The Skeletal Systems The 206 Bones In Your Body. Functions of Skeletal System Supports bodySupports…

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Different Parts of Skeletal System Axial SkeletonAxial Skeleton Supports central axis of body i.e. skull, vertebrae column, rib cage Skull Vertebrae Column Rib Cage

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The Skeletal Systems

The 206 Bones

In Your Body

Functions of Skeletal System

Supports bodyProtects internal organs

i.e. skull protects brain

Provides for movement

Bones=Levers

Stores Mineral reserves

Important to body reserves

Provide site for blood cell formation

Produced in soft marrow tissue that fills internal cavities

Different Parts of Skeletal System

Axial Skeleton

Supports central axis of body

i.e. skull, vertebrae column, rib cage

Skull

Vertebrae

Column

Rib Cage

Different Parts (cont.)

Appendicular Skeleton

Arms

Legs

Pelvis

Shoulder

Lower Extremities

(Thigh, Leg, Foot, Patella)

Upper Extremities

(Arm, Forearm, Hand)

Shoulder Girdle

(Clavicle, Scapula)

Pelvic Girdle

(CoxalHip bones)

Structure of Bones

Solid network of living cells and protein fibers that are surrounded by deposits of calcium saltsSurrounded by periosteum

Blood vessels that pass through carry oxygen and nutrients

Beneath is Haversain canal

Contains blood vessels and nerves

Runs through compact bone

Less dense tissue is spongy bone

Outside of compact bone

Bone Cells

Osteocytes

Mature bone cells

Embedded in bone matrix

Osteoclasts

Break down bone

Osteoblasts

Produce Bone

Bone Marrow

Within bones are a soft tissue called bone marrow.

Yellow marrow: made up of fat cells

Red marrow: Produce red blood cells, some kinds of white blood cells, and cell fragments called platelets

Development of Bones

Cartilage

Skeleton of an embryo and composed almost entirely of a connective tissue

Must rely on diffusion of nutrients from tiny blood vessels in surrounding tissues

Cartilage is replaced by bone during the process of bone formation called ossification

Joints

A place where one bone attaches to another bone Immovable Joints

No movement

Interlocked and held by connective tissue or fused

Slightly Movable Joints

Permit a small amount of restricted movement

Separated from each other

Fixed Joint

Slightly Movable

(Joints between adjacent vertebrae)

Movable Joints

Freely Movable Joints

Permit movement in one or more directions

Most common type

Ball-and-Socket Joint permit movement in many directions

Hinge joints permit back-and-forth motion

Pivot joints rotate around another

Saddle joints one bone to slide in two directions

Structure of Joints

Surrounded by a fibrous joint capsulehelps hold the bones together while still allowing to move

One layer forms strips of tough connective tissue called ligaments

Attached to the membranes that surround bones

Cells in other layer of joint capsule produce substance called synovial fluid

Forms a thin film on cartilage that covers bony surfaces that form the joint

Osteoporosis

Bones lose density

Density = Strength

Bones become fragile

Can cause breaks in hips, wrist, and spine.

How Osteoporosis Occurs

Bones become fragile due to

Aging

Low intake of calcium

Family History

Cigarette smoking

Low estrogen levels

Vitamin D deficiency.

Osteoporosis Consequences

Can cause bones to break.

Leads to major disability

Many breaks in the spine can occur more than once.

Decreased quality of life and disability.

Osteoporosis Symptoms

Osteoporosis is especially hard to diagnose because there are few symptoms.The only way to tell is if there is chronic back pain, which could suggest a fracture of the spine. If a fracture occurs during normal activity, you may want to check if you have osteporosis.

Prevention of Osteoporosis

Drink more milk with vitamin D.Certain medications can help fortify bones.Exercise, although not strenuous. Not smoking.Also, there are vitamins that can help provide calcium and vitamin D.

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