of the total take of Steller sea lions by Alaska Natives in1994 is presented in Tables 4 and 9. In 1994, there were an estimated 416 sea lionstaken by Alaska Natives for subsistence uses (with a 95 percent confidence range ofbetween 330 to 554 animals) (Table 4). Of the 1994 subsistence take, 19.2 percent(80 sea lions) were struck and lost, and 80.8 percent (336 sea lions) were harvested.Geooraohic Distribution of Sea Lion TakesTable 9 shows the regional distribution of sea lion takes in 1994 by AlaskaNatives. By far, the largest takes in terms of absolute numbers were taken by the Aleuthunters of the Aleutian Islands region and Pribilof Islands region, about 75.8 percent ofthe total statewide take of sea lions (316 animals) (Table 9). Other significant takes ofsea lions were made by the Alutiiq of the Kodiak Island region (61 animals, or 14.7percent of the statewide take) and the North Pacific Rim area (26 sea lions, or 6.3percent of the statewide take). The remainder of the statewide take (12 animals, or 3.1percent) was distributed among the other six regions.The geographic distribution of sea lion takes by community is shown in Table 10and Fig. 6. The five top ranking communities were Saint Paul (173 sea lions), Atka (54sea lions), Unalaska (52 sea lions), Old Harbor (48 sea lions), and Tatitlek (16 sealions). These five communities accounted for 82 percent of the total Alaska take (343sea lions). In 1994, 39 of 59 surveyed communities reported no sea lions taken.Eleven more communities reported a take of less than five sea lions. Only ninecommunities had harvests of five or more sea lions in 1994.In terms of per capita harvests, the Aleutian and Pribilof islands clearly standout, with regional averages of somewhat less than one-quarter of a sea lion harvested27TABLE 9REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF SUBSISTENCE TAKES OFSEA LION (EUMETOPIAS JUBATUS) BY ALASKA NATIVES, 1994RegionSoutheastNorth Pacific RimUpper Kenai-Cook InletKodiak IslandSouth Alaska PeninsulaAleutian IslandsPribilof IslandsSouth Bristol BayNorth Bristol BayALASKAPercentaQeofTakeEstimated Total PercentageSbllCk of TakeHarveet and Lost Take by Region3.5 1.1 4.6 1.1%16.6 9.7 26.3 6.3%1.4 0.0 1.4 0.3%57.1 4.2 61.3 14.7%4.6 1.1 5.7 1.4%101.8 20.5 122.3 29.4%149.8 43.5 193.3 46.5%.0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0%1.2 0.0 1.2 0.3%336.0 80.1 416.1 100.0%00.0% 19.2% 100.0%Per Capita Struck andHarvest Lost Rate0.000.010.010.060.000.210.230.000.0024.4%36.9%0.0%6.9%18.8%16.8%22.5%0.0%0.0%19.2%Source: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Househotd Surveys, 1995.28per person in 1994 (Table 9). None of the other regions are close to this. The top sixcommunities in per capita harvests were Atka (0.55 sea lions harvested per person),Saint Paul (0.31) Akutan (0.16) Old Harbor (0.15) and Unalaska (0.14) (Table 10).Seasonal Distribution of Sea Lion TakesThe seasonal distribution of the sea lion take in 1994 is depicted in Fig. 5. Sealions were reported killed during every month of 1994. Seasonal peaks in subsistenceproductivity occurred during March and October, while summer (June, July, andAugust) was the period of lowest productivity. The statewide total masks differences inseasonal patterns between regions and communities, which are depicted inAppendices B and C.Aoe and Sex Distribution of Sea Lion HarvestsThe reported age and sex distributions of the 1994 sea lion harvests are shownin Tables 11 and 12 by geographic region. Hunters reported harvesting male sea lionsover female sea lions by a ratio of about 4.2 to 1. Hunters also reported harvestingjuvenile sea lions over adults and pups by about 2.1 to 1. Adult females comprisedabout 12 percent of the total known harvest of sea lions in 1994. Hunters did not reportthe sex for 12 percent of the harvest or the age for about 4 percent of the harvest. Theage and sex also are unknown for sea lions which were struck and lost.HUNTING PARTICIPATIONHunting harbor seal or sea lion is a relatively specialized subsistence activity inAlaska communities. Based on survey findings, the estimated number of householdswhich reported at least one member hunting harbor seal was 1,014 households in1992,854 households in 1993, and 971 households in 1994 (Table 13). The estimated29TABLE 10SUBSISTENCE SEA LION HARVEST, TAKE, AND USE BY ALASKA NATIVES, 1994WITH CONFIDENCE INTERVALS AND STATISTICAL RANGES, BY COMMUNITYPercent of Percent ofNHM! NativeSeaLion Ii- HoWdWldSTotal TakeseaLion Total ConfkMce Lower UPP-HWVe&edCommunity Per CapitaSOUTHEAST ALASKAHarvesting USillg SeaLIon Struck SeaLIonSeaLion SeeLii Harvested andLost Takeinterval Range Range(+I- %) Estimate EstimateAngoon .ooCraig .ooHaines .ooHoonah .ooHydaburg .ooJuneau .ooKake .ooKetchikan .ooKlawock .ooKlukwan .ooPelican .ooPetersburg .ooSaxman .ooSitka .ooWrangell .ooYakutat .ooNORTH PACIFIC RIMChenega Bay .08Cordova .ooNanwalek .OlPort Graham .ooSeldovia .ooSeward .ooTatitlek .09Valdez .ooUPPER KENAI-COOK INLETAnchorageHomerKODIAK ISLANDAkhiokKarluk .ooKodiak City .02Larsen Bay .02Old Harbor .15Ouzinkie .02Port Lions .ooSOUTH ALASKA PENINSULAChignik Bay .ooChignik Lagoon .ooChignik Lake . o oFalse Pass .oolvanof Bay .ooKing Cove .OlPerryville .OlSand Point .oo0.0%-0.0%-0.0% 0.0%0.7%-2.6%0.0%0.2%0.0%3.5%0.0% 1.1%0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0%1.1 0.0 1.1 64.8%1.2 0.0 1.2 84.1%0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0%1.1 1.1 2.2 44.1%0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0%0.00.00.00.00.01.82.30.00.00.00.00.00.03.20.00.025.0% 62.5%0.0% 3.9%3.2% 45.2%0.0% 31.7%0.0% 14.3%0.0% 0.0%5.3% 47.4%6.6 0.0 6.6 46.1%0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0%1.2 2.3 3.5 73.0%0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0%8.8 7.4 16.2 111.1%0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0%9.60.06.00.00.00.034.20.01.40.00.0%8.3%2.4%28.1%4.8%0.0%0.0%8.3%2.4%100.0%11.9%2.1%3.20.01.12.246.24.40.00.0% 0.0% 0.00.0% 0.0% 0.00.0% 0.0% 0.00.0% 0.0% 0.00.0% 0.0% 0.02.7% 2.7Oh 3.24.5% 22.7% 1.40.0% 0.0% 0.00.00.00.00.00.00.01.32.90.00.00.00.00.00.01.10.00.01.4 106.1%0.0 0.0%3.2 81.9%0.0 0.0%1.1 54.4%2.2 63.9%47.5 26.3%7.3 78.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%4.3 29.8%1.4 105.6%0.0 0.0%0.00.00.00.00.01.01.00.00.00.00.00.00.02.00.00.05.00.03.00.00.00.011.00.01.00.02.00.01.02.035.05.00.00.00.00.00.00.04.01.00.02.90.05.90.01.73.760.012.90.00.00.00.00.00.05.62.90.030TABLE 10, CONTINUEDSUBSISTENCE SEA LION HARVEST, TAKE, AND USE BY ALASKA NATIVES, 1994WITH CONFIDENCE INTERVALS AND STATISTICAL RANGES, BY COMMUNITYPwcent of Percent ofNltiw N&iiSeaLion m HolMWdfi SMLiOfl Total Total TakeHWWStd Harvesting USing seaLii Struck SeaLbn Interval Range RangeCommunity Per CapitaALEUTIAN ISLANDSAkutan .16Atka .55Nikolski .ooUnalaska .14PRIBILOF ISLANDSSt. George .02St. Paul .31SOUTH BRISTOL BAYEgegik .ooKing Salmon .ooLevelock .ooNaknek .ooPilot Point .ooPort Heiden .ooSouth Naknek .ooNORTH BRISTOL BAYAleknagik .ooClarks Point .ooDillingham .ooManokotak .ooTogiak .ooseaLll Sea Lion Harvested and Lost Take (+I- %) Estimate Estimate15.4% 73.1%37.5% 100.0%0.0% 91.7%13.8% 53.7%12.7 3.5 16.2 42.5% 14.0 23.045.5 8.7 54.2 20.8% 50.0 65.40.0 0.0 0.0 0.0% 0.0 0.043.6 8.4 51.9 14.6% 49.0 59.56.1% 42.4%25.9% 64.3%2.8 17.1 19.9 59.1% 14.0 31.7147.0 26.4 173.4 26.4% 127.6 219.20.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0 ' 0.00.0 0.00.0 0.00.0 0.00.0 0.00.0 0.00.0 0.00.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0 0.00.0 0.00.0 0.00.0 0.00.0 0.00.0 0.00.0 0.00.0% 8.7%0.0% 0.0%0.0% 0.0%0.0% 67.3%1.0% 1.0%0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0% 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.0 0.0% 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.0 0.0% 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.0 0.0% 0.0 0.01.2 0.0 1.2 80.0% 1.0 2.2ALASKA TOTAL 336.0 80.1 416.1 33.1% 329.6 553.7Source: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Household Surveys, 1995.31AdultTABLE 11AGE AND SEX DISTRIBUTION OF SEA LION HARVESTSBY ALASKA NATIVES, 1994UnknownMale Female48.4 35.0Sex17.4Total100.8Row PercentColumn Percent48.1% 34.7% 17.3% 100.0%20.3% 61.5% 43.0% 30.0%JuvenileRow PercentColumn Percent186.3 21.9 11.0 219.285.0% 10.0% 5.0% 100.0%78.0% 38.5% 27.3% 65.2%pupRow PercentColumn Percent4.0 0.0 0.0 4.0100.0% 0.0% 0.0% 100.0%1.7% 0.0% 0.0% 1.2%Unknown AgeRow PercentColumn Percent0.0 0.0 12.0 12.00.0% 0.0% 100.0% 100.0%0.0% 0.0% 29.7% 3.6%TotalRow PercentColumn Percent238.7 56.8 40.5 336.071.0% 16.9% 12.0% 100.0%100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%Source: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Household Surveys, 199532TABLE 12AGE AND SEX DISTRIBUTION OF SEA LION HARVESTSBY ALASKA NATIVES BY REGION, 1994UPwrNOdh Kenai- south South NorthPacific Cook Kodiak Alaska Alwttn Pribilof Bristol BristolAGE AND SEX Southeast Rim Inlet Island Peninsula klands Islands Bay Bay AlaskaAdult Male 2.3 2.6 1.4 12.0 2.5 20.3 7.3 0.0 0.0 46.4Adult Female 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.0 2.2 23.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 35.0Adult Unknown Sex 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.4 0.0 9.6 1.4 0.0 0.0 17.4Juvenile tvlak 1.1 2.6 0.0 15.4 0.0 32.2 133.7 0.0 1.2 166.3Juvenile Fcmak 0.0 1.3 0.0 9.0 0.0 6.6 3.0 0.0 0.0 21.9Juvenik Unknown Sex 0.0 1.2 0.0 4.2 0.0 4.2 1.5 0.0 0.0 11.0Pup Male 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 2.9 0.0 0.0 4.0Pup Female 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Pup Unknown Sex 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0MaIe Unknown Age 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Female Unknown Age 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Unknown Age and Sex 0.0 6.6 0.0 1.1 0.0 2.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 12.0TOTAL 3.5 16.6 1.4 57.1 4.6 101.6 149.6 0.0 1.2 336.0AGE ONLYAdult 2.3 2.6 1.4 27.4 4.6 53.7 6.7 0.0 0.0 100.6Juvenile 1.1 5.1 0.0 26.6 0.0 44.9 136.2 0.0 1.2 219.2PUP 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1 .o 2.9 0.0 0.0 4.0Unknown Age 0.0 6.6 0.0 1.1 0.0 2.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 12.0TOTAL 3.5 16.6 1.4 57.1 4.6 101.6 149.6 0.0 1.2 336.0SEX ONLYMale 3.5 5.3 1.4 27.5 2.5 53.5 144.0 0.0 1.2 236.7Female 0.0 1.3 0.0 16.0 2.2 32.4 3.0 0.0 0.0 56.6Unknown Sex 0.0 10.0 0.0 11.7 0.0 15.9 2.9 0.0 0.0 40.5TOTAL 3.5 16.6 1.4 57.1 4.6 101.6 149.6 0.0 1.2 336.0Source: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Household Surveys, 1995.33number of households which reported at least one member hunting sea lions was 199households in 1992, 222 households in 1993, and 210 households in 1994. For thethree survey years, the large majority of Native households in the studys samplinguniverse did not attempt.to hunt harbor seals or sea lions (Table 13). There also wassubstantial specialization in hunter productivity among the households that did hunt in1994 (see Figs. 7 and 8). A relatively small number of highly-productive huntersreported taking most of the subsistence kills. Specialization has implications for co-management systems. The largest management effects in any region are potentiallyreached through this group of highly productive subsistence hunters.The percent of hunting households that reported hunting unsuccessfully in 1994was the highest of the three survey years - 37 percent hunted unsuccessfully forharbor seal (compared with 29 percent in 1992 and 25 percent in 1993) and 40percent hunted unsuccessfully for sea lion (compared with 30 percent in 1992 and 35percent in 1993). The percent of unsuccessful hunters may be used as one index ofhunting efficiency. The increase in the percent of unsuccessful hunters from 1992 to1994 may reflect increased problems for marine mammal hunters in accessing harborseals and sea lions in the communitys hunting areas, perhaps due to population levels.There appears to be moderate turnover in hunting households across years, asshown by the unweighted composition of the hunters surveyed all three survey years inTable 14. For harbor seal, there were 210 households that hunted all three years, 188households that hunted in two of the three survey years, 239 that hunted in one of thethree years, and 448 households that did not hunt in any year. For sea lion, therewere 34 households that hunted all three years, 37 households that hunted in two ofthe three survey years, 80 that hunted in one of the three years, and 932 householdsthat did not hunt in any year. Hunter participation is shown separately for St. Paul,where two years data are available (Table 14).34TABLE 13PARTICIPATION RATES OFALASKA NATIVE HOUSEHOLDS INHUNTING HARBOR SEAL OR SEA LION, 1992,1993, AND 1994HARBOR SEAL SEA LIONPercentage Percentage Percentage PercentageHousehold of Household of Hunting Househdd of Household of HuntingUniverse Universe Households Universs Universe HouseholdsSTUDY YEAR 1992Did Not HuntHunted UnsuccessfullyHunted SuccessfullyTotal HouseholdsTotal Hunting HouseholdsSTUDY YEAR 1993Did Not HuntHunted UnsuccessfullyHunted SuccessfullyTotal Households2698 73% - 3513 95% --290 8% 29% 59 2% 30%724 19% 71% 140 4% 70%3712 100% - 3712 100% -1014 27% 100% 199 5% 100%3510 80% -- 4142 95% -216 5% 25% 78 2% 35%638 15% 75% 144 3% 65%4364 100% -- 4364 100% --Total Hunting Households 854 20% 100% 1 222 5% 100%STUDY YEAR 1994Did Not HuntHunted UnsuccessfullyHunted Successfullv3311 77% -- 4072 95% --362 8% 37% 85 2% 40%608 14% 63% 125 3% 60%Total Households 4282 100% -- 4282 100% -Total Hunting Households 971 23% 100% 210 5% 100%Source: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Household Surveys, 199535Fig 7.Specialization in Harbor Seal Takes:Percentage of Hunters by Percentage of Take, 1994I30 40 50 60 70 60 90 100Hunters (Cumulative Percentsge)Fig 8.Specialization in Sea Lion Takes:Percentage of Hunters by Percentage of Take, 1994r-/i20 30 40 50 60 70 60 90 100Hunters (Cumulative Percentage)Source: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Household Surveys, 199536SEA LION HUNTING METHODS IN THE ALEUTIAN AND PRIBILOF ISLANDSEarlier reports have described contemporary hunting methods for harbor seal bythe Tlingit of Southeast Alaska (Wolfe et al. 1994) and for sea lion by the Alutiiq ofKodiak Island (Haynes and Mishler 1991:21-23). This section describes contemporarysea lion hunting methods by the Aleut of the Pribilof and Aleutian islands, based on keyrespondent interviews conducted in all of the Aleutian and Pribilof Island communitiesas part of this current study. General descriptions of sea lion hunting have beenpreviously presented for the Pribilof Islands (Veltre and Veltre 1981a), Unalaska (Veltreand Veltre 1981 b), and Atka (Veltre and Veltre 1983). This section provides additionalethnographic information about the unique practices in the Aleutian-Pribilof region,particularly the shore-based hunting methods practiced along the rugged shorelines ofthe Pribilof Islands. The section describes hunting patterns by community, including St.Paul, St. George, Unalaska, Atka, Akutan, and Nikolski.Sea Lion Huntina at St. PaulOn St. Paul Island, much of the hunting for sea lion (gawa;) is done atNortheast Point, located at the extreme opposite end of the island from the communityof St. Paul. Hunters today generally drive their trucks to the point, where they park andpost themselves at lookout stations. Access to sea lions is not easy. Because of highwinds and drifting snow, four wheel drive trucks are generally necessary. The wind atNortheast Point is usually blowing onshore, carrying with it a great deal of salt spray.There is an abundance of surf and a considerable amount of loud pounding on thebeach.In addition to Northeast Point, other areas on St. Paul Island used for huntingsea lions are Reef Point, Sea Lion Neck, outer Gorbatch Bay, and on the opposite sideof the peninsula from Gorbatch Bay. A sixth place is Sea Lion Rock, but this place is37TABLE 14COMPARISON OF HOUSEHOLDSINTERVIEWED IN 19921993, AND 1994(UNWEIGHTED NUMBERS)HARBOR SEALCOMMUNITIES WITH THREE YEARS OF DATA1083 Households interviewed in 1992,1993, and 1994446 Households did not hunt in any year239 Households hunted in 1 of the 3 years188 Households hunted in 2 of the 3 years210 Households hunted in 3 of the 3 yearsST. PAUL (2 YEARS OF DATA)49 Households interviewed in 1992 and 199446 Households did not hunt either year1 Households hunted in 1 of the 2 years2 Households hunted in 2 of the 2 yeanSEA LIONCOMMUNITIES WITH THREE YEARS OF DATA1083 Households interviewed in 1992,1993, and 1994932 Households did not hunt in any year80 Households hunted in 1 of the 3 years37 Households hunted in 2 of the 3 years34 Households hunted in 3 of the 3 yearsST. PAUL (2 YEARS OF DATA)49 Households interviewed in 1992 and 199417 Households did not hunt either year14 Households hunted in 1 of the 2 years18 Households hunted in 2 of the 2 yearsSource: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Household Surveys, 199538largely inaccessible due to great offshore rocks that are usually only half submerged.Only in calm weather at very high tides do hunters venture there in skiffs.Sea lion hunting on St. Paul Island generally begins in September and ends inMay. In February and March the ice pack moves down from the Bering Sea, usuallybringing more marine mammals. One man says that hunting gets easier near the endof April when more animals start riding together, often 10 to 15 at a time. Most huntingtakes place on weekends, to avoid conflict with jobs hunters may hold during the week.The best time to see sea lions is early in the morning and then again late in theevening. During the middle of the day they seem to feed somewhere farther offshore.One hunter described shore-based hunting methods used at Northeast Point.We hunt with the current and the wind. We do not hunt sea lions when the wind isoffshore, blowing out. You have to face the wind in order to hunt because if you kill abig sea lion and it sinks, you watch the current, and then about an hour or so later it willcome ashore and you pick it up. And if you dont find it, you tell the other hunters, andthen the other hunters keep an eye out for it, and they will grab it or call you on theradio and let you know your sea lion is on the beach.Hunters stand patiently for hours, scanning the water for the heads of male sealions as they are swimming or riding the waves. Some hunters use binoculars ifconditions are dry enough, but others disdain this device. The sea lions commonlyswim parallel to the shore of St. Paul Island, going from east to west and then south, orfrom south to north along the east side of the island. On the north and west sides ofthe island the sea lions remain too far offshore to hunt. When they are traveling westfrom Walrus Island and south to Otter Island they cannot be hunted once they passNortheast Point. Because of this pattern of movement, most of the hunting is done atNortheast Point and on the South and east sides of the island, where sea lions have anestablished swimway that is within rifle range.39Hunters do not shoot every animal they see. Careful hunters in particular arehighly selective. Sea lion hunters report they are reluctant to shoot females of any size,and they try to avoid large males, the latter being called garbage can heads. In thewords of one man, We hunt the male sea lions only. We dont go after the females.We tell them apart by the shape of the head. The female has got a smoother shapedhead and narrow. The male would look more like a bulldog-shaped head, and a littlemore hair to it. Medium-sized ones are what we like. The harvest reports of huntersfor 1992 and 1994 provide support for selective hunting at St. Paul for age and sexcharacteristics. Based on the hunter survey, 90 percent of the sea lions harvested atSt. Paul in 1994 were juvenile males, 5 percent were adult males, 2 percent werejuvenile females, 2 percent were male pups, and 1 percent were juveniles of unknownsex (Table 47). In 1992, 63 percent were juvenile males, 21 percent were juveniles ofunknown sex, 6 percent were adult males, 7 percent were male pups, 3 percent werepups of unknown sex, and 1 percent were juvenile females. Age and sex data areunavailable for the 1993 harvest year.According to one hunter, female sea lions (qawam ayagaa) are not taken on St.Paul because of a strong conservation ethic. From the time when boys begin to huntthey are cautioned against taking females of any species, especially pregnant females.There is a strong belief that it is necessary to preserve females for reproduction. Whenfemales are shot by hunters, it is usually by accident.When a juvenile male or yearling (gawaada$ comes along, hunters aim andtake a shot, hoping to hit the sea lion at the time when its head pokes above water for agulp of air. An animal which has its lungs full of air is much more likely to float after ithas been shot than one that has emptied its lungs by exhaling.Some St. Paul hunters like to call sea lions, imitating their barking and growling.We call sea lions with a growl. And then the sea lion starts looking, and then you keepdoing that until the sea lion gets close into the beach. Thats the way you bring it in.40That all depends on how strong the wind is blowing too. You stand on the bluff andkind of move around like youre a sea lion. At times when they get close to the beachthen you have to hide. If were on a bluff we dont mind, but if youre in the rocks, thenyou have to hide, kind of.sneak up to them.After the animal has been shot, hunters must again be patient. Because theheavy seas preclude the use of a skiff, they cannot easily retrieve their kill. They mustwait for the wind and tidal currents to bring the carcass to shore. Depending on thelocation of the kill, the sea lion may wash up within a few hours, or it may not show upfor a day or two. Being a good shot does not in itself make a good hunter. Anexperienced hunter reads the wind and water to correctly predict when and where hiskill will wash up. If it is high tide the animal will drift north; if it is low tide it will driftsouth. However, even for the most experienced hunter, due to the vagaries of windsand tides, not every animal is retrieved. Sometimes the sea lions get caught in therocks or sink into kelp beds and are only found after a big storm breaks them free.Struck and lost rates for sea lion at St. Paul were 29 percent in 1992 and 15 percent in1994 (Table 47); the first is within the middle range for communities hunting sea lions,while the latter is on the low end of the range for struck and lost sea lions.If the hunter is lucky, the sea lion will soon float within range of his qayu?, orsea dog. The qay& is a retrieval device comprising a short piece of wood and hooks.In one design, the wood piece is formed from the stubby end of a baseball bat to whichfour large halibut hooks are lashed. The qayu? is attached to a piece of heavy coiledline about 30-40 feet long. When tossed accurately, the qay6 will snag the floatingsea lion and enable the hunter to pull it quickly ashore.Throwing the qay& effectively takes a considerable amount of practice. If thesea lion is only a few yards offshore, a hunter can hold the qayui in the palm of hishand and toss it underhanded, playing out the coiled line. This method limits thedistance the qayux can be thrown but improves accuracy. For more distant retrievals,41hunters whip the qayd on the end of a two or three foot piece of line. If they are righthanded, they will hold the coiled line with the left hand and whip the short end with theright hand. The whipping action can be done vertically in a clockwise direction, orhorizontally in a clockwise direction. Wh8n the qayux^ reaches its maximum velocity, itis released with the right hand and then with the left hand, so that the coiled line willplay out. It is not uncommon for the say& to sail out 30 or 40 feet when this whippingmotion is used. The qay& is also useful for retrieving harbor seals and ducks.Not every sea lion floats, however, and it may happen that some other hunterwill find the sea lion after it washes up the next day. The meat is considered to beedible for up to three days after the animal has been shot, due to the cold waterconditions around St. Paul. Any hunter attempting to salvage a dead sea lion from aprevious day will examine the animals eyes to determine whether it is still edible.The sharing of sea lion meat after the kill is an important part of the communityethic. Hunters enjoy each others company on the lookout areas and share the killamong the group that happens to be assembled the particular day. Well meet atNortheast Point in a group. You go out by yourself, and then before you know it, herecomes one of your buddies. Then were sitting there talking away until we see a sealion. So before the day ends there will be four or five of us out there hunting sea lion,and then we share what we shoot.It is customary that anyone can salvage a dead sea lion that washes up, but theperson doing the salvaging usually shares the meat with the person who shot it, if it canbe traced. Whoever retrieves an animal tends to keep the sea lion liver, the heart, theflippers, and some shoulder steaks. They are most likely to give away the backstrapand the breast meat to elders. The skin, tailbone, and head are discarded back into thesea, but the vertebrae are often used for soup. Some hunters will salvage the teethsince there are three or four ivory carvers in the village, and they sometimes use thesea lions and fur seals teeth for making jewelry. One man says, We talk to each42other on the VHF, and when youre coming in, a party thats coming in might let youknow that its got extra sea lion on the truck, and if you need it, meet them someplace,or they go by the house and drop it off. We do a lot of our communication by radio.Sea Lion Huntinn at St. GeoraeShore-based hunting methods on St. George Island are similar to thosedescribed for St. Paul in the previous section. However, on St. George Island, huntingis more geographically dispersed than on St. Paul Island. In the words of one veteranhunter, We hunt sea lions on the south side of the island, in Zapadni Bay, dependingon when the wind and current is right. Same thing on the north side of the island atNorth Rookery, Stariya Artel, Tolstoi, and Sea Lion Rocks. If we hunt them in thesummer, we go to the South Rookery, where you have to walk - its quite a ways backthere. We try to stay away from the fur seal rookery where theyre mating and havingpups. We have to pack the sea lion meat out a mile and a half to two miles. Somepeople bone out the meat before packing it, but others haul the bone out along with themeat. Sometimes before they can return to the kill site for another load, the foxes willget into the meat. To prevent this they recommend tying the meat up inside a canvassack.On St. George, the season is somewhat shorter than on St. Paul. Huntingtraditionally begins in January and ends in May. Sometimes in the summer months sealions are taken on St. George during the fur seal roundups. Since sea lions oftenoccupy the same beaches as fur seals and compete with fur seals for haulout space,occasionally one or two get caught in the drives and are clubbed along with the furseals. One hunter says that in recent years sea lions have moved away from Dolnoiand Tolstoi. On the south end of the Dolnoi side they are now hauling out in birdrookeries for the first time in modern memory.43At the Northwest Rookery, hunters who shoot sea lions must scramble down thecliffs and attempt to snag their kill with a gay&. This is dangerous work during thewinter months since the rocks are covered with frozen salt spray and are extremelyslippery. Hunters must .be careful not to fall into the ocean. Once retrieved to theshore, hunters at times can attach a cable on their trucks winch to the sea lion carcassto help pull it up the face of the cliff.Some St. George hunters are persuaded that the sea lions can actually smellthe hunters cigarette smoke in the wind, and that the animals try to sneak by thehunting sites whenever they get a whiff of this smoke. There is usually an attempt tocurtail smoking on the hunting grounds.According to respondents, sea lion hunting on St. George Island has diminishedrather sharply in recent years. Since the mid-1980s hunters have noticed decliningnumbers of animals. There are fewer taken now because fewer are seen. Hunters feelmore obligated now to share their catch because sea lions are getting so scarce it is atreat to get some. Sea lion hunting effort on St. George may also be reduced becausein recent years there has been a boom in wage employment associated with harbordevelopment on the west side of the island. With more men working full-time, theyhave less time to go hunting, especially in mid-winter during the tanner crab season.Sea Lion Huntino at AtkaAt Atka, more sea lions currently are harvested per capita than most any otherAlaskan community -- 0.42 sea lions per person in 1992, 0.29 in 1993, and 0.55 in1994. In contrast with the shore-based hunting on the Pribilof Islands, a majority of thehunting is generally done on the ocean with skiffs. Atkan hunting parties make daytrips to hunt, returning back to the village by dusk. Parties may include several skiffs,and each skiff has at least two men and usually three, a skiff driver and one or twogunners. Hunting sea lions is also done on unisalus, concealed hunting stations similar44to duck blinds. During turbulent seas when skiff travel is risky, hunters may walk or ridefour-wheelers to these stations, although some stations are distant from the village andcan only be reached by skiff. Hiding in the rocks, they wait for sea lions to swim by inshallow water, and if they shoot and hit one, they try to retrieve it from shore with aqayu? In Atka, women sometimes participate in sea lion hunting, something notcommon elsewhere.Atka hunters do most of their hunting along the capes and reefs of Amlia Islandon the Bering Sea or north side, and on the Pacific or south side of Atka island as faras a haulout called Saguugux. They also visit a haulout known as Yasis, on the southside of Amlia Island. A primary strategy for hunting by skiff is to locate sea lionsswimming in deep water and drive them into the shallows. When sea lions move intoshallow water, they are shot and retrieved with a qayux. The Atka qay& is a banana-shaped piece of yellow cedar wood with a knob on each end. Around the middle alarge halibut hook is lashed to the shank, and from the leading end there is a piece ofline with a lead sinker or an old padlock attached. The Atka qayd is designed in sucha way that it sinks with the hook facing the bottom of the ocean. This makes it veryeasy to snag sea lions which are sinking or lying on the bottom or under the kelp.After retrieving a sea lion, hunters cut the throats of the animals and bleed themto make sure they are dead before loading them into the skiff. To grip the slipperyanimal, qanasis or slits are cut into hide at certain places so that the animal can begrasped and pulled over the gunwales. Once the animal is in the skiff, a slit is made inthe stomach to let the body heat escape. Gutting and cleaning are usually done rightat the kill site to reduce the weight of the animal. Atkan elders advise taking care ofnearby sea lion rookeries and haulouts by not leaving any dead animals on them. Thisis the unwritten law of the land. The sea lions liver is used by some hunters toassess the healthfulness of the animal. One Atka hunter said he worries aboutcontamination from Russian nuclear waste dumping. When I catch a seal or sea lion, I45first check the liver. Same with fish. If it is no good, then I get rid of them. Use of sealion in Atka has been previously described by Veltre and Veltre (1983).The age structures of animals harvested at Atka differ from those harvested atSt. Paul - rather than juveniles, adults are usually harvested: 65 percent in 1992, 61percent in 1993, and 62 percent in 1994. Females were about half or more of theharvest - 54 percent in 1992, 67 percent in 1993, and 52 percent in 1994. Thissuggests that Atka hunters are using different selection criteria from St. Paul hunters.At Atka, young male sea lions are thought to taste better than females. Females areoften taken because they reportedly spend more time on the surface of the water thanmales, providing opportunities for a good shot.Hunting activity by season at Atka displayed considerable variability from 19931994. The peak hunting month in 1992 was September, in 1993 it was November, andin 1994 it was April. This is because local sea lion movements and sea lion abundanceare highly variable around Atka. Hunters generally rely on frequent sightings aroundthe village before going out, and these sightings tend to vary from season to seasonand from year to year. As in St. George, it is noticed that the best hunting seems tooccur early in the morning and again early in the evening.Expert subsistence hunters are extremely knowledgable about marine mammalanatomy. The technical anatomical terms are an important part of local indigenousknowledge systems. The terms used at Atka for sea lion body parts are presented inTable 15, courtesy of Moses Dirks, a linguist and Aleut culture expert with the U.S. Fishand Wildlife Service, who was born and raised in Atka. Comparable Alutiiq terms usedat Old Harbor on Kodiak island are also presented in Table 15, courtesy of George IngaSr., who worked with Craig Mishler using the orthography developed by Jeff Leer of theAlaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska, Fairbanks.46TABLE 15.HARBOR SEAL AND STELLER SEA LION ANATOMYALUTIIQ AND WESTERN ALEUT TERMINOLOGYKODIAK ALUTIIQ HARBOR SEAL ANDSEA LION BODY PARTSCourtesy of George Inga Sr., Old Harborhead - naskoqeye - iingalaknose - oajiiwakmouth - kanukjaw - tamlukteeth - hoodittongue - uluqwhisker - ungukear - kyudaqneck - uyagoqthroat (trachea) - iigiyaqshoulder - tuuzhikchest - kaadiqbreast - amaqfront flipper - iibiktail flipper - iitrakclaw - stuqback/backstrap - pagoqhide - amiqfat/blubber - ogoqshort tail - nanilmoq bumyoqmale genitals - ciiqfemale genitals - ucuqanus - utukhair - cuulukmeat - kamuqrib - cakiqbones - naneqheart - umuanliver - arikkidney - cakiaklung - areqintestines - keloqstomach - akshaqgall bladder - cungaqblood - aukbelly button - kallajikOrthography is adapted from Jeff Leer, AConversational Dictionaw of Kodiak Alutiiq.Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center,University of Alaska, 1989.WESTERN ALEUT HARBOR SEAL ANDSEA LION BODY PARTSCourtesy of Moses Dirks, Atkahead - kamg$eye - dai(nose - an&i2mouth - agil@?jaw - husiEltooth - agaltongue - urns&whisker - inglaakusear - tutusijineck - uyuj;throat (trachea) - tunuuluxshoulder - qangligchest - simsijibreast - maqda^xfront flipper - ch?Gtail flipper - kiiaxclaw - qagal&$back/back&rap - hachigskin/hide - igluqajifat/blubber - chaduGnaxshort tail - tihmaqu2male genitals - qatxajZfemale genitals - chiichisanus - idigasfihair - chngagmeat - ul&rib - sakiig6skeleton - qagnasheart - kunuug&liver - aagi$kidney - daahuglung - humgijiintestines - iiliiiisstomach - kimlasgall bladder - chit%?blood - aamgi;lymphatic gland - tuhmu^xOrthography is taken from Knut Bergsland,camp., Aleut Dictionary. Fairbanks: AlaskaNative Language Center, University of Alaska,1994.47Sea Lion Huntina at Unalaska, Akutan, and NikolskiSea lion hunting methods at Unalaska, Akutan, and Nikolski follow patterns likethose described for Atka in the previous sections. At Unalaska, sea lions arecommonly hunted along the west side of the harbor, from Eider Point and DevilfishPoint out to Cheerful Cape. One hunter in Unalaska reported that he banged two rockstogether, making a clicking sound that aroused the curiosity of both harbor seals andsea lions and brought them within rifle range. One man in the skiff pounded the rockswhile another waited with a rifle poised for the sea lions head to pop up. One salvagemethod formerly used at Unalaska for sea lions that have sunk in deep water involvedusing a series of halibut hooks and sinkers attached to a longline. The hooks werepulled along the bottom of the ocean by two skiffs moving parallel to one another. Thismethod was apparently accomplished with the assistance of a gunner positioned on topof a cliff who did the shooting and who set a marker or pointer so that the skiff driverscould locate the sea lion after it was shot.Akutan hunters commonly use a .12 gauge shotgun for shooting sea lions. Asmaller gauge tends to only wound the animal. One hunter asserted that hunting sealions was tricky. They are smart. Sometimes when we are chasing them, they will justdive underwater until we go by; then they head in the other direction. They are fastanimals. For this reason it is better to have two skiffs than one. In Akutan, sea lionmeat is often called black meat. One hunter invites others to share in his success bycalling people and saying, Come on down and get some black meat.Sea lions were reported taken for subsistence at Nikolski in 1992 and 1993, butnot in 1994. At Nikolski, hunters report they usually hunt sea lions right in Nikolski Bay,although they have historically gone over to hunt them on the rookery at Anangula.One Nikolski hunter summarized their method for hunting both harbor seals and sealions: We try to hunt from the boat using binoculars. When we see one, we motor upto it. One person runs the boat; the other person does the gunning. Then we shoot48them when running. We use a qayux^ to retrieve the sinking seal or sea lion, then pullthem into the boat. Usually we have three people in the boat to help get them in. Wecut out a handle out of the meat and pull them into the boat. We bleed the animal outin the bay and butcher it. back here in the village. If a sea lion is too big and heavy tolift into the boat, it may be towed to the beach and butchered there, but one hunter saidthat by grabbing one flipper and putting an oar under it, a big bull sea lion can be gentlyrolled into the skiff.At Unalaska and Akutan, juvenile sea lions were commonly selected for harvest.The proportions of the harvests which were juvenile at Unalaska were 60 percent(1992) 50 percent (1993), and 55 percent (1994); at Akutan, juveniles comprised 83percent (1992) 39 percent (1993), and 36 percent (1994) of the harvest. By contrast,all the sea lions taken at Nikolski in 1992 and 1993 were adults. The majority of sealions taken at Unalaska were males: 54 percent (1992), 66 percent (1993), and 81percent (1994). However, one hunter said he preferred to shoot females because theyare not as wary of humans, do not dive under as long as males, and prefer shallowerwaters. Akutan hunters, like those in St. Paul, do not generally target females. Malescomprised the largest percentage of the sea lion harvest at Akutan: 75 percent (1992),75 percent (1993) and 82 percent (1994). At Nikolski, males were 43 percent of theharvest in 1992 and 100 percent in 1993.From this review of hunting methods, hunting seasons, and gender selection, itbecomes clear that there is a considerable degree of diversity between communities ofthe Aleutian and Pribilof islands. Hunters in the Pribilofs primarily target juvenile malesand do their hunting almost exclusively from the shore. Those in the chaincommunities target both males and females (although males predominated at Akutanand Unalaska) and do most of their hunting from skiffs.The Aleut qayd enjoys widespread use, though the design differs: the qay&used in the Pribilofs is made to float, while the qayuz developed in the chain49communities is made to sink. While marine mammal hunting in most communitiesseems to peak during the fall months, each community displays somewhat differenthunting seasons. One consistent pattern is that sea lion hunting is low in the summermonths (May, June, and .July) when sea lions are having their pups and are hauled outat the rookeries. Still, there are exceptions to this also, as when sea lions on thePribilofs are taken incidentally during summer fur seal roundups. The variety of sealion hunting methods in the Aleutians and Pribilofs reflects the unique adaptations ofcommunities to local conditions over time.50DISCUSSIONAt the state level, the total estimated take of harbor seal in 1994 was the lowestrecorded since surveys were started in 1992 (see Fig. 9). A comparison of the threesurvey years suggests a decline in total harbor seal takes - 2,888 (1992), 2,736(1993) and 2,621 (1994). At the same time, the apparent decline was less for thenumbers of seals harvested - 2,535 (1992), 2,365 (1993), and 2,313 (1994). Sealharvest estimates were close for 1993 and 1994 (a difference of only 52 seals). Theapparent decline in harbor seal take estimates between 1993 and 1994 are almost allattributable to lower numbers of struck and lost animals reported in 1994. Struck andlost rates for harbor seal in 1994 were the lowest recorded to date - 11.8 percent(1994) compared with 13.6 percent (1993) and 12.2 percent (1992).Similarly, at the state level, there is an apparent decline in sea lion takes overthe three survey years - 549 (1992), 487 (1993), and 416 (1994) (see Fig. 10). But likeseals, sea lion harvests are nearly the same for 1993 and 1994 (a difference of onlytwelve sea lions). The apparent decline in total takes is attributable in large measureto a decline in the number of struck and lost animals reported by hunters - 179 (1992),139 (1993) and 80 (1994). Struck and lost rates for sea lions were 19.2 percent in1994 compared with 28.6 percent (1993) and 32.6 percent (1992) (see Table 4).Therefore, while total take estimates are suggestive of slight declines in total animalskilled, harvest estimates have been relatively consistent over the past three years forharbor seals and sea lions.The reasons for lower struck and lost rates for harbor seal and sea lion in 1994are uncertain. Whether hunting conditions generally were favorable for retrieval ofanimals in 1994 is not known. The organization of a sea lion hunting group on St. Paulin 1993 may be associated with lower struck and lost rates recorded in that community.51Figure. 9Estimated Subsistence Takes of Harbor Sealby Alaska Natives, 1992 - 19943,5002 2,5003f 2,000p 1,500z 1,0005000Harvest Struckand TakeLostFigure 10Estimated Subsistence Takes of Sea Lionby Alaska Natives, 1992 - 1994600(IIs 5003% 400BL 300Ii5 200z1000Harvest Struck Totaland TakeLost52Figure 11Estimated Seasonally Adjusted Takes of Harbor Sealby Alaska Natives, 1992, 1993, 1994r50 _ . __ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .07 1Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Ott Nov OecFigure 12Estimated Seasonally Adjusted Takes of Sea Lionby Alaska Natives, 1992,1993,1994+1992-m-1993 +1994Jan Feb Mar W May Jun Jul Aug Sep act Nov DBZiSource: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Househdd Surveys, 1995.53Figure 13Sex Ratios (Males:Females)of Harbor Seal and Sea Lion HarvestsReported by Alaska Native Hunters, 1992 - 19945.0 -I4.5'si0 4.0z 3.5zin' 3.022 2.5$ 2.0'3g 1.5$f 1.0In0.5Harbor Seal Sea Lion100%90%80%70%80%50%40%30%20%10%0%Figure 14Age Structure (Pups, Juveniles, Adults)of Harbor Seal and Sea Lion HarvestsReported by Alaska Native Hunters, 1992 - 19943%16%82%t,cl PupsL-H JuvenilesEB Adults1992 1994 1992 1994Harbor Seal Sea Lion54The St. Paul hunting group disseminated draft hunting guidelines to hunters thatincluded suggestions for increasing retrieval efficiencies.At the state level, spring hunting for harbor seal and sea lion was particularlyproductive in 1994 in comparison with 1992 or 1993 (Figs. 11 and 12). Based onsubstantial takes reported during the first survey round, we incorrectly anticipated 1994to be a bumper year for harbor seal and sea lion hunting. However, the higher takelevels were not sustained during the second half of the year. In fact, subsistence takelevels were lower during second half of 1994 in comparison with other survey years.The result for the entire year was that total takes for harbor seals and sea lions in 1994were somewhat lower than previous years. This suggests that we do not yet haveenough experience to precisely predict what annual take levels will be from first rounddata sets.Hunters continued to report harvesting more male than female harbor seals in1994. Considering kills of known sex, male to female sex ratios have been similarbetween all three survey years for harbor seal (2.2 to 1 in 1992, 2.4 to 1 in 1993, and2.0 to 1 in 1994) (see Fig. 13). For sea lion, male to female sex ratios in 1994 camedown a bit from the previous year (3.3 to 1 in 1992, 4.6 to 1 in 1993, and 4.2 to 1 in1994). Considering kills of known age, the age ratios also are relatively similar betweenyears, as shown in Fig. 14. Hunters continued to report harvesting primarily adultharbor seals and primarily juvenile sea lions.A comparison of regional subsistence takes is presented in Table 16. Nogeneral statements can be made about hunting patterns that would apply to all regions.Plainly, subsistence takes do not necessarily track prey population trends over theshort term survey cycle, as shown by comparing selected regions in Figs. 15 and 16.For instance, harbor seal takes appear to have declined in southeast Alaska, whereseal populations are thought to be relatively stable, while three different take patternsare seen in three regions where harbor seal populations are thought to be in decline -55TABLE 16SUBSISTENCE HARBOR SEAL AND SEA LION TAKES BY ALASKA NATIVESBY REGION, 1992,1993, AND 19941992thrborse811992 lB92Hwbor Total8e8l HarborStruck se81RegionSoutheast AlaskaHarvested and Lost T&e1476.8 189.5 1666.2North Pacific Rim 377.6 33.4 411.0Upper Kenai-Cook inlet 51.6 0.0 51.6Kodiak Island 225.5 13.1 238.6South Alaska Peninsula 115.5 13.1 128.6Aleutian Islands 94.3 21.4 115.7Pribilof Islands 2.3 1.2 3.5South Bristol Bay 99.0 68.6 167.6North Bristol Bay 58.4 13.2 71.8Lake Iliamna 34.1 0.0 34.1 0 .0 0 .0 0 . 0Alaska Total 2535.1 353.4 2888.4 2365.3 371.1 2736.41982 1002lW2 Sea TotalSea Lion Se8Lion Struck LionRegion thvested and Lost TakeSoutheast Alaska 5.2 1.3 6.4North Pacific Rim 25.1 6.5 31.5Upper Kenai-Cook Inlet 5.7 3.8 9.5Kodiak Island 41.5 16.3 57.8South Alaska Peninsula 2.4 0.0 2.4Aleutian Islands 104.3 30.9 135.2Pribilof Islands 176.8 120.2 298.8South Bristol Bay 0.0 0.0 0.0North Bristol Bay 7.8 0.0 7.8Lake Iliamna 1.3 0.0 1.31003 19931893 Hubor TotalHrbor Sul HmborSeal Struck SillH a r v e s t e d andLost T&e1425.0 190.0 1615.0412.3 38.5 450.849.2 5.6 54.6171.7 20.1 191.8100.0 23.1 123.185 .0 15.4 100.42.3 1.2 3.573.6 57.3 130.946.1 20.0 66.1la03 1993 1994 19941993 S88 TOhl 1994 Sea TotASO8 Lion Sea Sea Lion SeaLion Struck Lion Lion Struck LionHatvested and Lost Take Hrveeted and Loet Take0 .0 1.1 1.1 3.5 1.1 4.626.2 6.7 34.9 16.6 9.7 26.37.8 3.3 11.1 1.4 0.0 1.441.5 16.9 58.4 57.1 4.2 61.34.6 1.2 5.7 4.6 1.1 5.799.0 24.8 123.8 101.8 20.5 122.3165.4 80.0 245.4 149.8 43.5 193.30.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.03.3 3.3 6.5 1.2 0.0 1.2Alaska Total 369.8 178.9 548.8 347.8 139.3 487.1 336.0 60.1 416.1LA1001 19941004 thrbor Totaltl8rtmr 8e8I HarborSCUI Struck SeaIHarvested and Lost Take1346.5 151.4 1499.9411.2 56.8 468.018.2 0.0 16.2168.2 3.6 171.796.6 11.1 109.8124.9 22.6 147.57.3 0.0 7.3121.6 59.3 180.916.2 3.3 19.50.0 0.0 0.02312.8 308.0 2620.8Source: Alaska Department of FishandGame. Divisionof Subsistence, Househoid Surveys.1995561800Figure 15Harbor Seal Takesfor Selected Regions, 1992-l 99416004 1200Q); 1000b0,z 600ii 6007..400All a d68SoutheastAlaskaNorthPacificRimKodiak AleutianIsland IslandsJ116 100 148300250u)E3 200Ltnis 150tE 1003500Figure 16Sea Lion Takesfor Selected Regions, 1992-199481992q 19930199458 58 61NorthPacificRimKodiak AleutianIsland IslandsPribilofIslands57Figure 17Change in Harbor Seal Harvests,North Pacific Rim CommunitiesYear848586878889so91929394HARBOR SEAL HARVESTSNanwalek Port Graham Chenega Bay Tatitlek18615429 32 39347327 17 16 1139 10 57 7618 30 28 11428 36 43 15334 31 61 11129 16 42 14658Figure 18Change in Sea Lion Harvests,North Pacific Rim CommunitiesYearSEA LION HARVESTSYear84858687888990919293PANanwalek8Port Graham Chenega Bay Tatitlek15272 21273 2 180 1 24 6 94 7 81 11 40 7 959Figure 19Changes in Harbor Seal Harvests,Kodiak island CommunitiesYear82868990919293Port Lions132823726HARBOR SEAL HARVESTSKarluk Akhiok Larsen Bay Ouzinkie Old Harbor66 89 56 96 15824 6 10 67 1277 13 26 34 458 27 261 17 24 4617 20 7 22 8710 13 8 41 6894 8 8 15 13 33 8460Figure 20Changes in Sea Lion Harvests,Kodiak island Communitiesrbor8286899091929394Port Lions830140SEA LION HARVESTSKarluk Akhiok Larsen Bay Ouzinkie Old Harbor27 54 36 11 967 6 0 13 1730 9 6 0 220 9 30 1 0 170 3 1 3 330 0 0 5 320 3 2 4 4661TABLE 17SUBSISTENCE HARBOR SEAL TAKES BY ALASKA NATIVESBY COMMUNITY, 1992,1993, AND 1994Community1992 1992 1993 1993 1996 19941992 Harbor TOM 1 9 9 3 Harbor Total 1994 Harbor TotalHarbor Seal Harbor Harbor Seal Harbor Harbor Seal HarborSeal Struck SOd Seal Struck Seal Seal Struck SealHarveeted and Loet Take arveeted and Loet Take arveeted and Lost TakeSOUTHEAST ALASKAAngoonCraigHainesHoonahHydaburgJuneauKakeKasaanKetchikanKlawockKlukwanMetlakatlaPelicanPetersburgSaxmanSitkaWrangellYakutat 248.0 61.3 309.3NORTH PACIFIC RIMChenega Bay 42.6 2.3 44.9Cordova 103.8 8.8 112.5Nanwaiek 27.9 0.0 27.9Port Graham 36.2 4.7 40.8Seldovia 12.4 0.0 12.4Seward 2.0 0.0 2.0Tatiilek 152.9 17.7 170.6Valdez 0.0 0.0 0.0125.1 28.9 154.074.2 0.0 74.230.5 7.9 36.4350.2 24.8 375.030.0 2.1 32.1122.6 7.6 130.2173.9 12.3 166.20.0 0.0 0.090.2 6.5 96.839.0 1.4 40.36.0 2.0 10.01.3 0.0 1.30.3 1.4 9.722.4 2.6 25.022.2 1.2 23.5124.7 21.4 146.16.0 8.0 14.0UPPER KENAI-COOK INLETAnchorage 17.1 0.0 17.1HomerKenai 33.3 0.0 33.3Tvonek 1.1 0.0 1.1KODIAK ISLANDAkhiok 20.0 3.0 23.0Karluk 16.5 1.5 18.0Kodiak City 36.9 0.0 36.9Larsen Bay 6.5 0.0 6.5Old Harbor 86.8 5.3 92.1Ouzinkie 21.8 1.1 23.0Port Lions 38.9 2.2 39.156.6 9.9 66.5 66.9 21.1 88.051 .l 9.8 60.9 42.7 6.6 49.323.0 2.3 25.3 39.3 2.2 41.5324.4 35.8 366.2 240.7 15.0 255.814.0 0.0 14.0 10.0 0.0 10.059.0 21.8 80.6 78.6 13.5 92.1100.8 15.2 115.9 99.3 7.4 106.642.4 2.9 45.3 31.4 0.0 31.439.8 0.0 39.8 71.1 0.0 71.11.2 0.0 1.2 3.8 1.3 5.05.3 1.1 6.4 4.4 1.1 5.64.5 4.5 9.0 15.2 1.3 16.45.8 0.0 5.6 16.5 0.0 16.5109.3 20.6 129.9 110.5 20.1 130.619.5 9.0 28.5 101.0 27.0 128.0566.4 57.4 625.8 417.1 35.0 452.160.8 2.2 63.0 42.0 3.9 45.9147.4 5.5 152.9 135.8 9.1 144.933.9 3.2 37.1 29.0 4.8 33.730.6 3.2 33.7 15.5 5.2 20.77.9 4.9 12.8 8.0 0.0 8.00.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 5.0110.8 15.5 126.4 145.9 30.9 176.821 .o 4.0 25.0 30.0 3.0 33.024.4 5.6 30.04.8 0.0 4.820.0 0.0 20.013.3 0.0 13.3 14.5 0.0 14.510.0 1.3 11.3 7.5 0.0 7.56.0 1.0 7.0 7.6 0.0 7.67.7 5.5 13.2 13.4 2.2 15.767.6 2.7 70.3 83.7 1.3 85.041.2 8.7 49.8 33.4 0.0 33.428.0 1.0 27.0 8.0 0.0 8.04.2 0.0 4.212.0 0.0 12.062TABLE 17 (CONTINUED)SUBSISTENCE HARBOR SEAL TAKES BY ALASKA NATIVESBY COMMUNITY, 1992,1993, AND 19941992 19921992 Herbor TotalHarbor Seal HarborSeal Struck SealCommunity Harvested and Lost TakeSOUTH ALASKA PENINSULAChignik Bay 2.4 1.2 3.6Chignik Lagoon 4.0 0.0 4.0Chignik Lake 8.3 2.1 10.3False Pass 18.0 0.0 18.0lvanof Bay 10.0 1.0 11.0King cow 26.0 6.7 32.7Nelson Lagoon 0.0 0.0 0.0Perryville 8.9 2.2 11.1Sand Point 37.9 0.0 37.9ALEUTIAN ISLANDSAkutan 12.9 4.3 17.1Atka 28.6 9.9 36.5Nikolski 5.8 3.5 9.3Unalaska 47.0 3.7 50.8PRIBILOF ISLANDSSt. George 0.0 0.0 0.0St. Paul 2.3 1.2 3.5SOUTH BRISTOL BAYEgegik 3.3 14.3 17.7King Salmon 10.2 0.0 10.2Levelock 10.8 0.0 10.8Naknek 26.6 7.0 33.6Pilot Point 5.4 4.3 9.7Port Heiden 40.5 36.0 76.5South Naknek 2.3 6.9 9.2NORTH BRISTOL BAYAleknagik 0.0 3.6 3.6Clarks Point 0.0 0.0 0.0Dillingham 29.2 3.8 32.9Manokotak 4.9 3.8 8.7Togiak 24.3 2.0 26.3LAKE ILIAMNAIliamna 10.7 0.0 10.7Newhalen 23.4 0.0 23.41993 1993 1994 19941 9 9 3 Harbor Total 1994 Harbor TotalHarbor Seal Harbor Harbor Seal HarborSeal Struck Seal Seal Struck Sealarvested and Lost Take lawested and Lost Take8.3 5.0 11.34.3 1.1 5.315.2 5.5 20.819.0 0.0 19.016.3 4.7 21 .o12.8 3.5 16.312.8 2.1 15.013.3 1.2 14.415.6 4.5 20.132.7 0.0 32.74.0 1.0 5.032.7 9.9 42.83.4 0.0 3.40.0 1.0 1 .o20.8 1.3 22.112.6 2.1 14.712.0 1.3 13.320.9 1.1 22.021.1 0.0 21 .l7.8 4.3 12.113.8 3.5 17.373.7 8.7 82.36.0 0.0 6.031.4 10.5 41.80.0 0.0 0.02.3 1.2 3.57.7 3.3 11.021.3 10.7 32.02.7 5.4 8.12.7 0.0 2.72.2 0.0 2.230.7 19.9 50.66.4 18.0 24.40.0 0.0 0.07.3 0.0 7.312.8 0.0 12.817.0 4.5 21.50.0 0.0 0.021.4 8.3 29.73.1 0.0 3.163.0 45.3 108.34.4 1.1 5.50.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.3 3.30.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.018.0 4.2 22.2 16.2 0.0 16.23.2 0.0 3.2 0.0 0.0 0.024.9 15.8 40.7 0.0 0.0 0.0Source: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Household Surveys, 1995.63TABLE 18SUBSISTENCE SEA LION TAKES BY ALASKA NATIVESBY COMMUNITY, 1992,1993, AND 199419921992 SeaSM LionLion StruckCommunity Harvested and LostSOUTHEAST ALASKAAngoon 0.0 0.0Craig 0.0 0.0Haines 0.0 0.0Hoonah 0.0 0.0Hydaburg 0.0 0.0Juneau 0.0 0.0Kake 0.0 0.0Kasaan 0.0 0.0Ketchikan 0.0 0.0Klawock 1.4 0.0Klukwan 0.0 0.0Metlakatla 0.0 0.0Pelican 0.0 0.0Petersburg 0.0 0.0Saxman 0.0 0.0Sitka 3.0 1.3Wrangell 0.0 0.0Yakutat 0.0 0.0NORTH PAClFtC RIMChenega Bay 6.9 1.2Cordova 0.0 0.0Nanwalek 6.3 0.0Port Graham 3.5 1.2Seldovia 0.0 0.0Seward 0.0 0.0Tatiilek 8.3 4.2Valdez 0.0 0.0UPPER KENAI-COOK INLETAnchorage 5.7 3.8HomerKenai 0.0 0.0Tyonek 0.0 0.0KODIAK ISLANDAkhiok 3.0 1 .oKarluk 0.0 0.0Kodiak City 0.0 0.0Larsen Bay 1.1 0.0Old Sea 32.9 13.2Ouzinkie 3.4 0.0Port Lions 1.1 2.21992TotalSeaLionTake0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.01.40.00.00.00.00.05.00.00.08.10.06.34.70.00.012.50.09.50.00.04.00.00.01.146.13.43.31993 19931993 Sta TotalSea Lion SeaLion Struck Lioniarvtsted and Lost Take0.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 1.1 1.10.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.011.1 6.6 17.71.5 0.0 1.58.5 1.1 9.51.1 0.0 1.10.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.04.1 1.0 5.20.0 0.0 0.07.8 3.3 11.10.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.0 3.2 0.0 3.20.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.00.0 12.7 12.7 1.1 0.0 1.10.0 0.0 0.0 2.2 0.0 2.232.1 1.0 33.2 46.2 1.3 47.55.4 2.2 7.6 4.4 2.9 7.34.0 1.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 0.01994 19941994 Sea TotalSea Lion SeaLion Struck Lionarvtsttd and Lost Take0.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.01.1 0.0 1.11.2 0.0 1.20.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.01.1 1.1 2.20.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.06.6 0.0 6.60.0 0.0 0.01.2 2.3 3.50.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.08.8 7.4 16.20.0 0.0 0.01.4 0.0 1.40.0 0.0 0.064TABLE 18 (CONTINUED)SUBSISTENCE SEA LION TAKES BY ALASKA NATIVESBY COMMUNITY, 1992,1993, AND 199419921992 SeaSe0 LionLion StruckCommunity Harvested and LostSOUTH ALASKA PENINSULAChignik Bay 0.0 0.0Chignik Lagoon 0.0 0.0Chignik Lake 0.0 0.0False Pass 0.0 0.0lvanof Bay 0.0 0.0King Cove 1.3 0.0Nelson Lagoon 0.0 0.0Perryville 1 .l 0.0Send Point 0.0 0.0ALEUTIAN ISLANDSAkutan 25.7 4.3Atka 28.6 9.9Nikolski 8.2 0.0Unalaska 41.8 16.7PRIBILOF ISLANDSSt. George 14.9 55.0St. Paul 161.7 65.21992TotalSeaLionTake0.00.00.00.00.01.30.01.10.030.038.58.258.569.9226.8SOUTH BRISTOL BAYEgegik 0.0 0.0 0.0King Salmon 0.0 0.0 0.0Levelock 0.0 0.0 0.0Naknek 0.0 0.0 0.0Pilot Point 0.0 0.0 0.0Port Heiden 0.0 0.0 0.0South Naknek 0.0 0.0 0.0NORTH BRISTOL BAYAleknagik 0.0 0.0 0.0Clarks Point 0.0 0.0 0.0Dillingham 0.0 0.0 0.0Manokotak 3.9 0.0 3.9Togiak 3.9 0.0 3.9LAKE ILIAMNAIliamna 1.3 0.0 1.3Newhalen 0.0 0.0 0.01993 1993 1994 19941993 set Total 1994 Sea TotalSea Lion Sta sea Lion SeaLion Struck Lion Lion Struck Lionlarvttttd and Lost Take krvttttd and Lost Take0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.01.1 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.02.3 1.2 3.5 0.0 0.0 0.01.2 0.0 1.2 3.2 1.1 4.30.0 0.0 0.0 1.4 0.0 1.40.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.014.5 8.9 23.4 12.7 3.5 16.225.1 0.0 25.1 45.5 8.7 54.26.0 0.0 6.0 0.0 0.0 0.053.4 15.9 69.3 43.6 8.4 51.93.7 14.8 18.6 2.8 17.1 19.9161.7 65.2 226.8 147.0 26.4 173.40.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.03.3 3.3 6.50.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.01.2 0.0 1.2Source: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Household Surveys, 1995.65takes are increasing in the North Pacific Rim, decreasing on Kodiak Island, and variableon the Aleutian Islands (Fig. 15). For areas where sea lion populations are reported indecline, sea lion takes have been relatively stable across the three survey years forthree areas (North Pacific Rim, Kodiak Island, and the Aleutian Islands), and have beendecreasing on the Pribilof Islands (Fig. 16). These regional comparisons suggest thatsubsistence takes are influenced by number of local factors, of which prey abundanceis but one variable.For instance, in the North Pacific Rim, subsistence takes of harbor seal haveshown an increase between 1992 and 1994 (Fig. 15). This increase probably reflects arebound of subsistence hunting following the depression of subsistence activitiestriggered by the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound in 1989. That eventseverely dismpted subsistence hunting patterns in communities in close proximity to thespill center. Families reduced their subsistence activities the year of the spill becauseof the uncertainties of the health safety of consuming wild foods harvested from oiledareas. Subsistence productivity levels have shown signs of recovery since the disaster,including a resurgence of marine mammal hunting. This resumption of traditionalpatterns is probably responsible for the observed increases in takes in an area wherepopulations of seals and sea lions are thought to be declining. Nevertheless, thisrebound has not brought seal harvests to prespill levels in two communities (Fig. 17).The 1994 seal harvest in Tatitlek was still half of harvest levels documented in 1987and 1988 by the Division of Subsistence, and the 1994 seal harvest in Chenega Baywas a quarter of that documented in 1984 and 1985 (Fig. 17). In Port Graham andNanwalek, which are farther from the oil spill center, seal hanrests in 1994 were similarto levels documented before the spill in 1987 (Fig. 17).In the Kodiak Island area, seal harvests in 1994 (161 seals) were lower thanthose recorded a decade before - 478 seals in 1982 and 262 seals in 1986 (Fig. 19).Sea lions harvests in 1994 (55 sea lions) were about a quarter of recent historic levels -66232 sea lions in 1982 and 202 sea lions in 1986 (Fig. 20). Harvests in 1994 were lowerin all six Kodiak Island communities compared with levels in 1982. In this case, lowertakes of marine mammals may be only partially associated with disruptions by theE x x o n Valdez oil spill in 1989. Communities farther away from the spill centerexperienced less severe spill effects (Fall and Utermohle 1995). The declines in marinemammal harvests appear to predate the spill year. According to key respondents,lower harvests in Kodiak Island probably were due in part to the lower availability ofseals and sea lions in community hunting areas.Community harvests continued to display a complex picture between the threesurvey years (Tables 17 and 18). Comparisons between years demonstrate variabilityin subsistence takes across years at the community level due to a variety of localecological, economic, and cultural factors. These local factors probably includeweather conditions during harvest seasons, availability of animals to hunters, level ofseasonal employment in communities affecting hunter participation, health of keyhunters, household and community food requirements, and social obligations toprovision funeral ceremonies, among other variables. Causal explanations for any onecommunitys harvest change are likely to be specific to that place and year, and notnecessarily applicable to any other set of communities. No simple generalizations canbe made comparing 1994 subsistence takes at the community level except that theydisplay a relatively complex picture.As stated in the first two reports on harbor seal and sea lion takes, single-yearhunter surveys cannot provide information on the ranges or trends of harvests overtime. Subsistence harvests tend to be dynamic, adapting over time to a number ofecological, economic, and cultural factors. With three years of information, thecharacteristics of these hunting dynamics begin to take shape. Harbor seal and sealion harvest levels have not been subject to radical swings from one year to the next,particularly in the aggregate. The least variability in estimates between years is67demonstrated at the statewide level, while the greatest variability between years isdemonstrated at the community level, with regional estimates falling intermediatebetween the two. No great changes are noteworthy at the statewide level in the threesurvey years, implying that statewide takes may be relatively stable and predictablebetween years for harbor seal and sea lion. However, the stability at the state levelmasks more substantial variation in takes at the community level, undoubtedly due tolocal factors influencing the community take. While takes in some communities havebeen up on certain years, takes in other communities have been down, such that thevariation at the community level evens out for the statewide estimate. The same is truefor regions, with increases and decreases documented in individual regionsaggregating to produce a relatively consistent statewide estimate.It is also the case that harvest estimates have been more consistent than takeestimates or retrieval rates across the three survey years. This suggests that huntersare conducting their activities toward achieving targeted harvest goals - retrievingenough animals for feeding a family network. Hunting effort is applied to meet thoseharvest goals. Presumably, hunters apply more effort on years when hunting is lessproductive, or when struck and loss rates are higher, to achieve the harvest target. Asa result, retrieval rates (and consequently total take levels) display more variation thanharvests. The harvest target is undoubtedly set primarily by the food demands of thefamily network (and for a few specialized hunters, by the demand for marine mammalskin products for crafts). Food demands for marine mammals are a function of the sizeof the Native population that customarily consumes marine mammals (which isrelatively stable over the short tern??? and the strength of the local subsistence-casheconomy (which for particular families and communities can be quite variable from yearto year). Based on the analysis of this study, subsistence demand for harbor seal andsea lion products apparently has been relatively stable in rural Alaska as a whole overthe last three years.68REFERENCESBums, John, Kathryn Frost, and Lloyd Lowry1985 Marine Mammal Species Accounts. Game Technical Bulletin No. 7, AlaskaDepartment of Fish and Game, Juneau.Cochran, William G.1977 Samolino Techniques, 3rd Edition. John Wiley and Sons, New York.Fall, James A.1990 The Division of Subsistence of the Alaska Department of Fish and Game: AnOverview of its Research Program and Findings: 1m 27(2):68-92.980-i 990. ArcticFall, James A. and Charles J. Utermohle1995 An Investioation of the Sociocultural Consequences of Outer Continental ShelfDevelopment in Alaska, OCS Study MMS 95-013, 6 volumes. Anchorage: U.S.Minerals Management Service.Haynes, Terry L. and Craig Mishler1991 The Subsistence Harvest and Use of Steller Sea Lions in Alaska. TechnicalPaper No. 198. Division of Subsistence, Alaska Department of Fish and Game,Juneau.Veltre, Douglas and Mary Veltre198la A Preliminarv Baseline Study of Subsistence Resource Utilization in the PribilofIslands. Technical Paper No. 57. Division of Subsistence, Alaska Department1981b1983Wolfe,1993Wolfe,1994of Fish and Game, Juneau.Resource Utilization in Unalaska. Aleutian Islands. Alaska. Technical Paper No.58. Division of Subsistence, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Juneau.Resource Utilization in Atka, Aleutian Islands. Alaska. Technical Paper No. 88.Division of Subsistence, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Juneau.Robert J. and Craig MishlerThe Subsistence Harvest of Harbor Seal and Sea Lion bv Alaska Natives in1992 Technical Paper No. 229, pts. 1 and 2. Division of Subsistence, Alaska&%-tment of Fish and Game.Robert J. and Craig MishlerThe Subsistence Harvest of Harbor Seal and Sea Lion by Alaska Natives in1993 Technical Paper No. 233, pts. 1 and 2. Division of Subsistence, AlaskaDepartment of Fish and Game.Wolfe, Robert J., Martha Bet& Thomas Thornton, and Anne-Marie Victor1994 Tlinait Seal Hunting. Division of Subsistence, Alaska Department of Fish andGame, Juneau, Alaska.69SURVEY INSTRUMENT USEDIN HOUSEHOLD INTERVIEWS, 1994The Subsistence Harvest of Harbor Seal and Sea Lion by Alaska Natives in 1994, by RobertJ. Wolfe and Craig Mishler, Technical Paper No. 236, Division of Subsistence, AlaskaDepartment of Fish and Game, Juneau, July 1994. Final Report For Year Three, SubsistenceStudy and Monitor System (No. 50ABNF200055), Prepared for the National Marine FisheriesService.. .. . . b bF5ni.:iI::!::iC ...........APPENDIX BSUBSISTENCE TAKES OFHARBOR SEAL AND SEA LIONBY REGIONl -2 SOUTHEAST ALASKA3-4 NORTH PACIFIC RIM5-6 UPPER KENAI - COOK INLET7-8 KODIAK ISLAND9-10 SOUTH ALASKA PENINSULA11-12 ALEUTIAN ISLANDS13-14 PRIBILOF ISLANDS15-16 SOUTH BRISTOL BAY17-18 NORTH BRISTOL BAYTable 1. SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL HARVESTS: SOUTHEAST ALASKA, 1994SAMPLlNG DESIGN: &gJ& w mMIXED Total Native Households 663 998 1559Surveyed Households 489 215 704Sampling Fraction 66.9% 21.6% 46.2%Sample Household Members 1812 736 2!550Estimated Household Members 2087.4 3578.5 56650HARVEST AND USE INFORMATIONPercentage of Native HousehoMs: Estimated Community HarvestSea Harbor and T8ke (Expanded): Sea Harbr&l seal l&J $GeaJused N/A NIA Total Number Harvested 3.5 1348.5Hunted fvA NIA Total Number Struck and Lost 1 .I 151.4Harvested NIA NIA Total Number Taken 4.6 1499.9Received fvA NIAbA3hVay NIA NIA Number Harvested Per Capita N/A N/ASEA LION HARVEST BY MONTH UnknownJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Au9 Sap Dct Nov Dee Month TOMREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHDLDS (UNEXPANDED)HaNed 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 3Struck 8 Lost 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1Total Take 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 4ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.3 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.5Struck & Lost 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1Total Take 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.3 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.6ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)HaNeSt 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.3 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.0 3.5Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0.0 1.1Total Take 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.3 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.0 4.6Total Take (%) 0.0% 0.0% 24.4% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 51.3% 0 . 0 % 2 4 4 % 0.0% 0.0% lCO.O%Cum. Take 0.0 0.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 11 3.5 3.5 4.6 4.6 4.6Cum. Take (%) 0.0% 0.0% 24.4% 24.4% 24.4% 24.4% 24.4% 756% 75.6% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%HARBOR SEAL HARVEST BY MONTH UnknownJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Au9 Sep Dct NW Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)Harvest 99 112 120 175 56 16 19 34 43 61 116 95 149 1117Struck & Lost 5 16 12 31 1 1 0 3 3 a 9 4 40 133Total Take 104 126 132 206 57 17 19 37 46 69 127 99 189 1250ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TARE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 121.1 141.2 137.4 1966 70.3 19.4 22.8 39.3 49.3 94.0 136.0 112.0 207.8 1346.5Struck 8 Lost 7.2 16.1 14.1 3 2 8 1.1 1.1 0.0 3.3 3.6 0.4 9.7 4.3 47.6 151.4Total Take 126.9 159.3 151.4 2294 71 4 20.5 22.8 42.5 52.9 102.4 146.5 116.3 255.6 1499.9ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 141.2 166.6 157.9 241.6 93.5 2 3 4 28.9 47.7 57.1 166.4 157.3 124.7 1346.5Struck 8 Lost 8.6 28.6 16.1 45.3 1.1 1.1 0.0 3.3 6.4 0.4 20.2 4.3 151.4Total Take 149.8 197.5 174.0 286.9 94.6 24.5 28.9 51.0 63.4 114.8 165.5 129.0 1499.9Total Take (%) 10.0% 13.2% 11.6% 19.1% 6.3% 16% 1.9% 3.4% 4.2% 7 7 % 1 2 . 4 % 8.6% 100.0%Cum. Take 149.8 347.3 521.3 608.2 902.8 927.3 956.2 1007.2 1070.6 1185.4 1370.8 1499.9Cum. Take(%) 10.0% 23.2% 34.6% 53.9% 60.2% 61.8% 63.6% 67.2% 71.4% 79.0% 91.4% 100.9%SOURCE. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, DiGon of Sutwstence, Subsistence St&j and Monitor System for Sea Lions and Harbor Seals in Alaska.B-lTable 1. (cont.) SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL HARVESTS: SOUTHEAST ALASKA, 1994HARVEST BY AGE AND SEXseakulReportedby Community Est.sample (bnded)Number % Number lbAdult Male 2 00.7%Adult Female 0 0.0%Adult Unknown Sex 0 0.0%Juvenile Male 1 33.3%Juvenile Female 0 0.0%Juvenile Unknown Sex 0 0.0%Pup Male 0 0.0%Pup Female 0 0.0%Pup Unknown Sex 0 0.0%Male Unknown Age 0 0.0%Female Unknown Age 0 0.0%Unknown Sex and AgeTotal0 0.0%3 100.0%2.3 07.0%0.0 O.C%0.0 0.0%1.1 32.2%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%3.5 100.0%Harbor SealReporldby Commumty EstSample Ewnded)Number % Number %477 42.7% 504.5 41.9%252 22.6% 297.5 22.1%267 23.9% 330.9 24.5%40 4.3% 54.0 4.1%19 1.7% 21.2 1.6%23 2.1% 26.0 2.0%1 0.1% 1.0 0.1%1 0.1% 1.2 0.1%4 0.4% 4.9 0.4%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%25 2.2% 45.7 3.4%1117 100.0% 1348.5 100.0%SEASONALLY ADJUSTED TAKE BY MONTH, SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL-Sea Lion - X- Harbor Seal=" loo-\ #EX\ 4g !Tio-,\2"I rnd\ #"cn XI -x#0 0 0Jan Fcb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Au9 Sep Ott Nov DeeESTIMATED COMMUNITY HARVEST, STRUCK AND LOST, AND TAKE BY YEARSEA LION HARBOR SEALstruok/ Total Structd T o t a lb?Ik!4iwslLnsl~ mliam$lLgf~1992 5.2 1.3 6 .4 1992 1475.4 169.5 1664.91993 0 .0 1.1 1.1 1993 1425.0 190.0 1615.01994 3 .6 1.1 4 .6 1994 1348.5 151.4 1499.9SOURCE: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Subsistence StucQ and Monitor System for Sea Lions and Harbor Seals in Alaska.B-2Table 2. SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL HARVESTS: NORTH PACIFIC RIM, 1994SAMPLING DESIGN: B m TotalMIXED Total Native Households 40 548 588Surveyed Households 34 197 231Sampling Fraction 65.0% 35.9% 39.3%Sample Household Members 110 614 724Estimated Household Members 125.3 1561.0 1686.3HARVESTAND USE INFORMATIONPercentage of Native Households: Estimated Community HarvestSea Harbor and Take (Expanded): Sea HarborLionused Gow Lion Seal43.6% Total Number Harvested 16.6 411.2Hunted 35% 143% Total Number Struck and Lost 9.7 56 8Harvested I .3% 9.9% Total Number Taken 26.3 468.0Received 13.0% 40.5%Gave Away 6.6% 16.6% Number Harvested Per Capita 0.01 0.24SEA LION HARVEST BY MONTH UnknownJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Dct Nov Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)HaNed 1 1 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 5 12Struck & Lost 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 7Total Take 1 1 2 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 10 19ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 13 1.3 2.8 1.2 0.0 0.0 1.3 0.0 00 0.0 1.3 0 0 7 4 16.6Struck & Lost 0.0 00 0.0 2.3 0.0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.4 9.7Total Take 1.3 1.3 2.8 3.5 0 0 0 0 1.3 0.0 0.0 00 1.3 0.0 14.7 263ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 13 1.3 10.2 1.2 0.0 0.0 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3 0 0 16.6Struck 6 Lost 0.0 0.0 7.4 2.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.7Total Take 13 1.3 17.5 3.5 0.0 0 0 1 3 0.0 00 0.0 1.3 0.0 26.3Total Take (%) 5.0% 5 . 0 % 6 6 . 7 % 1 3 . 3 % 0.0% 06% 50% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 5.0% 0.0% lGUO%Cum Take 13 2.6 20.1 23.6 23.6 23.6 24.9 24.9 24.9 24.9 26.3 26.3Cum. Take (%) 5.0% 10.0% 76.7% 90.0% 90.0% 90.0% 95.0% 95.0% 950% 95.0% 100.0% 100.0%HARBOR SEAL HARVEST BY MONTH UnknownJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Cct Nov Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)danrest 13 19 26 43 17 10 16 26 21 33 22 31 30 301Struck & Lost 1 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 6 1 5 26 43Total Take 14 21 20 45 17 10 16 26 21 39 23 36 56 344ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 16.8 25.9 39.2 624 2 2 0 131 2 0 4 33.0 27.5 4.8 27.9 38.7 40.5 411.2Struck & Lost 1.5 2.6 0.0 2 8 0 0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.6 1.3 5.1 35.7 56.8Total Take 183 28.5 39.2 652 220 131 20.4 33.0 27.5 51.6 29.2 438 76.2 468.0ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 204 29.5 41.4 707 25.1 15.0 21.6 39.9 29.8 45.5 290 43.3 411.2Struck & Lost 15.5 26 0 6 175 0 4 0.2 0.6 1.7 0.6 7.8 1.3 8 2 568Total Take 35.9 32.1 42.0 862 255 15.2 22 1 41.5 30.3 533 30.3 51.5 4680Total Take (a) 7.7% 6.9% 9.0% 18.9% 5.4% 3.2% 47% 8.9% 6.5% 11 4% 6.5% 11.6% 100.0%Cum. Take 359 68.0 110.0 198.2 223.7 238.9 261.0 302.6 332.9 3853 416.6 468.0Cum. Take (%) 7.7% 14.5% 23.5% 42.4% 47.0% 51.0% 550% 64.7% 71.1% 82.5% 89.0% 100.0%SUURCE: ofAlaska Department of Frsh and Game, Drvrsron Subsistence, Subsrstence Study and Monitor System for Sea Lrons and Harbor Seals in Alaska.B-3Table 2. (cont.) SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL HARVESTS: NORTH PACIFIC RIM, 1994HARVEST BY AGE AND SEXSea Lion Harbor SealAdult MaleAdult FemaleAdult Unknown SexJuvenile MaleJuvenile FemaleJuvenile Unknown SexPup MalePup FemalePup Unknown SexMale Unknown AgeFemale Unknown AgeUnknown Sex and AgeTotalReportedbySampleNumber %2 16.7%Communrty Es!(EwndNNumber %2.6 15.8%0 0.0%0 0.0%2 16.7%1 8.3%1 8.3%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%6 50.0%12 100.6%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%2.6 15.8%1.3 7.9%1.2 7.0%0.0 00%0 0 00%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%8.8 53.4%16.6 100.0%RepoctdbysampleNumber %63 20.9%27 9.0%41 13.6%23 7.6%6 2.6%26 86%3 1.0%0 0.0%14 4.7%3 1.0%4 1.3%91 39.2%301 lcO.o%Commumty Es!(Expand@Number %782 190%32.1 78%72 7 17.7%294 7.2%7.6 1.8%33.3 8.1%3.8 0.9%0.0 00%18.9 46%4 4 1.1%5.9 1 4%125.0 394%411.2 100.0%SEASONALLY ADJUSTED TAKE BY MONTH, SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL-Sea Lion = x- Harbor Seal0Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Au9 Sep Ott Nov DeeESTIMATED COMMUNITY HARVEST, STRUCK AND LOST, AND TAKE BY YEARSEA LION HARBOR SEALStruck/ Total Struck/ Total-!&&f&!&g Take Year-&j Take1992 25.1 6 .5 31 .5 1992 377.6 33 .4 411.01993 26.2 8 .7 34.9 1993 412.3 36 .5 459.81994 16.6 9.7 26 .3 1994 411.2 56 .8 468.0SOURCE: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Diirsron of Subsalence, Subsistence Study and Monitor System for Sea Lions and Harbor Seats in AlaskaB-4Table 3. SEA LION & HARBOR SEAL HARVESTS: UPPER KENAI-COOK INLET, 1994SAMPLING DESIGN: &&g Qpg &@MIXED Total Native Households 64 64Surveyed Households 46 46Sampling Fraction 71.9% 71.9%Sample Household Members 152 152Estimated Household Members 210.7 210.7HARVESTAND USE INFORMAnONPercentage of Native Households: Estimated Community HarvestSea Hahor and Take (Expanded): Sea Habor&iorJ Sealthd N/A c&j sealTotal Number Harvested 1.4 16.2Hunted N/A NIA Total Number Struck and Lost 0.0 0.0Harvested tvA NIA Total Number Taken 1.4 16.2Received IVA N/AGave Away WA NIA Number Harvested Per Capita N/A N/ASEA LION HARVEST BY MONTH UnknownJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jut Aug Sep Dct NW Dac M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)HaNd 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1Struck & Lost 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Total Take 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Hawed 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4Struck & Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Haw3S.t 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4Struck & Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4Total Take (%) 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 100.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 100.0%Cum. Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4Cum. Take (%) 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 100.0% 100.0% lW.o% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%HARBOR SEAL HARVEST BY MONTH UnknownJan Feb Mar br Mav Jun Jul Aua Set Ott NW Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HbUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)ttatvest 0 0 9 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0Struck 8 Lost 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Total Take 0 0 9 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 10.8 1.4 0.0 1.4 0.0 1.4 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0.0 0.0 10.8 1.4 0.0 1.4 0.0 1.4 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 10.6 1.4 0.0 1.4 0.0 1.4 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0Struck 8 Lost 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0.0 0.0 10.8 1.4 0.0 1.4 0.0 1.4 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take (%) 0.0% 0.0% 66.5% 8.7% 0.0% 8.7% 0.0% 8.7% 74% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%Cum. Take 0.0 0.0 10.8 12.2 12.2 13.6 13.6 15.0 16.2 16.2 16.2 16.2Cum. Take 1%) 0.0% 0.0% 66.5% 75.2% 75.2% 83.9% 63.9% 92.6% 100.0% l@YJ% 100.0% 100.0%0 130 00 130.0 16.20.0 0 00.0 16.216.20.016.2100.0%SOURCE: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Dikion of Subsistence, slJbsistence study ,artd Momtor System for Sea Lions and Harbor Seek m At&aB-5Table 3. (cont.) SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL HARVESTS: UPPER KENAI-COOK INLET, 1994HARVEST BY AGE AND SEXseationReport&by Commumty Est.Samck EXDWKWAdult MaleAdult FemaleAdult Unknown SexJuvenile MaleJuvenile FemaleJuvenile Unknown SexPup MalePup FemalePup Unknown SexMale Unknown AgeFemale Unknown AgeUnknown Sex and AgeTotalNumber % Number %1 100.0% 1.4 100.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%I 100.0% 1.4 100.0%Hahr SealReportedby Community EstSample EWnded)Numbsr % Number %1 7.7% 1.4 6.7%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%11 64.6% 13.6 63.9%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%1 77% 1.2 7.4%13 100.0% 16.2 100.0%SEASONALLY ADJUSTED TAKE BY MONTH, SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL-Sea Lion - X- Harbor SealxI\I \Jan Feb Mar Jun Jul Aug Sep Ott Nov DeeESTIMATED COMMUNITY HARVEST, STRUCK AND LOST, AND TAKE BY YEARSEA LION HARBOR SEALSt~~ld T o t a l Struck/ Totalmwl!?z! I&t Yea!Y!a!ales! me1992 5 .7 3 .8 9 .5 1992 17.1 0 .0 17.11993 7 .8 3 .3 11.1 1993 29.2 5 .6 34.61994 1.4 0 .0 1.4 1994 16.2 0 .0 16.2SOURCE: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Diiision of Subsnlence, Subsistence St&j and Monitor System for Sea Liins and Harbor Seals in AlaskaB-6Table 4. SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL HARVESTS: KODIAK ISLAND, 1994SAMPLING DESIGN: &4& * wMIXED Total Native Households 50 252 302Surveyed Households 41 171 212Sampling Fraction 82.0% 67.9% 70.2%Sample Household Members 156 549 705Estimated Household Members 189.5 ai5.5 1004.9HARVEST AND USE INFORMAnONPercentage of Native Households:Sea Harbor!hJ sealused 390% 60.8%Hunted 16.0% 26.4%Harvested I I .2% 22.3%Received 35.4% 526%Gave Away 11.0% 23.1%Estimated Community Harvestand Take (Expanded): Sea Harbor&g!&jjTotal Number Harvested 57.1 168.2Total Number Struck and Lost 4.2 3.6Total Number Taken 61.3 171.7Number Hanrested Per Capita 0.06 0.17SEA LION HARVEST BY MONTH UnknownJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Dct NW Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)Harvest 3 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 4 13 a 5 1 39Struck & Lost 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 3Total Take 5 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 4 14 a 5 1 42ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 4.1 3.8 2.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 5.4 21.5 10.5 6.6 1.1 57.1Struck 8 Lost 2 9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.2Total Take 7.0 3.8 2.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 5.4 22.9 10.5 6.6 1.1 61.3ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNIN (EXPANDED)Harvest 4.2 3.9 3.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.2 5.5 21.6 10.6 6.7 51.1Struck & Lost 2.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3 0.0 0.0 4.2Total Take 7.1 3.9 3.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.2 5.5 22.9 10.6 6.7 61.3Total Take (%) 11.6% 6.4% 4.9% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 2.0% 8.9% 37.4% 17.3% 10.9% 100.0%Cum. Take 7.1 11.0 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 15.6 21.1 44.0 54.6 61.3Cum Take(%) 11.6% 18.0% 22.9% 23.0% 23.2% 23.3% 23.5% 25.4% 34.4% 71.8% 89.1% 100.0%REPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)Harvest 15 9 12 5 2 6 0 9 14 13 19 ia 0 122Struck 8 Lost 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3Total Take 16 9 12 7 2 6 0 9 14 13 19 ia 0 125ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)HaNeSt 20.2 12.9 la.8 5.9 2.9 7.2 0.0 12.5 la.3 17.8 26.8 24.7 0.0 166.2Struck & Lost 1.1 0.0 0.0 2.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.6Total Take 21.3 12.9 ia.8 a.4 2.9 7.2 0 0 12.5 la.3 17.8 26.8 24.7 0.0 171.7ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 2Q2 12.9 la.8 5.9 2.9 7.2 0.0 12.5 la.3 17.8 26.8 24.7 166.2Struck & Lost 1.1 0.0 0.0 2.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.6Total Take 21.3 12.9 la.8 a 4 2.9 7.2 0.0 12.5 la.3 17.8 26.8 24.7 171.7Total Take (%) 12.4% 7.5% 10.9% 4.9% 1.7% 4.2% 0.0% 7.3% 10.7% 10.4% 156% 14.4% 100.0%Cum. Take 21.3 34.3 53.0 61.4 64.3 71.5 71.5 84.0 102.3 120.2 147.0 171.7Cum. Take(%) 12.4% 19.9% 30.9% 35.6% 37.4% 41.6% 41.6% 48.9% 59.6% 70.0% 85.6% 100.0%SOURCE. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Dii of Subs&we, Subsistence Study and Monrtor System for Sea Liis and Harbor Seals in Alaska.HARBOR SEAL HARVEST BY MONTHJan Feb Mar b h4av JunUnknownJul Aua SOD Cd Nov Dac Month TotalB-7Table 4. (cont.) SEA LION AND HARBOR &AL HARVESTS: KODIAK ISLAND, 1994HARVEST BY AGE AND SEXseaLionAdult MaleAdult FemaleAdult Unknown SexJuvenile MaleJuvenile FemaleJuvenile Unknown SexPup MalePup FemalePup Unknown SexMale Unknown AgeFemale Unknown AgeUnknown Sex and AgeTotalReportedby Community Est.Sample EXLWKMINumber K Number K8 2 0 . 5 % 1 2 . 0 21.09b6 15.4%5 12.8%10 25.6%6 15.4%3 7.7160 0.0%0 O.oW0 O.O?b0 0.0%0 0.0%1 2.6?49.0 15.7%6.4 11.2%15.4 27.1%9.0 15.7%4.2 7.4m0.0 0.0%0.0 O.O?k0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%1.1 1.9%3 9 Ial.09b 57.1 100.0%Harbor SealReportedby Commumty EslSample (Expanded)Number % Number %38 3 1 . 1 % 53.9 32.1%16 13.1%16 13.1%10 140%13 10.7%15 12.3%0 0.0%0 0.0%1 0.89b0 0.0%0 0.0%5 4.1%21.7 12.9%21.3 12.7%2 4 4 14.5%18.1 10.8%20.0 11.9%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%1.1 0.7%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%7.5 4.5%122 100.0% 168.2 100.0%SEASONALLY ADJUSTED TAKE BY MONTH, SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL-Sea Lion - X- Harbor Seal300Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Au9 Sep Ott Nov DeeESTIMATED COMMUNlTY HARVEST, STRUCK AND LOST, AND TAKE BY YEARSEA LION HARBOR SEALStruck/ Total StruckI T o t a l&g&p&!lff!~ YwlAa!YaInr! Qj!@1992 41.5 16.3 57 .6 1992 225.5 13.1 236.61993 41.5 16.9 se .4 1993 171.7 20.1 191.81994 57.1 4 .2 61 .3 1994 166.2 3 .6 171.7SOURCE: AlaskaDeprtmentofFish and Germe,DivisionofSubsistence,Subsist~StudyandMonitorSystemforSeaLions andHarborSealsinAlaska.B-8Table 5. SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL HARVESTS: SOUTH ALASKA PENINSULA, 1994SAMPLING DESIGN: &Qyg Qg!g &@IMIXED Total Native Households 28 379 407Surveyed Households 25 182 207Sampling Fraction 89.3% 48.0% 50.9%Sample Household Members 104 602 706Estimated Household Members 116.6 12361 1352.7HARVEST AND USE INFORMATIONPercentage of Native Households: Estimated Community HarvestSea Ha&x and Take (Expanded): Ssa Harborm seal !&nJ &I&id 2 . 5 % 39.5% Total Number Harvested 4.6 9 6 6Hunted 2.2% 15.4m Total Number Struck and Lost 1 .I 11.1Harvested I .l% 10.6% Total Number Taken 5.7 109.8Received 1.7% 24.1%Gave Away 1.6% 13.3% Number Hatvested Per Capita 0.00 0.07SEA LION HARVEST BY MONTH UnknownJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Au9 Sap Ckt NW Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)Harvest 0 0 I 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 4Struck 8 Lost 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1Total Take 0 0 1 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 5ESTtMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.0 2.2 0.0 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.6Struck & Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 1.1Total Take 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.0 2.2 0.0 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 11 5 7ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.0 2.2 0.0 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4 6Struck & Lost 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1Total Take 0.0 0.0 1.4 0.0 2.9 0 0 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.7Total Take (%) 0.0% 0.0% 25.1% 0 . 0 % 50.2% 0 . 0 % 2 4 6 % 0.09b 0.09b 0.0?4 0.0% 0.0% 100.9%Cum. Take 0.0 0.0 1.4 1.4 4.3 4.3 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7Cum. Take (36) 0.0% 0.0% 2 5 . 1 % 2 5 . 1 % 7 5 . 4 % 7 5 . 4 % IWO% loo.9% 1 0 0 . 0 % 1 0 0 . 0 % lcw% 1 0 0 . 0 %HARBOR SEAL HARVEST BY MONTH UnknownJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Au9 Sep Dct Now Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)Harvest 2 10 6 1 3 1 2 4 I4 ia 9 4 0 74Struck a Lost 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 2 7Total Take 2 11 7 1 3 1 3 4 14 19 10 4 2 81ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 2.4 13.7 6.6 1.3 5.6 1.1 2.2 4.8 17.0 24.3 11.2 8.3 0.0 95.6Struck a Lost 0.0 1.0 1.1 0 0 0.0 0.0 I.3 0.0 0.0 I.3 1.1 0.0 5 4 11.1Total Take 2.4 14.7 7.8 1.3 5.6 1.1 3.5 4.0 17.0 25.6 12.3 8 3 5.4 169.8ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 2 4 13.7 6.0 I.3 5.6 1.1 2.2 4.0 17.0 24.3 I I . 2 8.3 986Struck 6 Lost 0.0 1.0 2.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 I.3 0.6 0.6 1.3 1.7 2.4 11.1Total Take 2.4 14.7 0.9 1.3 5.6 1.1 3.5 5.5 17.6 25.6 12.9 10.6 109.6Total Take (%) 2.2% 13.4% a.i% 1.2% 5.1% 1.6% 3.1% 5.0% 16.1% 234% 11.6% 9.7% 100.0%Cum Take 2.4 17.1 25.0 27.3 32.9 34.0 37.4 42.9 60.5 06.2 99.1 109.8Cum. Take (%) 2.2% 15.6% 23.7% 24.9% 30.0% 31.W 34.1% 39.1% 55.1% 76.5% 90.3% IWO%SOURCE: Alaska Department of Frsh and Came, Diviircn of Subsistence, Subsitence Study and Monitor System for Sea Lions and Harbor Seals inB-9Table 5. (cont.) SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL HARVESTS: SOUTH ALASKA PENINSULA, 1994HARVEST BY AGE AND SEXseationReportedby Community Est.Adult MaleAdult FemaleAdult Unknown SexJuvenile MaleJuvenile FemaleJuvenile Unknown SexPup MalePup FemalePup Unknown SexMale Unknown AgeFemale Unknown AgeUnknown Sex and AgeTotalsample (bnded)Number % Number %2 !m% 2.5 53.6%2 50.0% 2.2 46.4%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%4 100.0% 4.6 100.0%Habor SealRepoctdbySm*Number %20 270%Community Est(Expanded)Number %26.7 27.1%9 12.2%20 27.0%5 6.6%2 2.7%a 10.8%1 1.4%2 2.7%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%13.0 13.2%24.1 24.4%a.3 0.4%2.6 2.6?49.9 10.0%1.4 14%2.8 29%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%7 9.5% 9.9 10.0%74 100.0% 96.6 100.0%SEASONALLY ADJUSTED TAKE BY MONTH, SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL-Sea L ion - X- Harbor Sea l30, 1Jan Fcb Mar Apr Jun Jul Aw Sep Ott Nw DacESTIMATED COMMUNITY HARVEST, STRUCK AND LOST, AND TAKE BY YEARSEA LIONStruck/ Totalb?L!Y!m!&Lns! we1992 2 .4 0 .0 2 .41993 4 .6 1.2 5 .71994 4.6 1.1 5.7HARBOR SEALStruck/ T o t a lYeaIliarrestM&1992 115.5 13.1 126.61993 loo.0 23.1 123.11994 98.6 11.1 103.8SOURCE: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsilence, Subsiitence Study and Monitor System for Sea Lii and Harbor Seals in AlaskaB-10Table 6. SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL HARVESTS: ALEUTIAN ISLANDS, 1994SAMPLING DESIGN: &tj& Q!k &j.gjMIXED Total Native Households 23 149 172Surveyed Households 22 108 130Sampling Fraction 95.7% 72.5% 75.6%Sample Household Members 77 293 370Estimated Household Members 80.5 407.6 488.11HARVEST AND USE INFORMAnONPercentage of Native Households:Sea HaborEstimated Community Harvestand Take (Expanded): Sea Harborj&J seal /&$&Iused 6 6 . 7 % 6 7 . 3 % Total Number Harvested 101.8 124.9Hunted 23.1% 26.6% Total Number Struck and Lost 20.5 22.6Harvested 16.7% 21.o% Total Number Taken 122.3 147.5Received 61.3% 594%Gave Away M.% 247% Number Harvested Per Capita 0.21 0.26SEA LION HARVEST BY MONTH UnknownJan Feb Mar Ap May Jun Jut Au9 Sep Ocl Nov Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEtfDLOS (LtNEXPANDED)Harvest 9 a a 14 3 4 4 9 4 9 10 5 7 94Struck 8 Lost 0 1 4 4 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 6 19Total Take 9 9 12 Ia 3 7 4 9 4 IO 10 5 13 113ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 9.7 9.2 8.6 15.3 3.2 4.4 4.2 9.8 4.2 9.8 10.6 5.4 7.4 I0l.aStruck8 Lost 0.0 1.0 4.3 4.2 0.0 3.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 6.5 20.5Total Take 9.7 10.2 12.8 19.5 3.2 7.9 4.2 9.8 4.2 IO.8 10.6 5.4 13.9 122.3ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 10.4 10.2 9.3 16 1 3.5 4.6 4.7 10.3 4.7 10.5 11.6 5.9 101.8Struck 8 Lost 0.0 1.2 a.2 6.5 0.0 3.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 0.0 0 0 20.5Total Take 10.4 11.4 17.4 22.6 3.5 a.1 4.7 10.3 4.7 11.7 11.6 5.9 1223Total Take (%) 8.5% 9 . 3 % 14.2% 18.5% 2.8% 6.6% 3.8% 8.4% 3.8% 9.6% 9.5% 4.8% loO.O%Cum Take 10.4 21.8 39.2 61.8 65.2 73.3 78.0 88.3 93.0 104.8 116.4 122.3Cum Take (%) 8.5% 17.8% 32.0% 50.5% 53.4% 60.0% 63.8% 72.3% 76.1% 85.7% 95.2% 100.0%HARBOR SEAL HARVEST BY MONTH UnknownJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Dct Nov Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)Harvest 4 9 10 18 5 4 6 7 10 7 11 a 17 116Struck 8 Lost 1 2 3 2 0 2 1 1 2 1 2 0 4 21Total Take 5 11 13 20 5 6 7 a 12 0 13 a 21 137ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 4 4 9.6 10.8 19.3 5.5 4.2 6 4 7.6 10.8 7.6 11.8 a.7 18.3 124.9Struck8 Lost 1.0 2.1 3.2 2.1 0.0 2.3 1.1 1.1 2.2 1.1 2.1 0.0 4.3 22.6Total Take 5.4 11.7 14.0 21.4 5.5 6.5 7.5 0.7 13.0 0.7 13.9 0.7 22.6 147.5ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 4.6 11.2 12.0 22.9 6.5 4.0 7.6 a.9 12.4 8.9 14.0 10.3 124.9Struck 8 Lost 1.2 2.3 3.5 2.3 0.0 2.3 1.7 1.7 3.5 1.7 2.3 0.0 22.6Total Take 5.8 13.5 16.3 25.2 6.5 7.1 9.3 10.6 15.9 10.7 16.3 10.3 147.5Total Take (%) 3 9% 9 . 2 % 1 1 . 0 % 1 7 . 1 % 4.4% 4.a% 6.3% 7.296 1 0 . 8 % 7.2% 11.1% ?.0?4J 1000%Cum. Take 5.8 19.3 35.6 60.9 67.4 74.4 83.7 94.3 110.2 120.9 137.2 147.5Cum. Take (%) 3.9% 13.1% 242% 41.3% 45.?% 50.5% 56.8% 64.0% 74.?% 82.0% 93.0% 100.0%SOURCE: Alaska Department of Fish and Came, Diwn of Subsiilence, Subsilence Study and Monttor System for Sea Lions and Harbor Seats in AlaskaB-11Table 6. (cont.) SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL HARVESTS: ALEUTIAN ISLANDS, 1994HARVEST BY AGE AND SEXseauon Habr SealReporl=Jby Community Est.km* (Wnded)Numbar 9b Number %Adult MaleAdult FemaleAdult Unknown SexJuvenile MaleJuvenile FemaleJuvenile Unknown SexPup MalePup FemalePup Unknown SexMale Unknown AgeFemale Unknown AgeUnknown Sex and AgeTotal18 19.1%22 23.4%9 9.6%30 31.9%8 8.5%a 4.3%1 1.1%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%2 2.1%94 lW.o%20.3 19.9%23.8 23.4%9.6 9.4%32.2 31.6%8.6 8.4%4.2 4.1%1.0 1.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%2.1 2.1%101.8 IWO%Repoctdby Communrty EslSampla (-nded)Number '16 Numbar %21 18.1% 22.9 18.3%22 19.0% 23.7 19.0%17 14.7% 18.1 14.5%19 16.4% 20.5 16.4%8 6.9% 8 7 69%21 18.1% 22.5 18.0%3 2.6% 3.2 26%1 0.9% 1.1 0.9%3 2.6% 3.3 2.6%I 0.9% 1.0 0.8%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%116 100.0% 124.9 100.0%SEASONALLY ADJUSTED TAKE BY MONTH, SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL-Sea Lion - * Harbor Seal0Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Au9 Sep OttESTIMATED COMMUNITY HARVEST, STRUCK AND LOST, AND TAKE BY YEARNov OeoSEA LIONStruck/ TotalY!wlIl!ma~ &!$g1992 104.3 30 .9 135.21993 99.0 24 .6 123.61994 101.6 20 .5 122.3HARBOR SEALStruckl T o t a lkxizl%tales! I&1992 94.3 21 .4 115.71993 85.0 15.4 100.41994 124.9 22 .6 147.5SOURCE: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Dwisrcn of Subsiitence, Subsiitence Study and Monitor System for Sea Liins and Harbor Seats in AlaskaB-12Table 7. SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL HARVESTS: PRIBILOF ISLANDS, 1994SAMPLING DESIGN: &t& Q!E?L MMIXED Total Native Households 57 149 206Surveyed Households 39 67 106Sampling Fraction 66.4% 45.0% 51.5%Sample Household Members 149 201 350Estimated Household Members 217.0 421.8 639.6HARVEST AND USE INFORMAllONPercentage of Native Households: Estimated Community HarvestSea Harbor and Take (Expanded): Sea Harbor& seel h &3jjused 59.3% 2.1% Total Number Harvested 149.8 7.3Hunted 34.1% 2.1% Total Number Struck and Lost 43.5 0.0Harvested 21.4% 2.1% Total Number Taken 193.3 7.3Received 48.6% 0.7%Gave Away 25 7% 2.1% Number Harvested Per Capita 0.~3 0.01SEA LION HARVEST BY MONTH UnknownJan Feb Mar ~pr May Jun Jul Au9 Sep Ott NW Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)Harvest 1 5 4 4 16 2 3 0 14 19 17 4 2 91Struck & Lost 2 5 9 3 0 0 0 0 1 3 3 1 2 2 9Total Take 3 IO 13 7 16 2 3 0 15 22 20 5 4 120ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 1.5 7.3 5.8 5.8 32.6 2.9 4.4 0.0 26.6 29.3 24.0 5.8 2.9 149.8Struck 8 Lost 2.0 7.2 12.9 4.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.0 4.4 4.4 1.5 2.9 43.5Total Take 4.3 14.5 10.1 10.2 32.6 2.9 4.4 0.0 29.6 33.7 29.2 1.3 5.6 193.3ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 1.5 7.5 5.8 6.0 33.3 3.0 45 0.0 21.2 29.9 254 6.0 149.0Struck 8 Lost 2.8 7.8 13.5 4.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.4 4.9 4.9 1.6 43.5Total Take 4.3 15.2 19.3 10.5 33.3 3.0 4.5 0.0 30.5 34.0 30.3 7.6 193.3Total Take (%) 2.2% 7.9% 10.0% 5.4% 17.2% 1.5% 2.3% 0.w 15.8% 18.0% 15.7% 3.9% 100.0%Cum. Take 4.3 19.6 38.9 49.3 82.6 85.6 901 90.1 120.6 1554 185.7 193.3Cum Take (%) 2.2% 10.1% 20.1% 25.5% 427% 44.3% 46.6% 46% 62.4% 80.4% 96.1% loO.G%HARBOR SEAL HARVEST BY MONTH UnknownJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Au9 Sep Del Nov Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)Harvest 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 5Struck & Lost 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Total Take 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 5ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.9 1.5 1.5 0.0 0.0 1.3Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0.0Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.9 1.5 1.5 0.0 0.0 7.3ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.9 1.5 1.5 0.0 7.3Struck B Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.9 1.5 1.5 0.0 7.3Total Take (%) 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 20.0% 0 . 0 % 0 . 0 % 0.0% 0 . 0 % 4o.(ylb 2 0 . 0 % 2 0 . 0 % 0.0% 100.0%Cum. Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 4.4 5.8 7.3 7.3Cum. Take I%) 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 20.0% 20.0% 20.0% 20.0% 20.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0% lW.o%SOURCE: Alaska Department of Fish and Diviiic+-~ of Sllbsatence, Subs&n03 Study and Monitor System forSea Liis and Harbor Seals in AlaskaB-13Table 7. (cont.) SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL HARVESTS: PRIBILOF ISLANDS, 1994HARVEST BY AGE AND SEXseaLicmReportedby Community Est.Gmpk @F-wNumber % Numbef XAdult Male 5 5.5% 7.3 4.9%Adult Female 0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%Adult Unknown Sex 1 1.1% 1.4 1.0%Juvenile Male a1 890% 1 3 3 . 7 89.2%Juvenile Female 1 1.1% 3.0 2.0%Juvenile Unknown Sex 1 1.1% 1.5 1.0%Pup Male 2 2.2% 2.9 2.0%Pup Female 0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%Pup Unknown Sex 0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%Male Unknown Age 0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%Female Unknown Age 0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%Unknown Sex and Age 0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%Total 91 lW.o% 149.8 100.0%Harbor SealReported by Commumty EstSamde fEXLWKMNumber %0 0.0%Number %0.0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%5 lW.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%1.3 lW.o%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0 0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%5 lW.o% 7 . 3 lW.o%SEASONALLY ADJUSTED TAKE BY MONTH, SEA UON AND HARBOR SEAL-Sea Lion - m Harbor SealJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Au9-XSep Ott Nov DeeESTIMATED COMMUNITY HARVEST, STRUCK AND LOST, AND TAKE BY YEARSEA LION HARBOR SEALStruck/ TotalY!a!Y!uYstlpst~1992 176.6 120.2 296.61993 165.4 60 .0 246.41994 149.0 43.5 193.3Struckl T o t a lY.eatIlar!&~m1992 2.3 1.2 3.51993 2.3 1.2 3.51994 7.3 0 .0 7.3SOURCE, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Diiwm of Subsistence, Subsistence Study and hhiior System for Sea Liis and Harbor Seats in AlaskaB-14Table 8. SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL HARVESTS: SOUTH BRISTOL BAY, 1994SAMPLING DESIGN: &Q&j other J&lMIXED Total Native Households 19 264 263Surveyed Households 16 164 200Sampling Fraction 64.2% 69.7% 70.7%Sample Household Members 63 567 630Estimated Household Members 74.8 011.1 886.6HARVEST AND USE INFORMATIONPercentage of Native Households:Sea Harbor&g sealu s e d 1 . 1 % 40.9%Hunted 0.4% 19.6%Harvested 0.0% 12.0%Received 1.1% 29.1%Gave Away 0.096 12.0%Estimated Community Harvestand Take (Expanded): Sea Harbr&Q&gTotal Number Harvested 0.0 121.6Total Number Struck and Lost 0.0 59.3Total Number Taken 0.0 180.9Number Harvested Par Capita 0.00 0.14SEA LION HARVEST BY MONTH UnknownJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Dc! Nov Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)Harvest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Struck & Lost 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Total Take 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNIN (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Struck & Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0I Total Cum. Take Take (%) 0.0 - 0.0 - 0.0 - 0.0 - 0.0 - 0.0 - 0.0 - 0.0 - 0.0 - 0.0 - 0.0 - 0.0 -1 Cum Take(%) - - - - - - - - - - - -1 HARBOR SEAL HARVEST BY MONTH Unknown1.9% 16.6?& 26.8% 344% 50.2% 70.5% 96.1% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%SOURCE. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Divi&on of Subsistence. Subsistence Study and f&r&r System for Sea Lams and Harbor Seals In Alaska.Jan Feb Mar Apt May Jun Jul Aug Sep Ckt NovREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)Dee M o n t h TotalHarvest 0 0 3 M 12 5 12 15 28 4Struck 8 Lost 0 0 0 2 3 6 11 14 IO 2Total Take 0 0 3 22 15 11 23 29 38 6ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 3.5 24.3 14.6 6.3 14.9 19.5 33.7 4.8Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.3 3.8 7.5 13.7 17.2 12.6 2.3Total Take 0.0 0.0 3.5 26.6 18.4 13.8 28.6 36.7 46.3 7.1ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 3.5 24.3 14.6 6.3 14.9 19.5 33.7 4.0Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.3 3.8 7.5 13.7 17.2 12.6 2.3Total Take 0.0 0.0 3.5 26.6 10.4 13.8 28.6 36.7 46.3 7.1Total Take (%) O.Pb 0.0% 1 . 9 % 1 4 . 7 % 1 0 . 2 % 7 . 6 % 1 5 . 8 % 2 0 . 3 % 2 5 . 6 % 3.9%Cum.Take 0.0 0.0 3.5 30.1 48.4 62.2 90.8 127.5 173.8 180.90 0 00 0 00 0 00.0 0.0 0.0 121.60.0 0.0 0.0 59.30.0 0.0 0.0 le0.90.0 0.00.0 0.00.0 0.00.0% 0.0%180.9 180.99948147121.659.3180.9lfN.CF%B-15HARVEST BY AGE AND SEXsea LionRcportdby Community Est.Sample EXPdCdlAdult MaleAdult FemaleAdult Unknown SexJuvenile MaleJuvenile FemaleJuvenile Unknown SexPup MalePup FemalePup Unknown SexNumber K N u m b e r K0 - 0.0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -Male Unknown Age 0 - 0.0 -Female Unknown Age 0 - 0.0 -Unknown Sex and Age 0 - 0.0 -Total 0 - 0.0 -Hahor SealReportedby Communtty Est.sample (Expanded)Number % Number %16 16.2% 20.7 170%6 6.1% 7.2 5.9%41 41.4% 51.4 42.3%1 1.0% 11 0.9%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%a 0.1% 9.7 8.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%9 9.1% 10.3 65%3 3.0% 3.4 2.6%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%15 15.2% 17.9 14.7%99 lW.o% 121.6 100.0%SEASONALLY ADJUSTED TAKE BY MONTH, SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL-Sea Lion = X- Harbor Seali 35- x .I- 4$30I .; x r.s 25- a*-2 20-I I. 8=" IS-I x* IL m 82 I xg 10 -- 83Im =->c3\OW %c-Jan Feb Mar Av WY Jun Jul Aug Sep Ott Nov DeeESTIMATED COMMUNITY HARVEST, STRUCK AND LOST, AND TAKE BY YEARSEA LION HARBOR SEALStruck/ Total Struck/ Total&axkk!!YB!LnslLake Yalt!G!Yam I&1992 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 1992 99.0 66 .6 167.61993 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 1993 73.6 57 .3 130.91994 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 1994 121.6 59 .3 160.9SOURCE: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsstence, Subsistence St@ and h4onitoc System for Sea Liis and Harbor Seals in Ataska.B-16Table 9. SEA LION, HARBOR & SPOTTED SEAL HARVESTS: NORTH BRISTOL BAY, 1994SAMPLING DESIGN: && other &QjMIXED Total Native Households 7 6 6 2 5 701Surveyed Households 7 0 1 2 6 196Sampling Fraction 92.1% 2 0 . 2 % 2 6 . 0 %Sample Household Members 309 488 797Estimated Household Members 337.6 2273.2 2610.8HARVEST AND USE INFORMAnONPercentage of Native Households: Estimated Community HarvestSea HwbmSealand and Take (Expanded): sea liaftmr spottedLionused 7.9%SDolted Seal !Jonw seal52.5% Total Number Harvested 1.2 16.2 226.5Hunted 1.7% 230% Total Number Struck and Lost 0.0 3.3 42.9Harvested 0.2% 145% Total Number Taken 1.2 19.5 269.5Received 4.9% 43.9%Gave Away 2.1% 24.3% Number Harvested Per Capita 0.00 0.01 0.09SEA LION HARVESFTBY MhTNTH UnknownJan ADr Mav Jun Jul Aua se0 Ckl Nov Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)tiarvest 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0Struck 8 Lost 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Total Take 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take (%) 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 100.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%Cum. Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2Cum. Take (%I 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% lcO.o% 100.0% 100.0% 1000%0.00.00.00.00.00.00.0%1.2100.0%0 10 00 10.0 1.20.0 0.00.0 1.21.20.01.2100.0%HARBOR SEAL AND SPOTTED SEAL HARVEST BY MONTHspotted Seal I Harbor Seal I Spotted SealJan t-eb Mar Apr May] Jun Jul Aug epl w NW TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)HaNeSt 12 18 33 65 7 0 1 0 2 7 4Struck & Lost 3 6 7 8 0 0 2 0 0 2 1Total Take 15 24 40 73 7 0 3 0 2 9 5ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 17.7 26.4 46.8 90.6 22.6 0.0 1.0 0.0 15.2 8.4 4.8Struck 8 Lost 3.6 10.5 11.7 10.7 0.0 0.0 3 3 0.0 0.0 4.1 1.2Total Take 21.3 36.9 58.5 101.2 2 2 6 0 0 4.3 0.0 15.2 12.5 6.0ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 17.7 26.4 46.8 90.6 22.6 0.0 1.0 0.0 15.2 8.4 4.8Struck 8 Lost 3.6 10.5 11.7 10.7 0.0 0.0 3.3 0.0 0.0 4.1 1.2Total Take 21.3 36.9 58.5 101.2 22.6 0.0 4.3 0.0 15.2 12.5 6.0Total Take (%) 7.4% 12.8% 20.2% 35.0% 7.8% 0.0% 1.5% 0.0% 5.3% 4.3% 2.1%Cum. Take 21.3 58.2 116.7 218.0 240.5 240.5 244.8 244.8 260.1 272.5 278.5Cum. Take (%) 7.4% 20.1% 40.4% 75.4% 83.2% 83.2% 84.7% 84.7% 90.0% 94.3% 96.4%0 1540 300 1849.3 0 . 0 2 4 2 . 81.2 0.0 46.210.5 0 . 0 2 8 9 . 09.3 242.81.2 46.210.5 289.03.6% 100.0%289.0100.0%SDURCE. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, D&is+on of Subsstence, Subsiitence Study and h4omtor System for Sea LKWIS and Harbor Seals m Alaska7B-17Table 9.(cont) SEA LION, HARBOR h SPOTTED SEAL HARVESTS: NORTH BRISTOL BAY, 1994HARVEST BY AGE AFAdult MaleAdult FemaleAdult Unknown SexJuvenile MaleJuvenile FemaleJuvenile Unknown SexPup MalePup FemalePup Unknown SexMale Unknown AgeFemale Unknown AgeUnknown Sex and AgeTotalD S E XSea Lion I Ha&x Seal I spotted sealReportedby Community Est. 1 Reportedby Community Est. 1 Reported by Community Est.sample (Expanded) Sample' FVJnded) Sample' Ewnded)!iu!!hx%~16~%~%~%6Number0 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 2 68.7% 15.2 938% 27 17.9% 38.1 16.8%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0.0 00% 23 15.2% 28.9 12.7%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 1 33.3% 1.0 6.2% 21 13.9% 36.6 16.2%1 100.0% 1.2 100.0% 0 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 21 13.9% 35.0 15.4%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 13 8.6% 18.5 8.2%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 33 21.9% 521 2?.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 6 4.0% 8.0 3.5%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 1 0.7% 1.2 0.5%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 3 2.cBb 4.5 2.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0.0 00% 0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0 0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 0 0.0% 0.0 0.0% 3 2.0% 3.6 1.6%1 100.0% 1.2 100.0% 3 100.0% 16.2 100.0% 151 1cQ.o?4 226.5 IWO%l tia~eSl In unknown months is not in&&d in the Jampk? b&St, but is in&&d in the CQmmUnity eStlfNIte COhJmII.SEASONALLY ADJUSTED TAKE BY MONTH, SEA LION, HARBOR SEAL, AND SPOTTED SEAL-Sea Lion - X- Harbor Seal - D- Spotted Seal0Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul 4 Sep Ott Nov DeeESTIMATED COMMUNITY HARVEST, STRUCK AND LOST, AND TAKE BY YEARSEA LION HARBOR SEALStruck/ Total Struck/ TotalyggHarvest&gJ&g &&rmLggm1992 7.8 0.0 7 .8 1992 56.4 13.2 71.61993 3 .3 3 .3 6 .5 1993 46.1 20 .0 66.11994 1.2 0 .0 1.2 1994 16.2 3.3 19.5SPOTTED SEALStruck/ Total&&r&y&hes! L&31992 364.1 72.5 436.81993 215.1 49.1 264.11994 226.5 42.9 269.5SOURCE. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Diiisron of Subsistence, Subsistence Study and Monitor System for Sea Lions and Harbor Seals in AlaskaB-18APPENDIX CSUBSISTENCE TAKES OFHARBOR SEAL AND SEA LIONBY COMMUNITYSOUTHEAST ALASKAl-2g:;7-89-1011-1213-1415-1617-1819-2021-2223-2425-2627-2829-3031-32AngoonCraigHainesHoonahHydaburgJuneauKakeKetchikanKlawockKlukwanPelicanPetersburgSaxmanSitkaWrangellYakutatNORTH PACIFIC RIM33-34 Chenega Bay35-36 Cordova37-38 Nanwalek39-40 Port Graham41-42 Seldovia43-44 Seward45-46 Tatitlek47-48 ValdezUPPER KENAI-COOK INLET49-50 Anchorage51-52 Homer52-52 KenaiKODIAK ISLAND53-54 Akhiok55-56 Karluk57-58 Kodiak City59-60 Larsen Bay61-62 Old Harbor63-64 Ouzinkie65-66 Port LionsSOUTH ALASKA PENINSULA67-68 Chignik Bay69-70 Chignik Lagoon71-72 Chignik Lake73-74 False Pass75-76 lvanof Bay77-78 King Cove79-80 Perryville81-82 Sand PointALEUTIAN ISLANDS83-84 Akutan85-86 Atka87-88 Nikolski89-90 UnalaskaPRIBILOF ISLANDS91-92 St. George93-94 St. PaulSOUTH BRISTOL BAY95-96 Egegik97-98 King Salmon99-100 Levelock101-102 Naknek103-104 Pilot Point105-l 06 Port Heiden107-l 08 South NaknekNORTH BRISTOL BAY109-i 10 Aleknagik111-112 Clarks Point113-l 14 Dillingham115-l 16 Manokotak117-118 TogiakTable 1. SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL HARVEST AND TAKE ESTIMATES: Angoon, 1994SAMPLING DESIGN: &&I m &@ITWO STRATA Total Native Households 48 84 130Surveyed Households 44 31 75Sampling Fraction 957% 36.9% 57.7%Sample Household Members 178 124 302Estimated Household Members 186.1 336.0 . 522.1HARVEST AND USE INFORMATIONPercentage of Native Households: Estimated Community HarvestSea Habor and Take (Expanded): Saa Harbor&rl &I j&rJ wused 0.0% 86.5% Total Numbet Harvested 0.0 66.9Hunted 0.0% 22.3% Total Number Struck and Lost 0.0 21.1Harvested 0.0% 12.9% Total Number Taken 0.0 89.0Received 0.0% 70.8%Gave Away 0.0% 10.9% Number Hanrested Per Capita 0.00 0.13SEA LION HARVES$W fb44NTH UnknownJan Apr May Jun Jul Au9 Sep Dct Nov Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)Hatvest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Struck & Lost 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Total Take 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Struck & Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Struck & Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take (%) - - - - - - - - - - - -Cum. Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Cum Take(%) - - _ _ - _ _ - - _ _ _HARBOR SEAL HARVEST BY MONTHJan Feb Mar Aor hk3V JunUnknownJul Aua Sea CM Nov Dez M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)Harvest 11 6 9 7 2 0 0 1 7 4Struck 8 Lost 2 0 2 6 0 0 0 1 0 4Total Take 13 6 11 13 2 0 0 2 7 0ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 11.5 6 3 9 4 7.3 2.1 0.0 0 0 1.0 7.3 4.2Struck 8 Lost 3.8 0.0 3.0 6 3 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 4.2Total Take 15.3 6 3 13.2 13.6 2.1 0.0 0.0 2.1 7.3 a.4ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 11.5 6.3 9.4 7.3 2.1 0.0 0 0 1.0 7.3 4.2Struck & Lost 3.8 0.0 3.8 6.3 0 0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0 0 4.2Total Take 15.3 6.3 13.2 136 2.1 0.0 0 0 2.1 7.3 0.4Total Take (%) 17.3% 7.1% 15.0% 15 4% 2.4% 0.0% 0.0% 2.4% 8.3% 9.5%Cum. Take 15.3 21.5 347 48.3 50.4 50.4 50.4 52.5 59.8 68.1) Cum Take(%) 17.3% 24.5% 39.4% 54.9% 57.2% 57.2% 57.2% 59.6% 67.9% T1.4%1.00.01.01.00.01.01.2%69.278.6%1621816.72.110.016.72.110.021.4%88.0loO.O?&0 640 170 810.0 66.90.0 21.10.0 88.066.921.188.0100.0%with assistance from the City of Angoon, 1994.C-lTable 1. (cont.) SEA LION 8 HARBOR SEAL HARVEST ESTIMATES: Angoon, 1994HARVEST BY AGE AND SEXSea Lion Harbor SealRepofld by Ccmmunity Est. Reportedby Commumty EstAdult MaleSample (Expanded) Sample Ew~nded)Number % Number % Number % Number %0 - 0.0 - 41 6 4 . 1 % 42.9 64.1%Adult FemaleAdult Unknown SexJuvenile MaleJuvenile FemaleJuvenile Unknown SexPup MalePup FemalePup Unknown SexMale Unknown AgeFemale Unknown AgeUnknown Sex and AgeTotal0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -8 12.5% 8 4 12.5%4 6.3% 4.2 6.3%2 3.1% 2.1 3.1%3 4.7% 3.1 4.7%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%1 1.6% 1.0 1.6%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%5 7.8% 5.2 74%64 100.0% 66.9 100.0%SEASONALLY ADJUSTED TAKE BY MONTH, SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL-Sea Lion - X- Harbor Seal2 16-80I- 16-Iijz 14 -.8l - \ x= 9% I= 12.3 \I\u) I3 IO- Iz 8--\ \ II X\sl \ X-flI= 6- Iz \./ 8; 4-.\ I Icn 2- Y \Tl l f06 0Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Ott Nov DeeESTIMATED COMMUNIN HARVEST, STRUCK AND LOST, AND TAKE BY YEARSEA LION HARBOR SEALStruck/ Total Struck/ Totalkx!Ili%YwLff! II!!% &alrhxY&Lps1 IalE1992 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 1992 126.1 28 .9 164.01993 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 1993 66.6 9 .9 66 .51994 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 1994 66.9 21.1 66 .0SOURCE: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, DNlslon of Subsistence, Subsistence Study and Monitor Syslem for Sea Lions and Harbor Seals in Alaska,with assistance from the City of Angoon, 1994.c-2Table 2. SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL HARVEST AND TAKE ESTIMATES: Craig, 1994SAMPLING DESIGN:CHAIN REFERRAL Total Referred Households 23Surveyed Households 21Sampling Fraction 91.3%Sample Household Members 80Estimated Household Members 87.6HARVEST AND USE INFORMATIONPercentage of Sample Households: Estimated Community HarvestSee Harbor and Take (Expanded): Sea Ha&j& w &I &Iused 0.0% lW.o% Total Number Harvested 0.0 42.7Hunted 0.0% 52.4% Total Number Struck and Lost 0.0 6.6Harvested o.wb 52.4% Total Number Taken 0.0 49.3Received 0.0% 52.4%Gave Away 0.0% 52.4% Number Harvested Per Capita WA N/ASEA LION HARVEST BY MONTH UnknownJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Ott Nov Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)Harvest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Struck & Lost 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Total Take 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Struck & Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0.0 0 0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take(x) - - - - - - - - - - - - -Cum Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Cum Take(%) - - - - _ - _ _ _ - _ _HARBOR SEAL HARVEST BY MONTHJan Feb Mar Apr May JunUnknownJul Aug Sep Ott Nov Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)-tarvest 6 6 0 5 2 1 0 0 1 1Struck 8 Lost 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1Total Take 7 6 9 5 2 1 0 0 2 2ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 6 6 6.6 0.0 5.5 2.2 1.1 0.0 0.0 1 1 1.1Struck 8 Lost 1.1 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 1.1Total Take 7.7 6.6 9.9 5.5 2.2 1.1 0.0 0.0 2.2 2.2ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 6.6 6.6 0.0 5.5 2.2 1.1 0.0 0.0 1 1 1 1Struck & Lost 11 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 1.1Total Take 7 7 6.6 9.9 5.5 2.2 1.1 0.0 0.0 2.2 2.2Total Take (%) 15.6% 13.3% 20.0% 11.1% 4.4% 2.2% 0.0% 0.0% 4.4% 4.4%Cum. Take 7.7 14.2 24.1 296 31.6 32.9 32.9 32.9 35.0 31.24 5 0 39I 1 0 65 6 0 454.4 5.5 0.0 42.71.1 1.1 0.0 6.65.5 6.6 0.0 49.34 4 5.5 42.71.1 1.1 6.65.5 6.6 49.311.1% 13.3% 100.0%42.7 49.3Cum Take(%) 15.6% 28.996 48.9% 60.6% 64.4% 667% 667% 667% 71.1% 756% 86.7% l@M%SOURCE: Alaska Department of Frsh and Game, Dtvtsion of Subsistence, Subststence Study and Monrtor System for Sea Lrons and Harbor Seals m Ataskwith assrstance from the City of Craig and Shaan-Seet, Inc., 1994c - 3Table 2. (cont.) SEA LION & HARBOR SEAL HARVEST ESTIMATES: Craig, 1994HARVEST BY AGE AND SEXSea LionReportedby Commumty Est.SamdeHarbor SealReportedby Communrty Est.Sam& EXLMlldSdtNumber % Number %Adult Male 0 - 0.0 -Adult Female 0 - 0.0 -Adult Unknown Sex - 0 - 0.0 -Juvenile Male 0 - 0.0 -Juvenile Female 0 - 0.0 -Juvenile Unknown Sex 0 - 0.0 -Pup Male 0 - 0.0 -Pup Female 0 - 0.0 -Pup Unknown Sex 0 - 0.0 -Male Unknown Age 0 - 0.0 -Female Unknown Age 0 - 0.0 -Unknown Sex and Age 0 - 0.0 -Total 0 - 0.0 -Number % Number %1 6 41.09i 17.5 41.0%11 28.2%4 10.3%4 10.3%3 7.7%1 2.6%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%39 lrxM%12.0 26.2%4 4 10.3%4.4 10.3%3.3 7.7%1.1 2.&0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%42.7 100.0%SEASONALLY ADJUSTED TAKE BY MONTH, SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL- S e a L i o n - X- Harbor Seal100Jan Feb Mar Apr &Y Jun Jul Aug Sap Ott Nov f&cESTiMATED COMMUNITY HARVEST, STRUCK AND LOST, AND TAKE BY YEARSEA LION HARBOR SEALStruck/ Total Struck/ T o t a lax!zlwes!Ips!~ Yeak74.zmlles! I&1992 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 1992 74.2 0 .0 74 .21993 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 1993 51.1 9 .8 60 .91994 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 1994 42.7 6 .6 49 .3SOURCE Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Divsron of Subsistence, Subsiitence Study and Momtor System for Sea Lions and Harbor Seals in Alaska,with assistance from the City of Craig and Shaan-Seet, Inc., 1994.c-4Table 3. SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL HARVEST AND TAKE ESTIMATES: Haines, 1994SAMPLING DESIGN:CHAIN REFERRAL Total Referred Households 24Surveyed Households 22Sampling Fraction 91.7%Sample Household Members 82Estimated Household Members 69.5HARVEST AND USE INFORMATIONPercentage of Sample Households: Estimated Community HarvestSea Harbor and Take (Expanded): Sea Hartxw!joJl seal !&Q mu8ed 0 . 0 % lOO.O?G Total Number Hatvested 0.0 39.3Hunted 0.0% 81.8% Total Number Struck and Lost 0.0 2.2tiatvested 0 . 0 % 40.9% Total Number Taken 0.0 41.5Received o.o% 95.5%Gave Away 0.0% 59.1% Number Harvested Per Capita N/A NIASEA LION HARVEST BY MONTH UnknownJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Ott Nw Dw Month TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)Harvest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Struck 8 Lost 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Total Take 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Struck & Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Struck & Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take(%) - - - - - - - - - - - -Cum Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Cum T&e(%) - _ _ _ - - - - - - - -,Struck 8 LostTotal TakeESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Struck & LostTotal Take 1.1 44ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Hat-vest 1.1 44Struck 8 LostTotal TakeTotal Take (%) 2 . 6 % 1 0 . 5 % 2 1 . 1 % 2.5% 0.0% 5.3% 0.0% 5.3% 0.0% 5 . 3 % 2 6 . 3 % 2 1 . 1 %Cum Takewith assistance from the Chilkat Indian AssaMmn, 1994.c - 5Table 3. (cont.) SEA LION & HARBOR SEAL HARVEST ESTIMATES: Haines, 1994HARVEST BY AGE AND SEXSea Lion Harbor SealReportedby Ccmmunrty Est. Reporldby Communrty Es!Qmple (-nded) sample (Wandad)Number K Number X N u m b e r X Number %Adult Male 0 - 0.0 - 13 36.1% 14.2 36.1%Adult Female 0 - 0.0 - 4 11.1% 4.4 If.lXAdult Unknown Sex 0 - 0.0 - 7 19.4% 7.6 19.4%Juvenile Male 0 - 0.0 - 6 16.7% 6.5 16.7%Juvenile Female 0 - 0.0 - 3 0.3% 3.3 0.3%Juvenile Unknown Sex 0 - 0.0 - 3 0.3% 3.3 0.3%Pup Male 0 - 0.0 - 0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%Pup Female 0 - 0.0 - 0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%Pup Unknown Sex 0 - 0.0 - 0 O.oW 0.0 0.0%Male Unknown Age 0 - 0.0 - 0 0.0% 0.0 00%Female Unknown Age 0 - 0.0 - 0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%Unknown Sex and Age 0 - 0.0 - 0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%Total 0 - 0.0 - 36 100.0% 39.3 100.0%Sf SONALLY ADJUSTED TAKE BY MONTH, SEA LlON AND HARBOR SEALJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sap Ott Nov DeeESTIMATED COMMUNITY HARVEST, STRUCK AND LOST, AND TAKE BY YEARSEA LION HARBOR SEALStruck/ Total Struck/ T o t a l~iia!L&lnsl~ YQa!ialY&lnst~1992 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 1992 30.5 7 .9 38 .41993 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 1993 23.0 2 .3 25 .31994 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 1994 39.3 2 .2 41 .5SOURCE Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsilence, Subsistence Study and Monitor System for Sea Lions and Harbor Seats in Alaska,with assistance from the Chilkat Indian Associitii, 1994.C-6Table 4. SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL HARVEST AND TAKE ESTIMATES: Hoonah, 1994SAMPLING DESIGN: &Qyg Other &j&lTWO STRATA Total Native Households 59 144 203Surveyed Households 51 33 64Sampling Fraction 66.4% 22.9% 41.4%Sample Household Members 210 122 332Estimated Household Members 242.9 532.4 775.3HARVEST AND USE INFORMATIONPercentage of Native Households:Sea HarborLionused 0.0%SE!!72.2%Hunted 0.0% 28.096Harvested 0.04: 20.8%Received 0.0% 56.5%Gave Away 0.0% 38.0%Estimated Community Harvestand Take (Expanded): !%a Harbor!&j sealTotal Number Hanested 0.0 240.7Total Number Shuck and Lost 0.0 15.0Total Number Taken 0.0 255.8Number Harvested Per Capita 0.00 0.31SEA LION HARVEST BY MONTH UnknownIJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Au9 Seq Ott Nou Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHDLDS (UNEXPANDED)Harvest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Struck 8 Lost 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Total Take 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Struck & Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take(%) - - - - - - - - - - - -Cum. Take 0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Cum Take(%) - - - - - - - - - - - -HARBOR SEAL HARVEST BY MONTH UnknownJan Feb Mar Apt May Jun Jul Au9 Sep Dct Nov Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)Harvest 16 27 13 19 4 3 10 IO 5 22 15 16 37 197Struck & Lost 2 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 13Total Take ia 30 13 22 4 3 10 10 5 22 15 16 42 210ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)HaNeSt 21.7 40.9 15.0 rZ.0 4.6 3.5 11.6 11.6 5.0 25.5 17.4 16.5 42.0 240.7Struck & Lost 2.3 3.5 0.0 3.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 15.0Total Take 24.0 44.3 15.0 25.5 4.6 3.5 11.6 11.6 5.8 25.5 17.4 18.5 48.6 255.8ESTtMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 2 6 4 49.7 la.3 267 5.6 4.2 141 14.1 7.0 31 .o 21.1 22.5 240.7Struck B Lost 38 5.6 0.0 5.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 15.0, Total Take 30.2 55.3 10.3 32.4 5.6 4.2 14.1 14.1 7.0 31 .o 21.1 22.5 255.8, Total Take (56) 11.8% 21.6% 7.2% 12.7% 2.2% 1.7% 5.5% 5.5% 2.8% 12.1% 8.3% 8.8% 100.0%Cum Take 30.2 85.5 103.8 136.2 141.8 146.0 160.1 174.2 181.2 212.1 233.3 255.0IS0Uf-G Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Divwon of Sbsrstence, Subsistence Studq and Monrtor System for Sea Lrons and Harbor Seals In Alaska,1 Cum Take(%) 11.8% 334% 40.6% 53.2% 55.4% 57 1% 62.6% 68.1% 70.8% 82.9% 91.2% 100.0%with assistance from the Hocnuh Tradit~l C&ncil. 1994c-7Table 4. (cont.) SEA LION b HARBOR SEAL HARVEST ESTIMATES: Hoonah, 1994HARVEST BY AGE AND SEXAdult MaleAdult FemaleAdult Unknown SexJuvenile MaleJuvenile FemaleJuvenile Unknown SexPup MalePup FemalePup Unknown SexMale Unknown AgeFemale Unknown AgeUnknown Sex and AgeTotalSea LionReportedby Ccmmursty Est.Samde ExoamNumber % Number %0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -Hahor SealReporldby Ccmmuntty Est.Sample (-nded)Number '16 Number %4 9 2 4 . 9 % 63.1 26.2%29 14.7%102 51.6%IO 5.1%5 2.5%2 1.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%36.0 15.3%121.2 50.3%11.6 4.0%5.8 24%2.3 1.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%1 9 7 100.0% 2 4 0 . 7 100.0)6SEASONALLY ADJUSTED TAKE BY MONTH, SEA L/ON AND HARBOR SEAL-Sea Lion - X- Harbor Seal6Cl-sXc =-I\3I \zc 40..I \zI \GJ 3o)t .% X*- I J\z I \= x)-- I \ #rXiik \sX-m IO-\ 4vslz00 3Jan Feb Mar APr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Ott Nov DeeESTIMATED COMMUNITY HARVEST, STRUCK AND LOST, AND TAKE BY YEARSEA LION HARBOR SEALSIN&/ Total 3rucW T o t a lmwlpst b!s YsalAfa!!&Lfft~1992 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 1992 350.2 24 .6 375.01993 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 1993 324.4 35 .0 360.21994 0.0 0.0 0.0 1994 240.7 15.0 255.8SOURCE: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Diislon of Subsistence, Subsistence S~IJC& and Monitor System for Sea Lions and Harbor Seak in At&a,with asslsEancefromtheHoonahTreditionalCouncil,l994.C-8Table 5. SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL HARVEST AND TAKE ESTIMATES: Hydaburg, 1994SAMPLING DESIGN:CHAIN REFERRAL Total Referred HouseholdsSurveyed HouseholdsSampling FractionSample Household MembersEstimated Household MembersHARVEST AND USE INFORMAnON1414100.0%4846.0Percentage of Sample Households:Sea Habor&l wused 0.0% 21.4%Hunted 0.0~~ 14.3%Harvested 06% 14.3%Received 0.0% 14.3%Gave Away 0.0% 14.3%SEA LION HARVEST BY MONTHJan Feb Mar AM MevEstimated Community Harvestand Take (Expanded): Sea Harbor&I aTotal Number Harvested 0.0 10.0Total Number Struck and Lost 0.0 0.0Total Number Taken 0.0 10.0Number Harvested Per Capita N/A N/AUnknwnJun Jul Aua Sea Dct NW Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HDUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)Harvest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Struck & Lost 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Total Take 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY C0MMUNtl-Y (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Struck & Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Struck & Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take(x) - - - - - - - - - -Cum. Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0Cum. Take(%) - - - - - - - - - -0 0 0 00 0 0 00 0 0 00.0 0.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 00 0.00.0 0.0 0.0 0.00 0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0-HARBOR SEAL HARVEST BY MONTH UnknownJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Dct Nov Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)Harvest 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 4 0 0 10Struck & Lost 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Total Take 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 4 0 0 10ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 2.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 4.0 0.0 0.0 10.0Struck & Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 2 0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0.0 1.0 2.0 4.0 0.0 0 0 100ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNIN (EXPANDED)Harvest 2.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 4.0 0.0 10.0Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 2.0 0 0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 4.0 0.0 10.0Total Take (x) 20.036 0.0% 10.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% o.c% 10.0% 20.0% 40.0% 0.0% 100.0%Cum Take 2.0 2.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 4.0 6.0 10.0 10.0Cum. Take(%) 200% 20.0% 30.0% 30.0% 30.0% 30.0% 30.0% 30.0% 40.0% 60.0% 100.0% 10&o%SOURCE. Alaska Department of Frsh and Game. Drws~on of Subswtence, Subsatence Stt@ and h4cmtor System for Sea Lnxrs and Harbor Seats m Alaskawith assistawe from the City of ttydturg and Heii Cotpomti, 1994c - 9Table 5. (cont.) SEA LION EL HARBOR SEAL HARVEST ESTIMATES: Hydaburg, 1994HARVEST BY AGE AND SEXSea LionAdult MaleAdult FemaleAdult Unknown SexJuvenile MaleJuvenile FemaleJuvenile Unknown SexPup MalePup FemalePup Unknown SexMale Unknown AgeFemale Unknown AgeRWdby Community EstSample (bnded)Number % Number K0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -Unknown Sex and Age 0 - 0.0 -Total 0 - 0.0 -Harbor SealRaportdby Communrty Est.sampleNumber %7 70.0%(-nded)Number K7.0 70.0%2 20.0% 2.0 20.0%1 10.0% 1.0 10.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%10 100.0% 10.0 100.0%SEASONALLY ADJUSTED TAKE BY MONTH, SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL-Sea Lion - X- Harbor SealJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jut Aug Sep Ott NW DeeESTIMATED COMMUNITY HARVEST, STRUCK AND LOST, AND TAKE BY YEARSEA LION HARBOR SEALS t r u c k / Tolalyg&Jygj-t&l Take1992 0 .0 0 .0 0 .01993 0 .0 0 .0 0 .01994 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0StrucW Total~&ry&&&1992 30.0 2.1 32.11993 14.0 0 .0 14.01994 10.0 0 .0 10.0SOURCE Alaska Department of Fish and Game, D&ion of Subsistence, Subsatence Study and Monitor SysIem for Sea Lions and Harbor Seals in Alaska,with assistance from the City of Hydaburg and Hai Ccqsratii. 1994.c-10Table 6. SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL HARVEST AND TAKE ESTIMATES: Juneau, 1994SAMPLING DESIGN:CHAIN REFERRAL Total Referred Households 119Surveyed Households 106Sampling Fraction 69.1%Sample Household Members 364Estimated Household Members 408.6HARVESTAND USE lNFORMATIONPercentage of Sample Households: Estimated Community HarvestSea Harbor and Take (Expanded): Sea Harbor&) gg3J I& sealused 0.9% 72.6% Total Number Harvested 1.1 78.6Hunted 0.9% 29.2% Total Number Shuck and Lost 0.0 13.5Harvested o.ct% 21.7% Total Number Taken 1.1 92.1Received 0.0% 56.6%Gave Away 0.9% 28.3% Number Harvested Per Capita NIA NIASEA LION HARVEST BY MONTH UnkncwnJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jut Aug Sep Dct Nov Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXFANDED)Harvest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0Struck 8 Los! 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Total Take 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0Slruck & Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take (x) 0.0% 0.0?4 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0 . 0 % lcW% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%Cum. Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1Cum Take (X) 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 00% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0?6 100.0% 100.0% 100.9% 1 0 0 . 0 %0 0 10 0 00 0 10.0 0.0 1.10.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 1.10.0 1.10.0 0.00.0 1.10.0% 100.0%1.1160.0%HARBOR SEAL HARVEST BY MONTHJan F&I Mar Apr May JunUnknownJul Aw se0 Ckt Nov Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)Harvest 2 4 3 3 7 0 0 1 10 6 20 4 10 70Struck 8 Lost 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 11 12Total Take 2 4 3 3 7 0 0 1 10 6 21 4 21 62ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 2.2 4.5 3.4 3.4 7.9 0.0 0.0 1.1 11.2 6.7 22.5 4.5 11.2 78.6Struck & Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.0 12.3 13.5Total Take 2.2 4.5 3 4 3 4 7.9 0.0 0.0 1.1 11.2 6.7 23.6 4.5 23.6 92.1ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 2.6 5.2 3.9 3.9 9.2 0.0 0.0 1.3 13.1 7.9 2 6 2 5.2 78.6Struck & Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 13.5 0.0 13.5Total Take 2.6 5.2 3.9 3.9 9.2 0.0 0.0 1.3 13.1 7.9 39.7 5.2 92.1Total Take (%) 2.8% 5.1% 4.3% 4 . 3 % 100% 0.0% 0.0% 1.4% 14.2% 8.5% 43.1% 5.7% 100.9%Cum Take 2.6 7.9 11.8 15.7 24.9 24.9 24.9 26.2 39.3 47.2 86.0 92.1Cum Take (%) 2.8% 8.5% 12.8% 17.1% 27.0% 27.6% 27.0% 28.5% 42.7% 51.2% 94.3% 100.0%SOURCE. Alaska Department of Frsh and Game, Drvrsron of Subsrstence, Subsrstenrx Study and Monitor System for Sea Lrons and Harbor Seak rn At&uwith assistance from the Tlingit and Haida Central Council, Seat&a. Auke Tribe Council, and ANB/ANS. 1994.c-11Table 6. (cont.) SEA LION & HARBOR SEAL HARVEST ESTIMATES: Juneau, 1994HARVEST BY AGE AND SEXsea LionReported by Commumty Est.-Sam* ExPended)Number % Number XAdult MaleAdult FemaleAdult Unknown SexJuvenile MaleJuvenile FemaleJuvenile Unknown SexPup MalePup FemalePup Unknown SexMale Unknown AgeFemale Unknown AgeUnknown Sex and AgeTotal1 100.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%1 100.0%1.1 100.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%1.1 100.0%Harbor SealReporldby CommunIty Est.Sample EPnded)Numbsr X Number %38 514% 40.4 51.4%t2 1 7 . 1 x 13.5 17.1%9 12.9% 10.1 12.9%2 2.9% 2.2 2.9%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0960 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%11 15.7% 1 2 . 3 15.B70 100.0% 7 8 . 8 lWJ%SEASONALLY ADJUSTED TAKE BY MONTH, SEA LION AND HARBOR SEALESTIMATED COMMUNITY HARVEST, STRUCK AND LOST, AND TAKE BY YEARSEA LION HARBOR SEALStruck/ Total Struck/ TotalM&j&&&t & kKl&!!&s!w~1992 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 1992 122.6 7 .6 130.21993 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 1993 59.0 21 .6 60 .61994 1.1 0 . 0 1.1 1994 76.6 13.5 92.1SOURCE. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Diilsion of Subsistence, Subsistence Study and Monitor System for Sea Liis and Harbor Seals in Alaska,with assstana? from the Tlqit and Haii Central Council, Seelaska, Auk8 Tribe coundl, and ANWANS, 1994.c- 12Table 7. SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL HARVEST AND TAKE ESTIMATES: Kake, 1994SAMPLING DESIGN: &&g Qt& Q@TWO STRATA Total Native Households 76 105 181Surveyed Households 62 30 92Sampling Fraction 81.6% 28.6% 50.8%Sample Household Members 242 84 326Estimated Household Members 296.6 294.0 590.6HARVEST AND USE INFORMATIONPercentage of Native Households:Sea HattxxQg sealused 2 . 6 % 81.7%Hunted 0.7?4 19.6%Harvested 0.B 156%Received 1.9% 57.6%Gave Away 0.x 13.4%Estimated Community Harvestand Take (Expanded): Sea Harbor4&n SealTotal Number Harvested 1.2 99.3Total Number Stfuck and Lost 0.0 7.4Total Number Taken 1.2 106.6Number Harvested Per Capita 0.00 0.17SEA LION HARVEST BY MONTH UnknownJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Ott Nov Dee h l o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)Harvest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1Struck & Lost 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Total Take 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)iiarvesl 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2Struck & Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2Total Take (%) 0 0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0 . 0 % 100.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 100.0%Cum. Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2Cum. Take (XI 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 00% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% lW.O% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% lW.u?4HARBOR SEAL HARVEST BY MONTH UnknownJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Seq Ott Nov Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)Harvest 3 4 6 6 2 2 0 1 3 26 14 7 5 81Struck 8 Lost 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 5 6Total Take 3 4 6 6 2 2 0 1 3 28 15 7 10 87ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 3.7 4.9 9.8 7.4 2.5 2.5 0.0 1.2 3.7 31.9 17.2 8.6 6.1 99.3Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 0.0 6.1 7.4Total Take 3.7 4.9 9.8 7.4 2.5 2.5 0.0 1.2 3.7 31.9 18.4 8.6 12.3 166.6ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 3 9 5.2 10.5 7.8 2.6 2.6 0.0 1.3 3.9 34.0 18.3 9.1 99.3Struck & Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.4 0.0 7.4Total Take 3.9 5.2 10.5 7.8 2.6 2.6 0.0 1.3 3.9 34.0 25.6 9.1 106.6Total Take (%) 3.7% 4.9% 9.8% 7.4% 2.5% 2.5% 0.0% 1.2% 3 . 7 % 3 1 . 9 % 2 4 . 0 % 86% lW.9%Cum Take 3.9 9.1 19.6 27.4 3 0 0 32.7 32.7 34.0 37.9 71.9 97.5 106.6C u m T a k e ( % ) 3 7 % 8.6% 18.4% 25.7% 28.2% 30.6% 306% 31.9% 35.5% 67.4% 914% 100.0%SOURCE Alaska Department of Frsh and Game, Drvtstort of Sutsrstence, Subsrstence Study and h4omtor System for Sea Lrons and Harbor Seals In Ataskwith assistance frcm the Organized Village of Kake and City of Kake, 1994c - 13Table 7. (cont.) SEA LION & HARBOR SEAL HARVEST ESTIMATES: Kake, 1994HARVEST BY AGE AND SEXSea LionRepoctdby Community Est.Sample (Expanded)Numtler % Number %Adult MaleAdult FemaleAdult Unknown SexJuvenile MaleJuvenile FemaleJuvenile Unknown SexPup MalePup FemalePup Unknown SexMale Unknown AgeFemale Unknown AgeUnknown Sex and AgeTotal1 100.0%0 O.C%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%1 100.0%1.2 100.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%1.2 100.0%Harbor SealReportedby Commumty Eslsample (Expanded)Number % Number %49 60.5%3 3.7%13 16.0%7 6.6%1 1.2%2 2.5%0 0.0%1 1.2%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%5 6.2%60.1 60.5%3.7 3.7%15.9 16.0%8.6 6.6%1.2 1.2%2 5 2.5%0.0 0.0%1.2 1.2%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0160.0 0.0%6.1 6.2%6 1 IWO% 99.3 100.0%SEASONALLY ADJUSTED TAKE BY MONTH, SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL-Sea Lion - )QI Harbor Seallw r*0Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Au9 Sap Ott Nov DeeESTIMATED COMMUNITY HARVEST, STRUCK AND LOST, AND TAKE BY YEARSEA LION HARBOR SEALStruck/ T o t a l Struck/ T o t a l&&r&y&&d If&e Ya!Ylm!dLnst~1992 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 1992 173.9 12.3 166.21993 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 1993 loo .6 15.2 115.91994 1.2 0 .0 1.2 1994 99.3 7 . 4 106.6SOURCE Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Diviston of Subsdence, Subshnce Study and Momtor System for Sea Lions and Harbor Seals in Alaska,with assistance from the Organized Village of Kake and Cii of Kake, 1994.c-14Table 8. SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL HARVEST AND TAKE ESTIMATES: Ketchikan, 1994SAMPLING DESIGN:CHAIN REFERRAL Total Referred Households xlSurveyed Households 14Sampling Fraction 70.0%Sample Household Members 42Estimated Household Members 60.0HARVEST AND USE INFORMATlONPercentage of Sample Households: Estimated Community HarvestSea Harbor and Take (Expanded): Sea Hartxx!hfJ w i&l sealused 0.0% 05.7% Total Number Harvested 0.0 31.4Hunted 0.0% 21.4% Total Nun-bar Struck and Lost 0.0 0.0Harvested 0.0% 14.3% Total Number Taken 0.0 31.4Received 0.0% 21.4%Gave Away 0.0% 21.4% Number Harvested Per Capita NIA NIASEA LION HARVEST BY MONTH UnkKmnJan Feb Mar Apr Nay Jun Jul Aug Sep Dct NW Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HDUSEHDLDS (UNEXPANDED)Harvest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Struck 8 Lost 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Total Take 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Struck & Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0.0 00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take(x) - - - - - - - - - - - -Cum Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Cum Take(%) - _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ - _ _HARBOR SEAL HARVEST BY MONTH UnknownJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Ckt NW Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)Harvest 3 3 3 7 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 4 0 22Struck 8 Lost 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Total Take 3 3 3 7 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 4 0 22ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)HaNeSt 4.3 4.3 4.3 10.0 0.0 1 4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4 5.7 0.0 31.4Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 00 0.0 0.0 00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 4.3 4.3 4.3 10.0 0.0 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4 5.7 0.0 31.4ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 4.3 4.3 4.3 10.0 0.0 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4 5.7 31.4Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 4.3 4.3 4.3 10.0 0.0 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4 5.7 31.4Total Take (36) 13.6% 13.6% 13.6% 31.6% 0.0% 4.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 4.5% 10.2% 100.0%Cum Take 4.3 6.6 12.9 22.9 22.9 24.3 24.3 24.3 24.3 24.3 25.7 31.4Cum Take(%) 13.6% 27.3% 46.9% 72.7% 72.7% 77.3% 77.3% 773% 77.3% 77.3% 61.6% 100.0%SOURCE Alaska Department of Fah and Game, DGsron of Substence, Suteatence Slur& and Monitor System fw Sea Lions and Harbor Seals m Ataskwith assistance from the Ketchikan IRA Council and Ketchikan Indian Cuporatm, 1994.c- 15Table 8. (cont.) SEA LION 8 HARBOR SEAL HARVEST ESTIMATES: Ketchikan, 1994HARVEST BY AGE AND Su(Sea LionReportedby Commumty Est.QMe (Expanded)Number 96 Number XHarbor SealReportadby Commumty Est.Sample (Wnded)Number lb Number XAdult MaleAdult FemaleAdult Unknown SexJuvenile MaleJuvenile FemaleJuvenile Unknown SexPup MalePup FemalePup Unknown SexMale Unknown AgeFemale Unknown AgeUnknown Sex and AgeTotal0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0 0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -11 50.0%11 50.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%15.715.10.00 00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.050.0%50.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%0.0%22 lW.o% 31.4 100.0%SEASONALLY ADJUSTED TAKE BY MONTH, SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL- S e a L i o n - x- Harbor Seal10 - 8s g- 8 8- I _7.z 7.. 8 1I -x86It; 8 F3 5- .*z 4* -* =a28.zh I5 3 m 8ztiY 2- k I8to - \6% #N #0 0 RL MB x 0Jan Feb Mar W May Jun Jul Aug Sep Ott Nov DeeESTIMATED COMMUNiTY HARVEST, STRUCK AND LOST, AND TAKE BY YEARSEA LION HARBOR SEALStruck/ Total SkucW T o t a l&&r!&&@ * YetlLHixsilLnsl~1992 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 1992 90.2 6.5 96 .81993 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 1993 42.4 2.9 45 .31994 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 1994 31.4 0.0 31 .4SOURCE Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Diiisii of Subsistence, Subsiitence Study and Monitor System for Sea Lams and Harbor Seats in Alaska,with assistance from the Ketchikan IRA Council and Ketchikan Indian Cotp&ii, 1994.C-16Table 9. SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL HARVEST AND TAKE ESTIMATES: Klawock, 1994SAMPLING DESIGN:CHAIN REFERRAL Total Referred Households 33Surveyed Households 26Sampling Fraction 70.6%Sample Household Members 103Estimated Household Members 130.7HARVEST AND USE INFORMATIONPercentage of Sample Households: Estimated Community HarvestSea Harbor and Take (Expanded): Sea HarborLion seal & sealused 0.0% 769% Total Number Harvested 0.0 71.1Hunted 0.0% 61.5% Total Number Struck and Lost 0.0 0.0Harvested 0.0% 28.9% Total Number Takan 0.0 71.1Received 0.0% 23.1%Gave Away 0.0% 34.8% Number Harvested Par Capita N/A NIASEA LION HARVEST BY MONTH UnknownJan Fab Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Seg act NW Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HDUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)HaNeSl 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Struck 8 Lost 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Total Take 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)HaNeSt 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0.0 00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0 0 0.0 0.0 00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take(x) - - - - - - - - - - - -Cum Take 0.0 0.0 00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Cum Take (56) - _ - _ - - _ - - - - _HARBOR SEAL HARVEST BY MONTH UnkncnvnJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Ckl Nov Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)Harvest 24 6 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 16 0 %Struck 8 Lost 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Total Take 24 6 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 16 0 56ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 30.5 7.6 2.5 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 a.9 20.3 0.0 71.1Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 30.5 7.6 2.5 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 8.9 20.3 0.0 71.1ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 30.5 7.6 2.5 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 8 9 20.3 71.1Struck & Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 30.5 7.6 2.5 1.3 0.0 00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 20.3 71.1Total Take (56) 42.9% 10.7% 3.6% 1.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0 . 0 % 1 2 . 5 % 2 0 . 6 % 100.0%Cum. Take 30.5 361 40.6 41.9 41.9 41.9 41.9 41.9 41.9 41.9 50.0 71.1Cum.Take(%) 42.9% 536% 5!% 56.9% 569% 56.9% 569% 56.9% 56.9% 56.9% 714% lW.CJ%SOURCE Alaska Department of Frsh ana Game, Drvrsmn of Subsrstence, Subsrstence Study and Momtor System for Sea Lens and Harbor Seats in Alaskawith assistance from the Klawock Cocqaratiie Associatii and Klawock Haenya Corporatii, 1994.c-17Table 9. (cont.) SEA LION & HARBOR SEAL HARVEST ESTIMATES: Klawock, 1994HARVEST BY AGE AND SEXSea LionAdult MaleAdult FemaleAdult Unknown SexJuvenile MaleJuvenile FemaleJuvenile Unknown SexPup MalePup FemalePup Unknown SexMale Unknown AgeFemale Unknown AgeUnknown Sex and AgeTotalReported b y Community Est.Sample (bnded)Number % Number %0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -Hatbor SealReportedby Community EstSample (Emnded)Number % Number %41 73.2% 52.0 73.2%11 19.6% 14.0 19.6%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%4 7.1% 5.1 7.1%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%0 0.0% 0.0 0.0%5s 100.0% 71.1 100.0%SEASONALLY ADJUSTED TAKE BY MONTH, SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL- S e a L i o n = X- Harbor SealJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul AUQ Sep Ott Nov DeeESTIMATED COMMUNITY HARVEST, STRUCK AND LOST, AND TAKE BY YEARSEA LION HARBOR SEALStruck/ TotalWWLg! Take1992 1.4 0 .0 1.41993 0 .0 0 .0 0 .01994 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0Strucld T o t a l&aI!Aa!YstLes!w1992 39.0 1.4 40 .31993 39.8 0 . 0 39 .81994 71 .l 0 .0 71 .lSOURCE Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsiibnce, Subsistence Stt@ and Monitor System for Sea Lii and Hartor Seats in AMa,with assistance from the Klawock Cooperalive Associatii and Ktawcck Heanya Corporation, 1994.C-18Table IO. SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL HARVEST AND TAKE ESTIMATES: Klukwan, 1994SAMPLING DESIGN:CHAIN REFERRAL Total Referred Households 10Surveyed Households 8Sampling Fraction 80.0%Sample Household Members 41Estimated Household Members 51.3HARVEST AND USE INFORMATIONPercentage of Sample Households:Sea Harbor&lJ sealused 0.0% 75.0%Hunted 0.0% 25.0%Harvested 0.0% 25.0%Received 0.0% 25.0%Gave Away 0.0% 25.0%Estimated Community Harvestand Take (Expanded): Sea Harbor&g &jTotal Number Harvested 0.0 3.8Total Number Struck and Lost 0.0 1.3Total Number Taken 0.0 5.0Number Harvested Par Capita N/A NIASEA LION tiAf?nVES;T$BY KlNTHApr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Dct NWREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)UnknownDee M o n t h TotalHarvest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Struck & Lost 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Total Take 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Struck & Lost 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0.0Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY C0MMUNll-Y (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Struck & Lost 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take (%) - - - - - - - - - - - - -Cum TakeCum Take I%)0.0_0.0_0.0_0.0_0.0-0.0_0.0_0.0_0.0_0.0-0.0-0.0-HARBOR SEAL HARVEST BY MONTHJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun JulUnknownAug Sep Ott NW Dee M o n t h TotalSEPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)iarvest 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3Struck 8 Lost 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1rotal Take 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4ESTlMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)iarvest 0 0 0 0 0.0 2 5 0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3 3.0struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3 5.0ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0.0 3 8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.8Struck 8 Lost 0 0 0.0 0.0 1 3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3Total Take 0 0 0.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.0Total Take (x) 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 100.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 100.0%Cum. Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0Cum Take (%) 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.09b 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%SOURCE Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Dtvrsron of Subsrstence, Subskslstenca Study and Monitor System for Sea Lions and Harbor Seals In Akkwith assistance from the Chilkat Indian Village, 1994.c - 19Table 10. (cont.) SEA LION & HARBOR SEAL HARVEST ESTIMATES: Klukwan, 1994HARVEST BY AGE AND SEXsea uotlAdult MaleAdult FemaleReported by Communtty Estsample (WJ=KWNumber % Number 960 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -Adult Unknown SexJuvenile MaleJuvenile FemaleJuvenile Unknown SexPup MalePup FemalePup Unknown SexMale Unknown AgeFemale Unknown AgeUnknown Sex and AgeTotal0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -Hati SealRepart=Jby Commumty EstSamde fExwnded)Numbar X Number X2 88.7% 2 . 5 8 8 . 7 %0 0.0%0 0.0%0 O.o)c0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%1 33.3%0.00.00 00.00.00.00.00.00.00.01.30.0%0.0%0.0%00%0.0%0.0%0.0?40.0%0.0%0.0%33.3%3 lW.o!4 3.8 100.0%SEASONALLY AWUSTED TAKE BY MONTH, SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL- S e a L i o n - X- Harbor Seal5- 8E 1I- 4- _ 8Z5l-I x 3 I 8I3 I 8*TP 2 - . . 8h= I 8ii8 - m 8zcnI 88o--x x - - x M B - -Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul A.&! Sap Ott Nov DeeESTIMATED COMMUNITY HARVEST, STRUCK AND LOST, AND TAKE BY YEARSEA LION HARBOR SEALStruck/ Total Struck/ Total&&r&p&&$! I& kx!iaY&MW1992 0.0 0 .0 0 .0 1992 8 .0 2 .0 10.01993 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 1993 1.2 0 .0 1.21994 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0 1994 3 .8 1.3 5 .0SOURCE Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Divlslon of Subsistence, Subslslence Study and Monitor System for Sea Lii and Harbor Seats in Alaska.with assistance from tha Chitkat Man Village, 1994.c-20Table 11. SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL HARVEST AND TAKE ESTIMATES: Pelican, 1994SAMPLING DESIGN:CHAIN REFERRAL Total Referred Households 20Surveyed Households 18Sampling Fraction 930%Sample Household Members 56Estimated Household Members 62.2HARVEST AND USE INFORMATIONPercentage of Sample Households: Estimated Community HarvestSea Harbor and Take (Expanded): Sea Harbor&g &I &fJ SE!used 0.0% 50.0% Total Number Harvested 0.0 4.4Hunted 0.036 27.8% Total Number Stnrck and Lost 0.0 1.1Harvested 0.0% 22.2% Total Number Taken 0.0 5.6Received 0.0% 27.8%Gave Away 0.0% 0.0% Number Halvested Per Capita N/A N/ASEA LION HARVES;&BY M$NTHJan AprrIIIIMay Jun JulUnknownAug 6ep Ott NW Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)Harvest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Struck 8 Lost 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Total Take 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)k%wSl 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0ESTtMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNtTY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take (%) - - - - - - - - - -Cum Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Cum. Take(%) - - - - - - - - - -HARBOR SEAL HARVEST BY MONTH UnknownJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Ott NW Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)Yarvest 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 4Struck 8 Lost 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1Total Take 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 2 0 5ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 1.1 1.1 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.0 1.1 0.0 4.4Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.0 1.1Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 1.1 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.0 2.2 0.0 5.EESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNtTY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 1.1 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.0 1.1 4.4Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 1.1Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0.0 1.1 1.1 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.0 2.2 5.6Total Take (%) 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0 . 0 % 2m% 2 0 . 0 % 0.0% 0.0% 20.0% 0.0% 40.0% loO.t3?4Cum Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 2.2 2.2 2.2 3.3 3.3 5.6Cum. Take (%) 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% o.mJ 0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 40.0% 40.0% 60.0% 60.0% 100.0%SCURCt: Alaska Department of Fnh and Game, Dtvrsron of Sutsotence, Subsrstence Study and Monrtor System for Sea Lrons and Harbor Seals m Alasiwith assistance from the City of Pelican, Tlingit and Haii tn&ms of Pelican Community Council, 1994.c-210 0 0 00 0 0 00 0 0 00.0 0.0 0.0 000.0 0.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.00.0 0.0 0.0- -0.0 0.0Table 11. (cont.) SEA LION & HARBOR SEAL HARVEST ESTIMATES: Pelican, 1994HARVEST BY AGE AND SEXSea Lion Ha&or SealRepor(edby Commumty Est. Repoctdby Ccwnmuntty Es!Adult MaleAdult FemaleAdult Unknown SexJuvenile MaleJuvenile FemaleJuvenile Unknown SexPup MalePup FemalePup Unknown SexMale Unknown AgeFemale Unknown AgeUnknown Sex and AgeTotalSample (bnded)Number % Number %0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0 - 0.0 -0 - 0.0 -am*Number %3 75.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%1 25.0!60 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%4 100.0%(Expanded)Number %3.3 75.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%1.1 25.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%4.4 100.0%SEASONALLY ADJUSTED TAKE BY MONTH, SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL- S e a L i o n- S e a L i o n - X- Harbor Seal- X- Harbor Seal3-3-d25iccI- 2-zII5II*-2IIh l-# - x# - x xx= III 88 \\ 8 8 siII88 \\ 88 \\3IIua 88 \\ 88\\88ox-x-.ox-x-. ff ).,I-!).,I-! bbJanJan FebFeb MarMar AprApr MayMay JunJun Jut Aug Sep Ott Nov DeeJut Aug Sep Ott Nov DeeESTIMATED COMMUNITY HARVEST, STRUCK AND LOST, AND TAKE BY YEARSEA LION HARBOR SEALStruck/ Total&&r~j&&t Take1992 0 .0 0 .0 0 .01993 0 .0 0 .0 0 .01994 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0StrucW T o t a lx!zxlI!wYdLnst~1992 8 .3 1.4 9 .71993 5 .3 1.1 6 . 41994 4 . 4 1.1 5 .6SOURCE: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Diiision of Subsistence, Subsrstence Study and Monitor System for Sea Lii and Harbor Seals in Alaska,with assistance from the City of Pelican, Tlingit and Haii Indians of Pelican Community Council, 1994.c-22Table 12. SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL HARVEST AND TAKE ESTIMATES: Petersburg, 1994SAMPLING DESIGN:CHAIN REFERRAL Total Referred Households 24Surveyed Households 19Sampling Fraction 79.2%Sample Household Members 53Estimated Household Members 66.9HARVEST AND USE INFORMATIONPercentage of Sample Households:Sea Habor& a!used 0.0% 947%Hunted 0.0% 15.8%Harvested 0.0% 10.5%Received 0.0% 89.5%Gave Away 0.0% 21.1%Estimated Community Harvestand Take (Expanded): Sea Haborj&g sealTotal Number Han&ad 0.0 15.2Total Nun-bar Stnxk and Lost 0.0 1.3Total Number Taken 0.0 16.4Number Han/e&d Per Capita NIA N/AJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Ott Nov Dee Month TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HWSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)Harvest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Struck & Lost 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Total Take 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take (%) - - - - - - - - - - - - -Cum. Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Cum Take(%) _ - _ - _ _ - - - _ _ _HARBOR SEAL HARVEST BY MONTHJan Feb Mar Arx Mev Jun Jul Aw se0 Dct NWREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)Harvest 1 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 1Struck 8 Lost 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0Total Take 1 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 1ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 1.3 0.0 0.0 I l . 4 0.0 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 1.3 0.0 0.0 12.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)HaNeSt 1.3 0.0 0.0 11 4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 1.3 0.0 0.0 12.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3Total Take (%) 7.7% 0.0% 0.0% 76.9% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 7.7%Cum. Take 1.3 1.3 1.3 13.9 13.9 13.9 13.9 13.9 13.9 15.21 0 0 120 0 0 11 0 0 131.3 0.0 0.0 15.20.0 0.0 0.0 1.31.3 0.0 0.0 1641.3 0.0 15.20.0 0.0 1.31.3 0.0 16.47.7% 0.0% 100.0%16.4 16.4Cum. Take (x) 7.7% 7.7% 7.7% 84.6% 84.6% 84.6% 84.6% 84.6?& 84.6% 92.3% 100.0% 100.0%SOURCE: Alaska Department ot bh and Game, bvrs~on of Subsrstence. Subsrstence Sr* and Momtor System for Sea Lrons and Harbor Seals rn Alaska,Iwith assistance from the Petersburg Indian Associatron, 1994.C-23Table 12. (cont.) SEA LION b HARBOR SEAL HARVEST ESTIMATES: Petersburg, 1994HARVEST BY AGE AND SEXSea LionReportedby Commundy Est.Adult Malesample mPawNumber K Number X0 - 0.0 -Adult Female 0 - 0.0 -Adult Unknown Sex 0 - 0.0 -Juvenile Male 0 - 0.0 -Juvenile Female 0 - 0.0 -Juvenile Unknown Sex 0 - 0.0 -Pup Male 0 - 0.0 -Pup Female 0 - 0.0 -Pup Unknown Sex 0 - 0.0 -Male Unknown Age 0 - 0.0 -Female Unknown Age 0 - 0.0 -Unknown Sex and Age 0 - 0.0 -Total 0 - 0.0 -Ha&or SealReportedby Community EstSamck ExPanded)Number K5 41.7%Number %6 . 3 41.7%4 33.3%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%3 25.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%12 100.0%SEASONALLY ADJUSTED TAKE BY MONTH, SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL5.1 33.3%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%3.8 25.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%15.2 100.0%- S e a L i o n I X- Harbor Seal14 -Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul 4 Sep Ott Nov DeeESTIMATED COMMUNITY HARVEST, STRUCK AND LOST, AND TAKE BY YEARSEA LION HARBOR SEALStruck./ Totall!zf!ia!YdLes! us1992 0 .0 0 .0 0 .01993 0 .0 0 .0 0 .01994 0 .0 0 .0 0 .0StruckI T o t a lY.ea!!iatml~~1992 22.4 2 .6 25 .01993 4 .5 4 .5 9 .01994 15.2 1.3 16.4SOURCE: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Subsistence St* and Monitor System for Sea Lii and Harbor Seats rn Alaska,with assistance from the Petersburg Indian Associitii, 1994.C-24Table 13. SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL HARVEST AND TAKE ESTIMATES: Saxman, 1994SAMPLlNG DESIGN:CHAIN REFERRAL Total Referred Households 19Surveyed Households 15Sampling Fraction 70.9KSample Household Members 66Estimated Household Members 86.1HARVEST AND USE INFORMATIONPercentage of Sample Households: Estimated Community HarvestSea Harbor and Take (Expanded): Sea Haborb &3aJ &! &aJused 0.0% tm% Total Number Harvested 0.0 16.5Hunted 0.0% ~3% Total Number Shuck and Lost 0.0 0.0Harvested 0.0% 267% Total Number Taken 0.0 16.5Received 0.0% 60.0%Gave Away 0.0% 60.0% NumberHawastedPer C a p i t a rvA NASEA LION HARVES;T$BY IUZNTH UnknownJan Apr Mary Jun Jul Aug Sep Ott Nov Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)Harvest 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Struck & Lost 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Total Take 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Struck & Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take (%) - - - - - - - - - - - -Cum Take 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Cum Take (%) _ - - _ - - - - _ - _ _HARBOR SEAL HATlEST BY MONTH UnknownJan Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Dct NW Dee M o n t h TotalREPORTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY SAMPLED HOUSEHOLDS (UNEXPANDED)Harvest 0 3 6 1 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 13Struck & Lost 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Total Take 0 3 6 1 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 13ESTIMATED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNITY (EXPANDED)Harvest 0.0 38 7.6 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 16.5Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0.0 3.8 7.6 1 3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 16.5ESTIMATED SEASONALLY ADJUSTED HARVEST AND TAKE BY COMMUNIN (EXPANDED)Harvest 0 0 3.8 7.6 1.3 0.0 0.0 00 0.0 3.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 16.5Struck 8 Lost 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0Total Take 0.0 3.8 7.6 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 16.5Total Take (X) 0 0 % 2 3 . 1 % 4 6 . 2 % 7.7% 00% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 23.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 100.0%Cum Take 0.0 3.8 11.4 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5Cum Take (X) 0 . 0 % 2 3 . 1 % 69.2% 7 6 . 9 % 7 6 . 9 % 7 6 . 9 % 7 6 . 9 % 7 6 . 9 % 1 0 0 . 0 % 100.0% 1 0 0 . 0 % 1 0 0 . 0 %SOURCE. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Dwrsron of Subsrstence, Subsrstence Study and Monrtor System for Sea Lrons and Harbor Seals m Alaska,with assislance from the City of Saxman and Saxman IRA Council, IN4C - 25Table 13. (cont.) SEA LION 8 HARBOR SEAL HARVEST ESTIMATES: Saxman. 1994HARVEST BY AGE AND SEXseaLlonReporldby Community Est.Samde . rNumber % Number KAdult Male 0 - 0.0 -Adult FemaleAdult Unknown SexJuvenile MaleJuvenile FemaleJuvenile Unknown SexPup MalePup FemalePup Unknown SexMale Unknown AgeFemale Unknown AgeUnknown Sex and AgeTotal0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -0.0 -Hahor SealReport@jby Commumty Est.sample (bnded)Number % Number %9 69.2% 11.4 69.2%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%4 30.8%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%0 0.0%13 100.09bSEASONALLY ADJUSTED TAKE BY MONTH, SEA LION AND HARBOR SEAL0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%5.1 30.8%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%0.0 0.0%16.5 100.0?4- S e a L i o n - X- Harbor Seal8 -2 )

Recommended

View more >