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Download The Study of Ancient Civilizations -   History Honors (16-1The Study of Ancient Civilizations 2 Warfare is the Agent of Historic Change •Recorded history begins at approximately 3,500 B.C. ... • Fertile Crescent = Iraq

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  • 9/4/2016

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    The Study of Ancient Civilizations

    2

    Warfare is the Agent of Historic Change

    Recorded history begins at approximately 3,500 B.C.

    Prior to that everything is called Pre-Historic

    3,500 BC 2016 AD (5,516 Years)

    Approximately 200 years of peace

    Technology improves the quality of weapons

    People become more aggressive

    2

    3

    The most violent century in the history of the world ?

    The Twentieth Century !

    Ancient

    History

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    4

    Ancient Warriors

    5

    The Nine

    Principles of War

    The Modern Warrior

    of the 21st Century

    6

    Historic Dating of Years and Periods of History

    B.C. = Before Christ / A.D. = Anno Domini (in the year of Our Lord!)

    Use None Other!

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    7

    How do we know what has occurred in the Past?

    The Science of Archaeology!!

    We discover

    We analyze

    We interpret

    We report

    How do we know what is being reported

    in accurate or correct?

    We (as students of history) read about

    topics, study and research, and come to

    our own conclusions.

    We evaluate the (multiple) sources to

    determine the credibility Is it

    believable?

    Let us now do our own archaeological study

    Critical

    Thinking

    88

    Jericho

    Oldest known city in

    the world?

    99

    Count

    the

    Levels!

    Digging

    Down at

    Jericho

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    1010

    Look at the Depth of Jericho

    Count the Levels!

    1111

    Life in Jericho?

    Written texts discovered include the

    admonishments of a father to his son!

    Work hard, study, do not be lazy

    12

    Basics for Society / Civilization

    Man begins to settle down in one place

    Basic necessities to establish cities Water (River Valleys)

    Drinking Cooking

    Irrigation for agriculture

    Transportation to

    move products

    Religion

    Language

    Government

    12

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    13

    Water (River Valleys) Drinking Cooking

    Irrigation for agriculture

    Transportation to move products

    Basic necessities to establish cities (cont.)

    14

    Nile River Valley

    Climate / GeographyDry Desert Water EssentialCataracts -- WaterfallsDeltaFlows to South North (Upper to Lower)

    Upper Egypt (higher elevations) Lower Egypt (Nile Delta)

    14

    1515

    Narmer (Menes)(Ruler of Upper Egypt)

    Crown of Upper Egypt

    Crown of Lower Egypt

    Creates Worlds

    First Nation

    Unites both

    kingdoms of early

    Egypt

    Capital: Memphis

    (near border of two

    kingdoms)

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    1616

    Start of Egypts dynasties (30 in total)

    3,000 332 BC

    Cartouche(Name of the King/Pharaoh)

    Leads to Translation of Language / Rosetta Stone

    17

    Egypt is Rich in Natural

    Resources

    Notice Gold Deposits!

    These will be fought over

    for 3,000 years.

    18

    Period of Three Kingdoms

    Old Kingdom (2700 2200 B.C.)

    Pyramids Giza Plateau

    18

    Building for Eternity

    The Pyramids

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    19

    Period of Three Kingdoms

    Old Kingdom (2700 2200 B.C.)

    Pyramids Giza PlateauNational Government developsTheocracyMemphis

    19

    20

    The Great Sphinx

    Built 2550 2530 B.C.

    Largest Monolith

    Statue in the World!

    Standing Guard at

    Giza Three Great

    Pyramids

    21

    Middle Kingdom (2200 1600 BC)Thebes becomes capitalPower declines Invasion by the HyksosBronze weaponsChariotsRule Egypt for over 100 years

    New Kingdom (1600 945 B.C.)Defeat of the HyksosBegin to use the title PharaohValley of the Kings createdThutmose III builds the Egyptian EmpireAmenhotep (Nefertiti) -- Akhenaton MonotheismTutankhamen (King Tut) -- Thebes

    Period of Three Kingdoms

    (cont.)

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    Amateur Archaeologist

    Howard Carter in 1922

    discovers King

    Tutankhamen's Tomb

    Ancient Mystery

    Died at age 18

    Murdered?

    Only tomb discovered

    intact with grave

    goods!

    23

    Ramses II

    Longest Living Pharaoh

    *67 years!

    Moses?

    Battle of Kadesh Hittites

    Abu Simbel

    2424

    One of the best documented battles of antiquity

    Described and written about by both the Hittites and the

    Egyptians (with their own points of view spin!)

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    2525

    Ramses as a Leader

    Young (Inexperienced)

    Brave

    Rash / Impulsive

    Adventurous

    Doesnt always follow

    advice!

    2626

    Egyptian Military

    Chariots

    Infantry

    2727

    The Hittites as Soldiers

    Large numbers

    of chariots

    Use of Iron

    Three soldiers

    vs. Egyptian

    two soldiers

    per chariot

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    2828

    2929

    3030

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    3131

    Diplomacy at Work = Treaty

    Each side claimed victory

    Reality: it can be called a draw

    Note!

    3232

    Result: The worlds first recorded peace treaty

    3333

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    34

    Egyptian Society This life or next it is the same!! Upper Class Royalty, Priests Middle Class Artisans, scribes, merchants, tax

    collectors Lower Class Poor, Farmers, largest social group

    Egyptian Religion Polytheistic King / Pharaoh = God Prepared for the next world

    Art Tomb & Temple Wall Paintings Statues

    34

    35

    Examples of Egyptian Art

    Wall Painting

    Statues

    Embalming

    3636

    The Scribe

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    37

    Egyptian Society This life or next it is the same!! Upper Class Royalty, Priests Middle Class Artisans, scribes, merchants, tax

    collectors Lower Class Poor, Farmers, largest social group

    Egyptian Religion Polytheistic King / Pharaoh = God Prepared for the next world

    Art Tomb & Temple Wall Paintings Statues

    Writing Hieroglyphics Hieratic (Demotic) Rosetta Stone 196 BC British Museum in London

    37

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    Rosetta Stone

    British Museum

    London, England

    45 inches in height28 1/2 inches in width11 inches thick1,676 pounds in weight.

    38

    39

    Rosetta Stone

    Three Languages: Hieroglyphs

    Demotic (Hieratic Cursive)

    Ancient Greek

    Written in 196 B.C.

    Account of Ptolomy V and his divine cult

    Discovered in Rosetta, Egypt in 1799 (Napoleon France)

    Translated by Champollion in 1822

    What other language does this look like?

    Answer: Aramaic; Hebrew; Arabic

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    4040

    Development of the Worlds First Towns & Cities

    41

    A hollow box, covered with inlaid

    little beads of lapis lazuli and

    small carved figures.

    It was found laying in the corner

    of a burial chamber above a head

    of a man.

    When found, the original wooden

    frame was decayed, and two

    mosaic panels, set in the

    bitumen, were broken.

    It was envisaged that it had been

    carried on a pole as a standard.

    Another suggestion is that the

    hollow box formed a part of a

    musical instrument.

    It was decorated on its four

    sides with inlaid mosaic scenes

    representing all social classes at

    war and peace.

    At the top of the "peace" panel, a

    singer and a harpist playing the

    vertical harp (also known as a

    lyre harp or a lyre like those

    found in many "royal" tombs)

    entertained the king.

    The Standard of Ur (2600 2400 B.C.?)

    42

    Mesopotamia

    Land between the two rivers(Tigris / Euphrates)

    Fertile Crescent = Iraq Flood waters Irrigation = Agriculture in a

    dry environment

    42

    Sumer = Birthplace of

    the Worlds First Cities

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    43

    Sumerians Sumer

    44

    Sumerians Sumer

    100s of small locations

    Ur, Uruk, Nippur, Eridu, Babylon, Lagash, Umma, Kish, Agade, Erech Development of city-states

    City and surrounding land (2 -15 miles out)

    Governed independently from other city-statescouncils

    monarchs -- military & religious leader

    45

    Center of city = Zigguratreligious purposes

    polytheistic

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    46

    Mounds of Nippur Once on the

    banks of the Euphrates

    Map of Sumerian City

    Depicting various features

    of the city in Cuneiform

    writing

    47

    Writing Develops in Sumer

    Cuneiform pictures

    wedge shaped

    clay tablets

    well preserved

    leads eventually to the first alphabet

    48

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    50

    Inventions

    Concept of 60

    Wheel

    51

    Because of Hot/Dry Climate, People Often Sleep on Roof!

    The City of Ur

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    5252

    Oldest Known Map in the World Nippur, 1500 BC

    5353

    Oldest Known Map in the World Nippur, 1500 BC

    5454

    Oldest Known Map in the World Nippur, 1500 BC

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    5555

    Oldest Known Map in the World Nippur, 1500 BC

    Sumerian way of war

    Bronze (copper & tin) weapons

    Chariots pulled by Onagers

    (small horses) or donkeys!

    Which leads up to the

    worlds first Empires

    57

    Worlds First Empire De

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