THE SKELETAL SYSTEM: THE AXIAL SKELETON. Essential Question  What is the main contribution the axial skeleton makes to homeostasis?

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> THE SKELETAL SYSTEM: THE AXIAL SKELETON </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Essential Question What is the main contribution the axial skeleton makes to homeostasis? </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Divisions of the Skeleton AXIAL SKELETON Skull Cranium Face Hyoid Auditory Ossicles Vertebral Column Thorax APPENDICULAR SKELETON: Pectoral Girdle Upper Limbs Pelvic Girdle Lower Limbs </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Types of Bone bones fall into 1 of 5 main types based on shape: Long Short Flat Irregular Sesamoid </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Long Bones longer than they are wide may be slightly curved (to absorb stress of weight at more points along the bone i.e. Straight bones would fracture more easily) Consist of: shaft &amp; variable #s of ends compact bone in diaphysis and spongy bone in epiphysis </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Long Bones </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Short Bones somewhat cube-shaped nearly equal in length as width Consist of: Spongy Bone except @ surface </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Short Bones </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Flat Bones Composed of: 2 nearly parallel plates of compact bone enclosing spongy bone inside Function: give considerable protection place for muscle attachment </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Flat Bones </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Irregular Bones complex shapes (do not fit in other categories) vary in amt spongy bone </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Sesamoid Bones develop w/in certain tendons where there is considerable friction, tension, &amp; physical stress Function: protect tendon from excessive wear &amp; tear vary in # person to person but everyone has 2 patella which develop in quadriceps femoris tendon </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Sesamoid Bone </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Sutural Bones classified by location (w/in a suture: a seam between 2 cranial bones) not everyone has them </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Bone Surface Markings 2 major types: 1. depressions &amp; openings form joints or allow passage of vessels &amp; nerves 2. processes projections or outgrowths that either help form joints or serve as attachment points for ligaments &amp; tendons </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> SKULL </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Skull 22 bones in 2 categories: 1. Cranium 8 bones that form cranial cavity 1. 1 frontal bone 2. 2 parietal bones 3. 2 temporal bones 4. 1 occipital bone 5. 1 sphenoid bone 6. 1 ethmoid bone </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Skull 2. Facial Bones 14 bones that form the face 2 nasal bones 2 maxillae 1 mandible 2 zygomatic 2 lacrimal 2 palantine 2 inferior nasal conchae 1 vomer </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Skull: Cavities 1. Cranial Cavity 2. Nasal Cavity 3. Orbits 4. Paranasal Sinuses 5. Middle &amp; Inner Ear Cavities </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Movable Joints of the Skull 1. Mandible 2. Auditory Ossicles </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Functions of Cranial Bones 1. protecting brain 2. stabilizing position of brain, vessels, &amp; nerves through attachments to the meninges 3. outer surfaces provide large areas of attachment for muscles that move parts of the head &amp; some for facial expression </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Cranial Bones: Frontal Bone forms: forehead upper part of eye socket most of anterior part of cranial floor in newborns: rt &amp; lt which fuse shortly after birth </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Frontal Bone </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Parietal Bones form greater portion of sides &amp; roof of cranial cavity </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Temporal Bones form inferior, lateral aspects of the cranium &amp; part of the cranial floor its zygomatic proceess forms the lateral half of the zygomatic arch mandibular fossa: where condylar process of mandible forms TMJ (temporal mandibular joint) </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Temporal Bones </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> external auditory meatus: ear canal mastoid: posterior &amp; inferior to external auditory meatus, contains air cells (mastoiditis: inflammation in air cells) </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Temporal Bone: Petrous Portion base of skull between sphenoid &amp; occipital bones houses middle &amp; inner ear Carotid foramen &amp; Jugular foramen </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Temporal Bones internal auditory meatus: passage of Cranial nerves VII (facial n.) and VIII (vestibulocochlear n.) styloid process: point of attachment for muscles &amp; ligaments of the tongue &amp; neck </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Temporal Bone: Internal Surface </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Occipital Bone forms back of head &amp; most of base of skull foramen magnum: large hole spinal cord passes thru, occipital condyles: articulate with 1 st cervical vertebra (atlas) </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Occipital Bone </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Sphenoid Bone middle base of skull *articulates with all other cranial bones shape resembles a bat </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Sphenoid Bone sella turcica: (Turkish saddle) the seat of the saddle is the hypophyseal fossa: where the pituitary gland sits optic foramen: between body &amp; lesser wings, cranial nerve II (optic n.) and opthlamic artery pass thru </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Sphenoid Bone </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Ethmoid Bone like a sieve midline of anterior part of cranial floor, anterior to sphenoid, posterior to nasal bones cribiforme plate: forms roof of nasal cavity, the holes of the sieve where olfactory nerves pass from roof of nasal cavity to brain crista galla: triangular process which serves as pt of attachment for meninges of brain </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Ethmoid Bone </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> perpendicular plate: forms superior portion of nasal cavity superior &amp; middle nasal conchae: (or turbinate) increase vascular &amp; mucous membrane surface area in nasal cavities: aids in sense of smell, warms, filters &amp; moistens air being inhaled. Filters because the turbinates cause air to swirl as a result inhaled particles strike &amp; become trapped in mucus </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Ethmoid Bone </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Sometimes when you study anatomy, you start seeing others differently. </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Facial Bones shape of face changes dramatically during 1 st 2 yrs of life: brain &amp; cranial bones expand 1 st set of teeth erupt paranasal sinuses enlarge growth of face stops ~16 years old </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Facial Bones 14 facial bones: 1. 2 nasal bones 2. 2 maxillae 3. 2 zygomatic bones 4. 1 mandible 5. 2 lacrimal bones 6. 2 palatine bones 7. 2 inferior nasal conchae 8. 1 vomer </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Nasal Bones form part of the bridge of the nose (rest is cartilage) </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Maxillae = upper jaws *articulate with every bone in face except the mandible form part of floor of orbits, parts of nasal cavity, &amp; most of the hard palate (bony roof of mouth) each one has large maxillary sinus alveolar process is small arch that contains the alveolar sockets for upper set of teeth </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> Maxillae </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> Cleft Palate &amp; Cleft Lip 10-12 wks gestation the palatine processes of maxillae typically join not doing so cleft palate +/- cleft lip speech &amp; swallowing can be affected many ear infections reparative surgery recommended 1 st few wks of life / surgery needs to be completed by 12 18 mos b/4 speech: speech therapy &amp; orthodontic care frequently necessary </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> Zygomatic Bones cheekbones: the temporal process of the zygomatic bone articulates with the zygomatic process of the temporal bone also part of floor of orbit </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> Lacrimal Bones thin, about the size of pinky fingernail (smallest bones of face) part of medial wall of each orbit each contain lacrimal fossa that houses lacrimal sac: gathers tears nasal cavity </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> Palatine Bones L-shaped pair of bones that form the posterior portion of the hard palate &amp; part of floors of nasal cavity &amp; orbit </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> Inferior Nasal Conchae inferior to the middle nasal conchae of the ethmoid bone forming part of lateral wall of nasal cavity same function as superior &amp; middle conchae: swirling inhaled air to deposit particulates but not involved in sense of smell </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> Vomer shaped bone on the floor of nasal cavity forming inferior portion of nasal septum </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> Mandible largest &amp; strongest facial bone (lower jaw) alveolar processes hold lower teeth sockets mental foramen: dentist numb mental nerve </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> Sutures an immovable joint in an adult found only between skull bones &amp; holds most skull bones together name generally reflects bones they unite </li> <li> Slide 56 </li> <li> Sutures 1. Coronal Suture unites frontal bone to both parietal bones Sagittal Suture unites rt &amp; lt parietial bones 1. Lambdoid Suture unites 2 parietal bones to occipital bone 2. Squamous Sutures unites parietal bones to temporal bones </li> <li> Slide 57 </li> <li> Sutures </li> <li> Slide 58 </li> <li> Newborn Skull fontanels: soft spots present between cranial bones made of unossified mesenchyme eventually replaced by mature bone function: provide some flexibility to fetal head allowing skull to change shape as it passes thru birth canal </li> <li> Slide 59 </li> <li> Newborn Skull </li> <li> Slide 60 </li> <li> Slide 61 </li> <li> Slide 62 </li> <li> Hyoid Bone U-shaped *does not articulate with any other bone in skeleton suspended by ligaments from styloid process of temporal bone in anterior neck between mandible &amp; larynx Function: supports tongue *frequently fractured during strangulation </li> <li> Slide 63 </li> <li> Hyoid Bone </li> <li> Slide 64 </li> <li> Vertebral Column aka spine, backbone 2/5 of persons height 26 in adult (starts as 33, some fuse to form sacrum &amp; coccyx) 7 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 1 sacrum 1 coccyx </li> <li> Slide 65 </li> <li> Vertebral Column Fetus has anteriorly concave curve 3 mos old when holds head cervical curve develops lumbar curve develops as infant sits up, stands, walks </li> <li> Slide 66 </li> <li> Intervertebral Discs between bodies of consecutive vertebra under compression they flatten &amp; broaden harden, less elastic w/aging &amp; narrow loss of height annulus fibrosus: outer fibrous ring nucleus pulposus: inner soft, highly elastic </li> <li> Slide 67 </li> <li> Intervertebral Discs </li> <li> Slide 68 </li> <li> Parts of a Vertebra Body thicker, anterior portion, weight bearing portion Vertebral Foramina contains spinal cord, adipose, areolar CT, blood vessels Spinous Process 1 of 7 processes, posterior, palpable on back of body Transverse Processes: on each side, extending laterally </li> <li> Slide 69 </li> <li> Vertebrae: 1 st &amp; 2 nd Cervical Atlas ring-shaped articulates with condyles of occipital bone allows you to nod head yes Axis 2 nd cervical v. allows you to shake head no </li> <li> Slide 70 </li> <li> Typical Cervical Vertebrae C-3 to C7 smaller than other v. except coccyx but vertebral foramen largest all cervical v. have extra foramen: 2 transverse foramen for vertebral a., v., &amp; n. </li> <li> Slide 71 </li> <li> Typical Thoracic Vertebrae T-1 to T-12 larger &amp; stronger than cervical v. distinguishing feature: articulate with ribs (facets on transverse processes of T-1 to T-10 </li> <li> Slide 72 </li> <li> Typical Lumbar Vertebrae L-1 to L-5 largest &amp; strongest of the vertebrae processes are short &amp; thick </li> <li> Slide 73 </li> <li> Sacrum triangular bone formed by union of S-1 to S-5 fusion begins ~16, complete by age 30 female: shorter, wider, more curved S-2 to S-3 </li> <li> Slide 74 </li> <li> Coccyx small triangle formed by fusion of 4 coccygeal v. (Co-1 to Co-4), start between 20 &amp; 30 females points inferiorly; males it points anteriorly </li> <li> Slide 75 </li> <li> Slide 76 </li> <li> Thorax refers to entire chest skeletal part of thorax is thoracic cage Sternum Ribs </li> <li> Slide 77 </li> <li> Sternum aka breastbone flat bone in center of anterior thorax 3 bones that fuse by age 25 </li> <li> Slide 78 </li> <li> Sternum 1. Manubrium superior portion suprasternal notch clavicular notches articulates with costal cartilage of 1 st &amp; 2 nd rib sternal angle: where it articulates with body </li> <li> Slide 79 </li> <li> Sternum 2. Body middle &amp; largest portion articulates with costal cartilage of 2 nd thru 10 ribs </li> <li> Slide 80 </li> <li> Sternum 3. Xiphoid Process cartilagenous in infancy not completely ossified until ~age 40 avoid it during CPR </li> <li> Slide 81 </li> <li> Ribs 12 pairs increase in length 1 st thru 7 th then decrease in length to 12 th 1 st thru 7 th ribs ( true ribs ) have direct anterior attachment to sternum by strip of hyaline cartilage which contribute to elasticity of thoracic cage 8 th thru 10 th ribs attach to each other &amp; then to cartilages of 7 th rib 11 th &amp; 12 th ribs: floating ribs </li> <li> Slide 82 </li> <li> Ribs </li> <li> Slide 83 </li> <li> all 12 attach posteriorly to vertebrae Parts of a Rib 1. Head 2. Neck 3. Tubercle 4. Body 5. Costal Angle </li> <li> Slide 84 </li> <li> Abnormal Curvatures of Spine Scoliosis lateral bending usually in thoracic region </li> <li> Slide 85 </li> <li> Abnormal Curvature of Spine Kyphosis exaggeration of the thoracic curve seen in TB of spine, congenital malformation, elderly </li> </ul>


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