The solar spectral irradiance since 1700 - VOL.27,NO.14,PAGES2157-2160,JULY15,2000 The solar spectral irradiance since 1700 M. Fligge InstituteofAstronomy,ETH-Zentrum,CH-8092Zurich,Switzerland S.K. Solanki

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<ul><li><p>GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 27, NO. 14, PAGES 2157-2160, JULY 15, 2000</p><p>The solar spectral irradiance since 1700</p><p>M. Fligge</p><p>Institute of Astronomy, ETH-Zentrum, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland</p><p>S.K. SolankiMax Planck Institute for Aeronomy, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany</p><p>Abstract. The change in the irradiance spectrum of theSun from 1700 to the last solar minimum is determinedand compared to the change in the spectrum between ac-tivity minimum and maximum. For this purpose we haveused detailed model flux spectra of solar magnetic features.Also, time-series of the solar spectral irradiance since 1700in different wavelength bands are reconstructed. We expectthat these reconstructions are more accurate than previouslypublished ones, although they suffer (like all reconstructionsof solar irradiance on such time-scales) from uncertaintiesin our knowledge of the evolution of the solar network withtime.</p><p>Introduction</p><p>Solar irradiance variations are known to exhibit a strongwavelength dependence, with the amount of variability in-creasing towards shorter wavelengths (Lean 1991, Solanki &amp;Unruh 1998). The integrated spectrum (total solar irradi-ance) changes by roughly 0.1% over the solar cycle. Thesame amount of variability is found for the visible wave-lengths where most of the solar radiative output occurs.</p><p>Variations at UV and shorter wavelengths, however, ex-ceed those at visible by orders of magnitude. Since solarUV radiation controls the amount of stratospheric ozonethese variations have been proposed as a significant driverof changes of the terrestrial climate system (Haigh 1996).Therefore, reconstructions of the past evolution of the solarspectrum, particularly at shorter wavelengths, is of funda-mental importance for investigations addressing the influ-ence of the Sun on atmospheric chemistry and eventuallyclimate.</p><p>The change in the solar spectrum (from extreme UV tofar IR wavelengths) between the minimum and maximum ofsolar activity was first modeled by Solanki &amp; Unruh (1998),and found to reproduce the observed spectral trend in theUV (Lean et al. 1993, London et al. 1993). Using thesame technique Fligge et al. (1998; henceforth referred toas PAP-I) reconstructed solar total and spectral irradiancevariations over the last two cycles and compared them tospectral irradiance measurements recorded by VIRGO aswell as the composite of irradiance measurements proposedby Frohlich and Lean (1998). The basic assumption of thismodel is that solar irradiance variations (on time-scales ofdays to centuries) are due to the changing distribution ofsolar surface magnetic features only.</p><p>Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union. Paper</p><p>number 2000GL000067.0094-8276/00/2000GL000067$05.00</p><p>The model presented in this paper is an extension of themodel of PAP-I back to the Maunder minimum using a thirdvariability component to account for secular changes of solarirradiance on time-scales of decades to centuries. This thirdcomponent is identified as the slowly varying solar surfacemagnetic network (e.g. White et al. 1992).</p><p>Model</p><p>The model employs three separate contributors to irra-diance changes. These are: Sunspots, active region faculaeand the network. Sunspots and active region faculae domi-nate irradiance changes on short time-scales, which includestheir cyclic part. The network, which is responsible for thesecular changes of solar irradiance, is expected to vary ontime-scales significantly longer than the solar cycle.</p><p>Following PAP-I, the flux-spectrum of each of the threecomponents is taken to be time-independent. The tempo-ral evolution of the solar irradiance then originates from thechanging surface coverage of the Sun by the individual com-ponents. The solar irradiance S(; t) at wavelength andtime t is thus given by</p><p>S(; t) = s(t) Ss()+ f (t) Sf ()+ n(t) Sn()+ (1 s(t) f (t) n(t)) SMm(),</p><p>(1)</p><p>where Ss(), Sf (), Sn() and SMm() are the flux-spectraof sunspots, active region faculae, network and the Sun inits Maunder minimum state, respectively. x(t) is the frac-tional coverage of the Sun by component x, i.e. the fillingfactor of component x. Therefore, x(t) Sx() is the con-tribution of component x to solar irradiance at time t andwavelength .</p><p>Flux spectra</p><p>The flux-spectra of sunspots and active region faculae,i.e. Ss() and Sf (), have been taken from Unruh et al.(1999; henceforth referred to as PAP-II), where they havealready been successfully applied to reconstructions of solartotal and spectral irradiance variations over the solar cycle.The quality of such a reconstruction of the cyclic componentof irradiance changes is shown in Fig. 1 which is similar toFig. 8 of PAP-I, but has been carried out using the newmodels constructed in PAP-II. The agreement between dataand model is high, with a correlation coefficient of 0.75 - 0.8.</p><p>From detailed empirical modeling of flux-tubes and theirsurroundings there is increasing evidence (e.g. Solanki&amp; Brigljevic 1992) that the small-scale magnetic features</p><p>2157</p></li><li><p>2158 FLIGGE &amp; SOLANKI: THE SOLAR SPECTRAL IRRADIANCE SINCE 1700</p><p>Figure 1. Measured (dotted; Frohlich &amp; Lean 1998) and recon-structed (solid) total solar irradiance variations, (a) over the lasttwo solar cycles, (b) over a shorter period around the maximumof cycle 22. The figure is adapted from Fligge et al. (1998) usingthe improved flux-spectra described by Unruh et al. (1999).</p><p>within faculae and network regions show different bright-ness signatures. Within the level of accuracy achievable bylong-term irradiance reconstructions, however, we can set</p><p>Sn() = Sf (), (2)</p><p>as has been implicitly done in all previous reconstructions.Finally, the solar flux spectrum during the Maunder min-imum, SMm(), is estimated from the comparison of theSun with Sun-like stars (Baliunas &amp; Jastrow 1990, White etal. 1992). Following Solanki &amp; Fligge (1999) we assume thatthe Suns total radiative output was roughly 0.30.1% lowerduring the Maunder minimum than during the two most re-cent activity minima. This allows us to estimate SMm()byS1996qs d =</p><p> [SMm (1 1996n ) + Sn </p><p>1996n</p><p>]d</p><p>= 1.003 SMmd,</p><p>(3)where S1996qs is the solar flux spectrum during the mag-netic activity minima in 1996 and 1996n the correspondingfilling factor of the network. This implies 1996n = 0.043(i.e. 4.3%). Note that this filling factor describes the areacoverage by a brightness structure corresponding to Sn andcannot be equated with the magnetic filling factor.</p><p>The relative change in the flux spectrum of the present-day Sun between activity maximum and minimum result-ing from our model, i.e. (Sact Sqs)/Sqs, is plotted inFig. 2 (dotted line). Also shown is the modeled difference</p><p>between Sqs and the Sun during the Maunder minimum, i.e.(Sqs SMm)/SMm (solid line). Both curves show a similaramount of variability for wavelengths shorter than 400 nmbut differ significantly at visible and IR wavelengths, withweaker variations within an activity cycle than between thepresent-day activity minima and the Maunder minimum.The difference between the two curves partly stems from thefact that whereas the number of sunspots changes over thesolar cycle, they affect the spectra neither at solar activityminimum nor during the Maunder minimum.</p><p>Filling factors</p><p>To reconstruct the evolution of solar irradiance variationsback to the Maunder minimum we need to know the time-dependence of the filling factors for all three components,i.e. s(t), f (t) and n(t), respectively. Following PAP-I,s(t) is directly proportional to the observed total sunspotarea, As, i.e. s(t) = a As(t), with a 1. Sunspot areasare recorded regularly by several solar observatories, withrecords between 1874 and 1976 being maintained by theRoyal Greenwich Observatory. We use the corrected com-posite record of sunspot areas proposed by Fligge &amp; Solanki(1997). For the period before 1874, s(t) is extrapolatedfurther back in time, using the Zurich sunspot relative num-bers, Rz(t). To this end we derive a linear relation betweens(t) and Rz(t) for the period since 1874, i.e. when s(t)can be independently determined. We assume this relation-ship applies unchanged also to earlier times.</p><p>The temporal evolution of the facular filling factor is de-rived from PAP-I, where f (t) has been determined fromtime-series of Mg II core-to-wing ratios for cycles 22 and23. f (t) is extrapolated back to 1700 following the methodof Solanki &amp; Fligge (1998), i.e. f (Rz(t)) is derived frombinned values of f (t) plotted versus binned values of Rz(t).The resulting quadratic relation is f (t) = (1.50.2)10</p><p>3+(2.35 0.04) 104Rz(t) (3.4 0.2) 10</p><p>7Rz(t)2. Again,</p><p>this is assumed to apply back to 1700.Finally, to complete the model input, the temporal evolu-</p><p>tion of the secular variations must be encoded into the timedependence of the network filling factor, n(t). In Sect. we</p><p>Figure 2. Relative solar irradiance changes between (present-day) activity maximum and minimum (dotted line) as well asbetween (present-day) activity minimum and the Sun in a Maun-der minimum state (solid line).</p></li><li><p>FLIGGE &amp; SOLANKI: THE SOLAR SPECTRAL IRRADIANCE SINCE 1700 2159</p><p>Table 1. Increase of solar spectral irradiance at solar activitycycle minimum since the Maunder minimum for five wavelengthbands.</p><p>wavelength irradiance</p><p>[nm] [%] [W/m2]</p><p>Total all 0.31 4.3UV &lt; 300 3.0 0.4NUV 300400 1.3 1.2Visible 400700 0.32 1.7IR &gt; 700 0.15 1.0</p><p>showed that in order to have a 0.3% increase of the totalsolar irradiance between the Maunder minimum and today,the fractional coverage of the Sun by the network compo-nent must have increased by around 4.3% since the Maunderminimum. We follow Solanki &amp; Fligge (1999) and employtwo different scenarios for the temporal evolution of n(t)between the Maunder minimum and today: either n(t) fol-lows the amplitude of the activity cycle (Zhang et al. 1994,Lean et al. 1995) or n(t) follows the inverse of the cyclelength (Baliunas &amp; Soon 1995). For the solar cycle lengthwe use the record proposed by Fligge et al. (1999) basedon a continuous wavelet analysis of several proxies of solarmagnetic activity.</p><p>Results</p><p>The spectral range and resolution of the reconstructedirradiance changes are dictated by factors such as the tab-ulated ODFs entering the spectral synthesis code (ATLAS,Kurucz 1992) used to calculate the flux spectra, so that thespectra are calculated from 160 nm to 160000 nm with aresolution of better than 200 in the visible. It is possibleto reconstruct the irradiance at each wavelength point atwhich we have tabulated the individual flux spectra Ss, Sfand Sqs.</p><p>In the following analysis, however, we focus on five se-lected wavelength bands. These are: the total irradiance(i.e., all wavelengths), UV (&lt; 300 nm), near UV (300 nm400 nm), Visible (400 nm700 nm) and IR (&gt; 700 nm) wave-length bands. The evolution of the solar irradiance in theselected spectral bands between the Maunder minimum andthe activity minimum in 1996 is shown in Fig. 3 and sum-marized in Table 1.</p><p>Although the total (and visible) irradiance has only in-creased by roughly 0.3% since the Maunder minimum theenhancement of UV and NUV radiation during the last 3centuries is ten and four times larger, respectively. The vari-ability of the IR was only moderate, i.e. at the 0.15% level.Nevertheless, as indicated by Fig. 2, the secular increase inbrightness since 1700 at longer wavelengths would be evensmaller if the secular change in the spectrum would havethe same form as over the solar cycle. Note that in Fig. 3for clarity only a secular variation inversely proportional tothe cycle amplitude is considered. Between 1700 and 1749yearly means are plotted, between 1750 and 1874 monthlymeans and daily values are used for the period after 1874.Plotted are from top to bottom the total, UV, near UV, vis-ible and IR wavelength bands, respectively. As can be seenfor the period since 1874 the UV and NUV are dominatedby the contribution from active region faculae and the net-</p><p>work, while the influence of sunspots is perceptible mostlyat visible and longer wavelengths.</p><p>Table 1 reveals that as far as the absolute change in en-ergy output is concerned the NUV, visible and IR wave-length bands give similar contributions.</p><p>Fig. 4 shows the 11-year average of the reconstructedirradiance for both secular irradiance trends considered here,namely, following the cycle length and the cycle amplitude.The result is plotted for two wavelength bands, the nearUV band between 300 nm and 400 nm and, for comparison,the visible spectral range. Clearly, the variation in the twowavelengths bands differs almost only in amplitude. This isalso true for the other wavelengths.</p><p>Figure 3. Reconstruction of the increase (in percent) of spec-tral solar irradiance since the Maunder minimum. From top tobottom, the following wavelength bands are plotted: Total irra-diance, UV (&lt; 300 nm), Near UV (300 nm 400 nm), Visible(400 nm 700 nm) and IR (&gt; 700 nm), respectively.</p></li><li><p>2160 FLIGGE &amp; SOLANKI: THE SOLAR SPECTRAL IRRADIANCE SINCE 1700</p><p>Figure 4. 11-y running mean of reconstructed solar spectralirradiance for (a) near UV wavelengths and (b) the visible usingthe amplitude (solid) and length (dotted) of the solar cycle toderive the long-term trend of n.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>The ozone abundance in the Earths atmosphere is in-fluenced strongly by the level of solar UV radiation (e.g.,Haigh 1994). Knowledge of the evolution of the solar spec-tral irradiance is therefore important for obtaining an ideaof long-term changes in stratospheric chemistry and possibleassociated climate changes.</p><p>We have used the models of Unruh et al (1999) and acombination of the techniques of Fligge et al. (1998) andSolanki &amp; Fligge (1999) to reconstruct the solar spectral ir-radiance from 1700 to the present. For the cyclic componentof spectral irradiance changes the approach has been shownto be very successful in reproducing the observations. Thecyclic part of the spectral irradiance should therefore be re-constructed relatively accurately. The secular variations arebased mainly on stellar observations and both their ampli-tude and time dependence are the major source of uncer-tainty in the present reconstruction. This is to a certainextent demonstrated by Fig. 4. If we assume that the mag-nitude of the total irradiance increase since the Maunderminimum is correct, however, then we expect the changein the spectral irradiance since the Maunder minimum de-picted in Fig. 2 to be roughly correct.</p><p>Acknowledgments. We are grateful to Y.C. Unruh forproductive discussions and for her important role in computingthe spectra of solar magnetic features. We also thank C. Frohlich,who initially proposed this research.</p><p>ReferencesBaliunas S., Jastrow, Evidence for long-term brightness changes</p><p>of solar-type stars, 1990, Nature 348, 520Baliunas S., Soon W., Are variations in the length of the activity</p><p>cycle related to changes in brightness in solar-type stars?, 1995,Astrophys. J. 450, 896</p><p>Bruckner G., Edlow K., Floyd L., Lean J., Vanhoosier M., The so-lar ultraviolet spectral irradiance monitor (SUSIM) experim...</p></li></ul>


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