The Study of Ancient Civilizations - History Honors (16-1The Study of Ancient Civilizations 2 Warfare is the Agent of Historic Change •Recorded history begins at approximately 3,500 B.C. ... • Fertile Crescent = Iraq

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9/4/201611The Study of Ancient Civilizations2Warfare is the Agent of Historic Change Recorded history begins at approximately 3,500 B.C. Prior to that everything is called Pre-Historic 3,500 BC 2016 AD (5,516 Years) Approximately 200 years of peace Technology improves the quality of weapons People become more aggressive23The most violent century in the history of the world ?The Twentieth Century !Ancient History9/4/201624Ancient Warriors5The Nine Principles of WarThe Modern Warrior of the 21st Century6Historic Dating of Years and Periods of HistoryB.C. = Before Christ / A.D. = Anno Domini (in the year of Our Lord!)Use None Other!9/4/201637How do we know what has occurred in the Past?The Science of Archaeology!! We discover We analyze We interpret We reportHow do we know what is being reported in accurate or correct?We (as students of history) read about topics, study and research, and come to our own conclusions.We evaluate the (multiple) sources to determine the credibility Is it believable? Let us now do our own archaeological study Critical Thinking88JerichoOldest known city in the world?99Count the Levels!Digging Down at Jericho9/4/201641010Look at the Depth of Jericho Count the Levels!1111Life in Jericho?Written texts discovered include the admonishments of a father to his son!Work hard, study, do not be lazy12Basics for Society / Civilization Man begins to settle down in one place Basic necessities to establish cities Water (River Valleys) Drinking Cooking Irrigation for agriculture Transportation to move products Religion Language Government129/4/2016513Water (River Valleys) Drinking Cooking Irrigation for agriculture Transportation to move productsBasic necessities to establish cities (cont.)14Nile River ValleyClimate / GeographyDry Desert Water EssentialCataracts -- WaterfallsDeltaFlows to South North (Upper to Lower) Upper Egypt (higher elevations) Lower Egypt (Nile Delta)141515Narmer (Menes)(Ruler of Upper Egypt)Crown of Upper EgyptCrown of Lower EgyptCreates Worlds First NationUnites both kingdoms of early Egypt Capital: Memphis (near border of two kingdoms)9/4/201661616Start of Egypts dynasties (30 in total)3,000 332 BCCartouche(Name of the King/Pharaoh)Leads to Translation of Language / Rosetta Stone 17Egypt is Rich in Natural ResourcesNotice Gold Deposits!These will be fought over for 3,000 years.18Period of Three KingdomsOld Kingdom (2700 2200 B.C.)Pyramids Giza Plateau18Building for EternityThe Pyramids 9/4/2016719Period of Three KingdomsOld Kingdom (2700 2200 B.C.)Pyramids Giza PlateauNational Government developsTheocracyMemphis1920The Great SphinxBuilt 2550 2530 B.C.Largest Monolith Statue in the World!Standing Guard at Giza Three Great Pyramids21Middle Kingdom (2200 1600 BC)Thebes becomes capitalPower declines Invasion by the HyksosBronze weaponsChariotsRule Egypt for over 100 yearsNew Kingdom (1600 945 B.C.)Defeat of the HyksosBegin to use the title PharaohValley of the Kings createdThutmose III builds the Egyptian EmpireAmenhotep (Nefertiti) -- Akhenaton MonotheismTutankhamen (King Tut) -- ThebesPeriod of Three Kingdoms(cont.)9/4/2016822Amateur Archaeologist Howard Carter in 1922 discovers King Tutankhamen's TombAncient Mystery Died at age 18 Murdered?Only tomb discovered intact with grave goods!23Ramses II Longest Living Pharaoh *67 years! Moses?Battle of Kadesh HittitesAbu Simbel2424One of the best documented battles of antiquityDescribed and written about by both the Hittites and the Egyptians (with their own points of view spin!)9/4/201692525Ramses as a Leader Young (Inexperienced) Brave Rash / Impulsive Adventurous Doesnt always follow advice!2626Egyptian Military Chariots Infantry2727The Hittites as SoldiersLarge numbers of chariotsUse of IronThree soldiers vs. Egyptian two soldiers per chariot 9/4/2016102828292930309/4/2016113131Diplomacy at Work = Treaty Each side claimed victoryReality: it can be called a drawNote!3232Result: The worlds first recorded peace treaty 33339/4/20161234Egyptian Society This life or next it is the same!! Upper Class Royalty, Priests Middle Class Artisans, scribes, merchants, tax collectors Lower Class Poor, Farmers, largest social groupEgyptian Religion Polytheistic King / Pharaoh = God Prepared for the next worldArt Tomb & Temple Wall Paintings Statues3435Examples of Egyptian Art Wall Painting Statues Embalming3636The Scribe9/4/20161337Egyptian Society This life or next it is the same!! Upper Class Royalty, Priests Middle Class Artisans, scribes, merchants, tax collectors Lower Class Poor, Farmers, largest social groupEgyptian Religion Polytheistic King / Pharaoh = God Prepared for the next worldArt Tomb & Temple Wall Paintings StatuesWriting Hieroglyphics Hieratic (Demotic) Rosetta Stone 196 BC British Museum in London3738Rosetta StoneBritish MuseumLondon, England45 inches in height28 1/2 inches in width11 inches thick1,676 pounds in weight.3839Rosetta StoneThree Languages: HieroglyphsDemotic (Hieratic Cursive)Ancient Greek Written in 196 B.C. Account of Ptolomy V and his divine cult Discovered in Rosetta, Egypt in 1799 (Napoleon France) Translated by Champollion in 1822 What other language does this look like?Answer: Aramaic; Hebrew; Arabic9/4/2016144040Development of the Worlds First Towns & Cities41A hollow box, covered with inlaid little beads of lapis lazuli and small carved figures.It was found laying in the corner of a burial chamber above a head of a man. When found, the original wooden frame was decayed, and two mosaic panels, set in the bitumen, were broken. It was envisaged that it had been carried on a pole as a standard. Another suggestion is that the hollow box formed a part of a musical instrument. It was decorated on its four sides with inlaid mosaic scenes representing all social classes at war and peace. At the top of the "peace" panel, a singer and a harpist playing the vertical harp (also known as a lyre harp or a lyre like those found in many "royal" tombs) entertained the king. The Standard of Ur (2600 2400 B.C.?)42MesopotamiaLand between the two rivers(Tigris / Euphrates) Fertile Crescent = Iraq Flood waters Irrigation = Agriculture in a dry environment42Sumer = Birthplace of the Worlds First Cities9/4/20161543Sumerians Sumer44Sumerians Sumer100s of small locations Ur, Uruk, Nippur, Eridu, Babylon, Lagash, Umma, Kish, Agade, Erech Development of city-statesCity and surrounding land (2 -15 miles out) Governed independently from other city-statescouncilsmonarchs -- military & religious leader45Center of city = Zigguratreligious purposespolytheistic9/4/20161646Mounds of Nippur Once on the banks of the EuphratesMap of Sumerian City Depicting various features of the city in Cuneiform writing47Writing Develops in SumerCuneiform pictures wedge shaped clay tablets well preserved leads eventually to the first alphabet 489/4/20161750InventionsConcept of 60Wheel51Because of Hot/Dry Climate, People Often Sleep on Roof!The City of Ur9/4/2016185252Oldest Known Map in the World Nippur, 1500 BC5353Oldest Known Map in the World Nippur, 1500 BC5454Oldest Known Map in the World Nippur, 1500 BC9/4/2016195555Oldest Known Map in the World Nippur, 1500 BCSumerian way of warBronze (copper & tin) weaponsChariots pulled by Onagers (small horses) or donkeys!Which leads up to the worlds first Empires 57Worlds First Empire DevelopsSargon I Akkadians Legend Basket River NW Portion of Mesopotamia Unites all the city-states of Mesopotamia Only last for 100 years. Akkad language is adopted becomes language of early diplomats (Kadesh i.e.)Ebla royal archiveselected kings - removed by a council579/4/20162058Hammurabi Babylonian EmpireStrong governmentBabylon major trade centerLaw Code greatest accomplishment 7 Stele similar to Bible / Mosaic law concerns aspects of daily lifeBabylonian Society similar to that of ancient Egypt nobles priests merchants , artisans, scribes, farmers poor, slaves Ends with advance of the Hittites from west (Modern Turkey)Louvre, Paris, FranceWill be resurrected 1,000 years laterNeo-Babylonians ChaldeansNebuchadnezzar595960Proto Indo European Language (P.I.E.)9/4/20162161Sub-Asian ContinentHimalayasProtection from the NorthPakistan, India, BangladeshEffects of nature -- floodingSeasonal weather windsIndus Valley CivilizationHarappan Civilization HarappaMohenjo-Daro 2500 1500 BC ? Grid Patterns Centrally Planned Sewer System Actively engaged in trade Pictograms ? Demise ? Natural Manmade6162Mo(h)enjo-Daro Citadel & Administrative Center(Urban Planning)6263Precise Grid Patterns with Sewer System63What is this?9/4/20162264Public Baths6465Vault for Community Wealth6566Measuring Devices from Mohenjo-DaroWeights cut according to strict standards.669/4/20162367Metal weapons, tools, and ornaments6768Kudos Question ????What is this?6869Kudos Answer !!!699/4/20162470Indus Valley CivilizationDemise ?Language has not been decipheredFloodFamineDiseaseWar7172Early ChinaInfluence of Geography Relative IsolationDiverse Climate Deserts / Mountains / PlainsMajor Water WaysHuang He / Chang Jiang / Xi JiangContribute to Fertile AgricultureEarly Dynasties (3000 BC)Yang shaoPotteryXia 2000 BCFirst Dynasty (first emperor)72Ends -- 1908 Chinas Last Emperor-- Republic-- Sun Yet-Sen9/4/201625737374Shang DynastyFirst Record of Chinas HistoryAnyang-- One of Seven Capital CitiesPolytheistic-- Oracle BonesBronze Work-- Weapons-- Urns / CauldronsChinese Script-- CharactersInternal Disputes Decline and FallMandate of HeavenAuthority from God-- Continues through history Divine Right of Kings7475Polytheistic --Oracle BonesChinese Script --Characterssoundsobjectswords9/4/20162676 Bronze Jade InventionsChinese Craftsmanship77Medical Advances --AcupunctureNot that type of Acupuncture!!78What is this Bronze object from the Chinese Shang Period? An Executioners Ax Head!{:-( .9/4/20162779China in TurmoilDecline of the Zhou80Han Dynasty China Unifies Peace Expansion Great Wall completed

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